Efficacy of Continuous S(+)-Ketamine Infusion for Postoperative Pain Control: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.
ABSTRACT: Aim. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of continuous intraoperative infusion of S(+)-ketamine under intravenous anesthesia with target-controlled infusion of remifentanil and propofol for postoperative pain control. Methods. Forty-eight patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were assigned to receive continuous S(+)-ketamine infusion at a rate of 0.3?mg·kg(-1)·h(-1) (n = 24, intervention group) or an equivalent volume of saline at the same rate (n = 24, placebo group). The same target-controlled intravenous anesthesia was induced in both groups. Pain was assessed using a 0 to 10 verbal numeric rating scale during the first 12 postoperative hours. Pain scores and morphine consumption were recorded in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) and at 4 and 12 hours after surgery. Results. Pain scores were lower in the intervention group at all time points. Morphine consumption did not differ significantly between groups during PACU stay, but it was significantly lower in the intervention group at each time point after PACU discharge (P = 0.0061). At 12 hours after surgery, cumulative morphine consumption was also lower in the intervention group (5.200 ± 2.707) than in the placebo group (7.525 ± 1.872). Conclusions. Continuous S(+)-ketamine infusion during laparoscopic cholecystectomy under target-controlled intravenous anesthesia provided better postoperative pain control than placebo, reducing morphine requirement. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02421913.
Project description:BACKGROUND:As a part of multimodal analgesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, both intraoperative lidocaine and esmolol facilitate postoperative analgesia. Our objective was to compare these two emerging strategies that challenge the use of intraoperative opioids. We aimed to assess if intraoperative esmolol infusion is not inferior to lidocaine infusion for opioid consumption after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS:In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, non-inferiority clinical trial, 90 female patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy received either intravenous (IV) lidocaine bolus 1.5?mg/kg at induction followed by an infusion (1.5?mg/ kg/h) or IV bolus of esmolol 0.5?mg/kg at induction followed by an infusion (5-15??g/kg/min) till the end of surgery. Remaining aspect of anesthesia followed a standard protocol apart from no intraoperative opioid supplementation. Postoperatively, patients received either morphine or tramadol IV to maintain visual analogue scale (VAS) scores ?3. The primary outcome was opioid consumption (in morphine equivalents) during the first 24 postoperative hours. Pain and sedation scores, time to first perception of pain and void, and occurrence of nausea/vomiting were secondary outcomes measured up to 24?h postoperatively. RESULTS:Two patients in each group were excluded from the analysis. The postoperative median (IQR) morphine equivalent consumption in patients receiving esmolol was 1 (0-1.5) mg compared to 1.5 (1-2) mg in lidocaine group (p?=?0.27). The median pain scores at various time points were similar between the two groups (p?>?0.05). More patients receiving lidocaine were sedated in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) than those receiving esmolol (p?<?0.05); however, no difference was detected later. CONCLUSION:Infusion of esmolol is not inferior to lidocaine in terms of opioid requirement and pain severity in the first 24?h after surgery. Patients receiving lidocaine were more sedated during their stay in PACU than those receiving esmolol. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov - NCT02327923. Date of registration: December 31, 2014.
Project description:Background: While recovery from remifentanil is fast due to its rapid metabolism, it can induce hyperalgesia by activation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors. Therefore, administration of NMDA receptor antagonists such as ketamine is effective in relieving hyperalgesia caused by remifentanil. A previous study showed that nefopam administration before anesthesia combined with low-dose remifentanil reduced pain and analgesic consumption during the immediate postoperative period. We hypothesized that intraoperative infusion of nefopam during laparoscopic cholecystectomy would be as effective as ketamine in controlling pain during the acute postoperative period after sevoflurane and remifentanil based anesthesia. Methods: Sixty patients scheduled to undergo laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly divided into three groups. General anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and effect-site target concentration of remifentanil (4 ng/ml) in all patients. An intravenous bolus of nefopam (0.3 mg/kg) was given, followed by continuous infusion (65 µg/kg/h) in Group N (n=20). An intravenous bolus of ketamine (0.3 mg/kg) was administered, followed by continuous infusion (180 µg/kg/h) in Group K (n=20), and Group C received a bolus and subsequent infusion of normal saline equal to the infusion received by Group K (n=20). We compared postoperative Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores and analgesic requirements over the first 8 postoperative hours between groups. Results: The pain scores (VAS) and fentanyl requirements for 1 h after surgery were significantly lower in the nefopam and ketamine groups compared with the control group (p<0.05). There were no differences between the nefopam and ketamine groups. The three groups showed no differences in VAS scores and number of analgesic injections from 1 to 8 h after surgery. Conclusion: Intraoperative nefopam infusion during laparoscopic cholecystectomy reduced opioid requirements and pain scores (VAS) during the early postoperative period after remifentanil-based anesthesia.
Project description:Management of acute postoperative pain is challenging, particularly in patients with preexisting narcotic dependency. Ketamine has been used at subanesthetic doses as a N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist to block the processing of nociceptive input in chronic pain syndromes. This prospective randomized study was designed to assess the use of ketamine as an adjunct to acute pain management in narcotic tolerant patients after spinal fusions. Twenty-six patients for 1-2 level posterior lumbar fusions with segmental instrumentation were randomly assigned to receive ketamine or act as a control. Patients in the ketamine group received 0.2 mg/kg on induction of general anesthesia and then 2 mcg kg(-1) hour(-1) for the next 24 hours. Patients were extubated in the operating room and within 15 minutes of arriving in the Post Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) were started on intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) hydromorphone without a basal infusion. Patients were assessed for pain (numerical rating scale [NRS]), narcotic use, level of sedation, delirium, and physical therapy milestones until discharge. The ketamine group had significantly less pain during their first postoperative hour in the PACU (NRS 4.8 vs 8.7) and continued to have less pain during the first postoperative day at rest (3.6 vs 5.5) and with physical therapy (5.6 vs 8.0). Three patients in the control group failed PCA pain management and were converted to intravenous ketamine infusions when their pain scores improved. Patients in the ketamine group required less hydromorphone than the control group, but the differences were not significant. Subanesthetic doses of ketamine reduced postoperative pain in narcotic tolerant patients undergoing posterior spine fusions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Thoracic epidural anesthesia is no longer considered the gold standard for perioperative analgesia in laparoscopic colorectal procedures. In the search for alternatives, the efficacy of the transverse abdominal plane (TAP) block and other abdominal wall blocks such as the transmuscular quadratus lumborum (TQL) block continues to be investigated for postoperative pain management. Most of the initial studies on TAP blocks reported positive effects; however, the amount of studies with negative outcomes is increasing, most probably due to the fact that the majority of abdominal wall blocks fail to mitigate visceral pain. The TQL block could prove attractive in the search for better postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic colorectal surgery. In several cadaveric studies of the TQL, a spread of dye into the thoracic paravertebral space, the intercostal spaces, and even the thoracic sympathetic trunk was reported. Given the advantage of possibly reaching the thoracic paravertebral space, the potential to reach nerves transmitting visceral pain, and the possible coverage of dermatomes T4-L1, we hypothesize that the TQL provides superior postoperative analgesia for laparoscopic colorectal surgery as compared to patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with morphine alone. METHODS AND DESIGN:In this prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled clinical trial, 150 patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery will be included. Patients will be randomly allocated to two different analgesic strategies: a bilateral TQL with 30?ml ropivacaine 0.375% each on both sides, administered before induction of anesthesia, plus postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with morphine (TQL group, n?=?75), or a bilateral TQL block with 30?ml saline each on both sides plus postoperative patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with morphine (placebo group, n?=?75). Our primary outcome parameter will be the morphine consumption during the first 24?h postsurgery. Secondary endpoints include pain intensity as assessed with the numerical rating scale (NRS) for pain, time to return of intestinal function (defined as the time to first flatus and the time to the first postoperative intake of solid food), time to first mobilization, the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting during the first 24?h, length of stay on the post anesthesia care unit (PACU) and in the hospital, the extent of sensory block at two time points (admission to and discharge from the PACU), the doses of morphine IV as requested by the patient from the PCA pump, the total dosage of morphine administered IV, the need for and dose of rescue analgesics (ketamine, clonidine), free plasma ropivacaine levels after induction and at discharge from the PACU, and the incidence of adverse events during treatment (in particular, signs of local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST)). Epidural analgesia is no longer the standard of care for postoperative analgesia in laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Until now, the most effective analgesic strategy in these patients especially in an enhanced recovery program is still unknown. Several abdominal wall blocks (TAP, fascia transversalis plane block) are known to have an analgesic effect only on somatic pain. Recognizing the importance of procedure-specific pain management, we aim to investigate whether a transmuscular quadratus lumborum block delivers superior pain control in comparison to patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with morphine alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION:EudraCT identifier 2019-002304-40. Registered on 17 September 2019.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Surgery and Anesthesia cause an excessive pro-inflammatory response. Mulago Hospital is faced with staff shortage making post-operative pain management difficult.Interleukin-6 (IL-6) drives inflammatory pain, endothelial cell dysfunction and fibrogenesis. Ketamine is cheap and, readily available. We hypothesized that its attenuation of serum IL-6 was a surrogate for clinical benefit. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Institutional Review Board's approval was sought and RCT was registered at clinical trials.gov (identifier number: NCT01339065). Consenting patients were randomized to receive pre-incision intravenous ketamine - 0.5mg/kg or 0.9% saline placebo in weighted dosing. Blood samples were collected and laboratory analyzed at baseline, post-operatively in PACU, 24 and 48 hours respectively. RESULTS:We recruited 39 patients of whom 18 were randomized to the ketamine arm and 21 in the placebo arm with follow up at 24 and 48 hours. Serum IL-6 and IL-1? levels were analyzed using ELIZA assay of pre-coated micro wells. Ketamine suppressed serum IL-6 at PACU with reduced increase at 24 hours. There was no reaction in 98% of IL-1? assayed. CONCLUSION:Low-dose ketamine attenuated early serum IL-6 levels due to surgical response with reduced 24 hour increase, but the difference was not statistically significant and we recommend more studies.
Project description:Purpose:Perioperative pain management plays a critical role in the effort to promote enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS). Pain is also the most concern for patients after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Naldebain (extended-release dinalbuphine sebacate, DS) is an oil-based formulation for intramuscular injection that has been designed for extended release and can be used for preoperative analgesia over a 7-day period. This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of DS injection with that of regular postoperative morphine administered when necessary for the management of post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy pain. Patients and Methods:Forty-four patients scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in this prospective study. The patients were allocated randomly into two groups, with equal numbers receiving preoperative DS versus post-operative morphine. A total of 21 and 22 patients completed the study within the preoperative DS and post-operative morphine group, respectively. Results:There were no statistically significant differences between two treatment groups with respect to length of surgery, anesthetics used during operation, or the average visual analog scale pain score in the post-operative anesthesia care unit (PACU), and at 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours post-procedure. Morphine was required only during the first postoperative day among those in the DS group. Safety was comparable in both DS and morphine groups. Conclusion:A single preoperative dose of DS provides sufficient analgesia along with a manageable safety profile and no interference with surgical anesthetics when compared to control cases that underwent surgery without preoperative DS treatment. This pilot study suggests that preoperative administration of DS is safe and may decrease the need for postoperative opioid use after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03713216.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Adequate pain control is an important component in the postoperative outcome for pediatric adenotonsillectomy patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Intravenous acetaminophen appears to be a favorable analgesic adjunct owing to its predictable pharmacokinetics and opioid-sparing effects; however, its role in pediatric adenotonsillectomy pain management remains unclear. METHODS:In this prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled study, subjects with the diagnosis of SDB, aged 2 to 8 years, who required extended postoperative admission, received intravenous acetaminophen (15 mg/kg) or saline placebo intraoperatively in addition to morphine (0.1 mg/kg) for postoperative surgical analgesia. Pain scores in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) using the FLACC (Faces, Leg, Activity, Cry, Consolability) score were used to determine the need for supplemental analgesic agents in the PACU. The PACU time and time to the first request for pain medication on the inpatient ward were also measured. RESULTS:A total of 239 patients were included in the final data analysis (118 in the intravenous acetaminophen group and 121 in the saline placebo group). The 2 groups did not differ in the proportion of patients reaching FLACC scores = 4 in the PACU (p = 0.223); mean FLACC scores in the PACU (p = 0.336); mean PACU time (p = 0.883); or time to requesting pain medication on the inpatient ward (p = 0.640). CONCLUSIONS:A single intraoperative dose of intravenous acetaminophen did not alter the postoperative course of pediatric patients with SDB following adenotonsillectomy.
Project description:Background:The aim of this study is to compare the safety and efficacy of retrobulbar block versus intraoperative ketamine infusion in eye enucleation or evisceration under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods:Forty-five patients belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status I and II undergoing eye enucleation or evisceration were randomly allocated to three equal groups (15 patients each). General anesthesia was used as the standardized technique in all patients. Group R received a single retrobulbar injection, Group K received intravenous ketamine infusion, and Group C received normal saline with the same rate of ketamine infusion. Intraoperative heart rate and mean arterial pressure, recovery time, postoperative pain score, time to first rescue analgesic, number of patients who required rescue analgesia, and any adverse events were reported. Results:Postoperative pain Visual Analog Scale was significantly lower in R and K groups in comparison to the C group and was significantly higher in K than R group at 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. In addition, the time to first rescue analgesic was significantly longer in R group (429 ± 54 min) than that in K group (272 ± 34 min), but compared to both groups, it was longer in C group (52 ± 7 min). In K group, the recovery time was longer with higher sedation score in comparison to the other two groups. Conclusions:Single retrobulbar injection and low-dose ketamine infusion are safe and effective when used as adjuvants to general anesthesia, but retrobulbar block provides better control of postoperative pain with prolonged time to first rescue analgesic and reduced analgesic consumption.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We theorized that modafinil, an atypical psychomotor stimulant, utilized to improve daytime somnolence in patients with obstructive sleep apnea, would improve functional recovery after general anesthesia by improving time to extubation, post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) length of stay and subjective recovery after general anesthesia. METHODS:A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study was performed. 102 patients with the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were randomized to receive either 200?mg of modafinil or placebo before general anesthesia. The trial was terminated for futility. The primary outcome was PACU length of stay between groups. Secondary functional metrics of improved post-anesthesia recovery were compared between groups. RESULTS:No difference between groups was found on the primary outcome of PACU length of stay (PACULOS). Emergence from general anesthesia was not significantly different when assessed by the time period between termination of volatile anesthetic and extubation. Similarly, no difference between groups was found in intraoperative bispectral index (BIS) values, postoperative pain scores or narcotic consumption (morphine equivalent units). In the post-anesthesia care unit, respiratory rate was increased and mean arterial pressure was lower in the modafinil group. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that the use of single-dose preoperative modafinil may not improve functional recovery after general anesthesia in patients with the diagnosis of OSA. Further research is needed before use of atypical psychomotor stimulants in this surgical population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The analgesic properties of ketamine are associated with its non-competitive antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor; these receptors exhibit an excitatory function on pain transmission and this binding seems to inhibit or reverse the central sensitization of pain. In the literature, the value of this anesthetic for preemptive analgesia in the control of postoperative pain is uncertain. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether preoperative low-dose ketamine reduces postoperative pain and morphine consumption in adults undergoing colon surgery. METHODS:In a double-blind, randomized trial, 48 patients were studied. Patients in the ketamine group received 0.5 mg/kg intravenous ketamine before surgical incision, while the control group received normal saline. The postoperative analgesia was achieved with a continuous infusion of morphine at 0.015 mg?kg-¹?h-¹ with the possibility of 0.02 mg/kg bolus every 10 min. Pain was assessed using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), morphine consumption, and hemodynamic parameters at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 hours postoperatively. We quantified times to rescue analgesic (Paracetamol), adverse effects and patient satisfaction. RESULTS:No significant differences were observed in VAS scores between groups (P>0.05), except at 4 hours postoperatively (P=0.040). There were no differences in cumulative consumption of morphine at any time point (P>0.05). We found no significant differences in incremental postoperative doses of morphine consumption in bolus, except at 12 h (P =0.013) and 24 h (P =0.002). The time to first required rescue analgesia was 70 ± 15.491 min in the ketamine group and 44 ± 19.494 min in the control (P>0.05). There were no differences in hemodynamic parameters or patient satisfaction (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Preoperative low-dose-ketamine did not show a preemptive analgesic effect or efficacy as an adjuvant for decreasing opioid requirements for postoperative pain in patients receiving intravenous analgesia with morphine after colon surgery.