CD200 increases alternatively activated macrophages through cAMP-response element binding protein - C/EBP-beta signaling.
ABSTRACT: The concept of macrophage polarization toward different phenotypes after CNS injury has been increasingly discussed. Here, we propose that CD200 treatment may help shift pro-inflammatory macrophages to an arginase 1 (Arg1)-, transglutaminase 2 (TGM2)-, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-?)-positive phenotype. Rat macrophages were stimulated by interferon ? and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce pro-inflammatory phenotypes. Treatment with human CD200-Fc up-regulated expression levels of alternatively activated M2-like markers such as Arg1 and TGM2 but suppressed pro-inflammatory M1-like markers such as toll-like receptor 4, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), IL-6, and GM-CSF. Concomitantly, CD200-Fc enhanced (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein) C/EBP-beta promoter activity, whereas NF-?B activity was suppressed. Treatment with CD200-Fc also up-regulated potentially beneficial TGF-? expression in macrophages. When C/EBP-beta signaling was suppressed with siRNA, the effect of CD200-Fc on Arg1, TGM2 and TGF-? up-regulation was canceled. Taken together, these data provide proof-of-principle that targeting CD200 signaling may be a novel therapeutic approach to shift macrophages toward M2-like polarization via modulating cAMP-response element binding protein-C/EBP-beta transcriptional activity. We showed that CD200 treatment decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, and GM-CSF) along with suppressed inflammatory NF-?B activity in pro-inflammatory M?. On the other hand, CD200 increased Arg1, TGM2, and TGF-? production through CREB-C/EBP? signaling. We think that these findings provide proof-of-concept that CD200 signaling may play a key role in regulating macrophage polarization toward anti-inflammatory phenotypes.
Project description:Sprague-Dawley adult male rats (12-14 weeks old) were exposed to 14-day CUS and then subjected to partial hepatectomy 24 h after the last stress session. The rats were pretreated with an antagonist of the glucocorticoids (GCs) receptor RU486 (30 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h prior to stress exposure. The behavioral changes were evaluated with open field test and elevated plus-maze test. The hippocampal cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 were measured on postoperative days 1, 3 and 7. Ionized calcium binding adaptor protein (Iba)-1, microglial M2 phenotype marker Arg1, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and CD200 were also examined at each time point.CUS exacerbated surgery-induced sickness behavior. Exposure to CUS alone failed to alter the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the brain. However, CUS exaggerated surgery-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression (e.g. IL-1? and IL-6) and upregulated the levels of Iba-1 on postoperative days 1 and 3. An additional significant decreased BDNF, CD200 and a lower level of Arg1 were also observed in the stressed rats following surgical procedure. Pretreatment with RU486 blunted the potentiating effects of CUS on surgery-induced sickness behavior and neuroinflammatory responses.Chronic unpredictable stress enhanced surgery-induced sickness behavior and neuroinflammatory responses. Stress-induced GCs played a pivotal role in enhancing surgery-induced neuroinflammatory processes by modulation of microglia functions.
Project description:Leishmania parasites infect macrophages, cells normally involved in innate defense against pathogens. Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania major cause severe or mild disease, respectively, consistent with each parasite's ability to survive within activated macrophages. The mechanisms underlying increased virulence of L. amazonensis are mostly unknown. We show that L. amazonensis promotes its own survival by inducing expression of CD200, an immunoregulatory molecule that inhibits macrophage activation. L. amazonensis does not form typical nonhealing lesions in CD200(-/-) mice and cannot replicate in CD200(-/-) macrophages, an effect reversed by exogenous administration of soluble CD200-Fc. The less virulent L. major does not induce CD200 expression and forms small, self-healing lesions in both wild-type and CD200(-/-) mice. Notably, CD200-Fc injection transforms the course of L. major infection to one resembling L. amazonensis, with large, nonhealing lesions. CD200-dependent iNOS inhibition allows parasite growth in macrophages, identifying a mechanism for the increased virulence of L. amazonensis.
Project description:There are numerous barriers to white matter repair after central nervous system injury and the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully understood. In this study, we propose the hypothesis that inflammatory macrophages in damaged white matter attack oligodendrocyte precursor cells via toll-like receptor 4 signaling thus interfering with this endogenous progenitor recovery mechanism. Primary cell culture experiments demonstrate that peritoneal macrophages can attack and digest oligodendrocyte precursor cells via toll-like receptor 4 signaling, and this phagocytosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells can be inhibited by using CD200-Fc to downregulate toll-like receptor 4. In an in vivo model of white matter ischemia induced by endothelin-1, treatment with CD200-Fc suppressed toll-like receptor 4 expression in peripherally circulating macrophages, thus restraining macrophage phagocytosis of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and leading to improved myelination. Taken together, these findings suggest that deleterious macrophage effects may occur after white matter ischemia, whereby macrophages attack oligodendrocyte precursor cells and interfere with endogenous recovery responses. Targeting this pathway with CD200 may offer a novel therapeutic approach to amplify endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cell-mediated repair of white matter damage in mammalian brain.
Project description:Biocompatibility is a major concern for developing biomaterials used in medical devices, tissue engineering and drug delivery. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is one of the most widely used biodegradable materials, yet still triggers a significant foreign body response that impairs healing. Immune cells including macrophages respond to the implanted biomaterial and mediate the host response, which can eventually lead to device failure. Previously in our laboratory, we found that CD200, an immunomodulatory protein, suppressed macrophage inflammatory activation in vitro and reduced local immune cell infiltration around a biomaterial implant. While in our initial study we used polystyrene as a model material, here we investigate the effect of CD200 on PLGA, a commonly used biomaterial with many potential clinical applications. We fabricated PLGA with varied geometries, modified their surfaces with CD200, and examined macrophage cytokine secretion and phagocytosis. We found that CD200 suppressed secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-? and enhanced secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, suggesting a role for CD200 in promoting wound healing and tissue remodeling. In addition, we found that CD200 increased phagocytosis in both murine macrophages and human monocytes. Together, these data suggest that modification with CD200 leads to a response that simultaneously prevents inflammation and enhances phagocytosis. This immunomodulatory feature may be used as a strategy to mitigate inflammation or deliver drugs or anti-inflammatory agents targeting macrophages.
Project description:The proprotein convertase enzyme FURIN processes immature pro-proteins into functional end- products. FURIN is upregulated in activated immune cells and it regulates T-cell dependent peripheral tolerance and the Th1/Th2 balance. FURIN also promotes the infectivity of pathogens by activating bacterial toxins and by processing viral proteins. Here, we evaluated the role of FURIN in LysM+ myeloid cells in vivo. Mice with a conditional deletion of FURIN in their myeloid cells (LysMCre-fur(fl/fl)) were healthy and showed unchanged proportions of neutrophils and macrophages. Instead, LysMCre-fur(fl/fl) mice had elevated serum IL-1? levels and reduced numbers of splenocytes. An LPS injection resulted in accelerated mortality, elevated serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and upregulated numbers of pro-inflammatory macrophages. A genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed the overexpression of several pro-inflammatory genes in resting FURIN-deficient macrophages. Moreover, FURIN inhibited Nos2 and promoted the expression of Arg1, which implies that FURIN regulates the M1/M2-type macrophage balance. FURIN was required for the normal production of the bioactive TGF-?1 cytokine, but it inhibited the maturation of the inflammation-provoking TACE and Caspase-1 enzymes. In conclusion, FURIN has an anti-inflammatory function in LysM+ myeloid cells in vivo.
Project description:Human placenta amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) regulate immune responses, and this property can be exploited to treat stroke patients via cell therapy. We investigated the expression profile of AMSCs cultured under hypoxic conditions and observed interesting expression changes in various genes involved in immune regulation. CD200, an anti-inflammatory factor and positive regulator of TGF-?, was more highly expressed under hypoxic conditions than normoxic conditions. Furthermore, AMSCs exhibited inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in co-cultures with LPS-primed BV2 microglia, and this effect was decreased in CD200-silenced AMSCs. The AMSCs transplanted into the ischemic rat model of stroke dramatically inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and up-regulated CD200, as compared with the levels in the sham-treated group. Moreover, decreased microglia activation in the boundary region and improvements in behavior were confirmed in AMSC-treated ischemic rats. The results suggested that the highly expressed CD200 from the AMSCs in a hypoxic environment modulates levels of inflammatory cytokines and microglial activation, thus increasing the therapeutic recovery potential after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, and further demonstrated the immunomodulatory function of AMSCs in a stroke model.
Project description:Macrophage-specific Abca1 knock-out (Abca1(-)(M)(/-)(M)) mice were generated to determine the role of macrophage ABCA1 expression in plasma lipoprotein concentrations and the innate immune response of macrophages. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in chow-fed Abca1(-)(M)(/-)(M) and wild-type (WT) mice were indistinguishable. Compared with WT macrophages, Abca1(-)(M)(/-)(M) macrophages had a >95% reduction in ABCA1 protein, failed to efflux lipid to apoA-I, and had a significant increase in free cholesterol (FC) and membrane lipid rafts without induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated Abca1(-)(M)(/-)(M) macrophages exhibited enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased activation of the NF-kappaB and MAPK pathways, which could be diminished by silencing MyD88 or by chemical inhibition of NF-kappaB or MAPK. In vivo LPS injection also resulted in a higher pro-inflammatory response in Abca1(-)(M)(/-)(M) mice compared with WT mice. Furthermore, cholesterol depletion of macrophages with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin normalized FC content between the two genotypes and their response to LPS; cholesterol repletion of macrophages resulted in increased cellular FC accumulation and enhanced cellular response to LPS. Our results suggest that macrophage ABCA1 expression may protect against atherosclerosis by facilitating the net removal of excess lipid from macrophages and dampening pro-inflammatory MyD88-dependent signaling pathways by reduction of cell membrane FC and lipid raft content.
Project description:Microglia (MG) and macrophages (MPs) represent a significant component of the inflammatory response to gliomas. When activated, MG/MP release a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines, however, they also secrete anti-inflammatory factors that limit their cytotoxic function. The balance between pro and anti-inflammatory functions dictates their antitumor activity. To evaluate potential variations in MG and MP function in gliomas, we isolated these cells (and other Gr1+ cells) from intracranial GL261 murine gliomas by FACS and evaluated their gene expression profiles by microarray analysis. As expected, arginase 1 (Arg1, M2 marker) was highly expressed by tumor-associated Gr1+, MG and MP. However, in contrast to MP and Gr1+ cells that expressed Arg1 shortly after tumor trafficking, Arg1 expression in MG was delayed and occurred in larger tumors. Interestingly, depletion of MPs in tumors did not prevent MG polarization, suggesting direct influence of tumor-specific factors on MG Arg1 upregulation. Finally, Arg1 expression was confirmed in human GBM samples, but most Arg1+ cells were neutrophils and not MPs. These findings confirm variations in tumor MG and MP polarization states and its dependency on tumor microenvironmental factors.
Project description:Increased macrophage accumulation occurs in the atria of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the phenotype and functions of the macrophages in AF remain unclear. We investigated the macrophage-atrial myocyte interaction in AF patients and found that the increased macrophages were mainly pro-inflammatory macrophages (iNOS+, Arg1-). Tachypacing of HL-1 atrial myocytes also led to pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization. In addition, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated pro-inflammatory macrophages-induced atrial electrical remodeling, evidenced by increased AF incidence and decreased atrial effective refractory period and L-type calcium currents (I Ca-L) in both canine and mouse AF models. Depletion of macrophages relieved LPS-induced atrial electrical remodeling, confirming the role of pro-inflammatory macrophages in the pathogenesis of AF. We also found that the effect of LPS-stimulated macrophages on atrial myocytes was mediated by secretion of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?), which inhibited atrial myocyte quaking protein (QKI) expression. IL-1? knockout in macrophages restored the LPS-stimulated macrophage-induced inhibition of QKI and CACNA1C (?1C subunit of L-type calcium channel) in atrial myocytes. Meanwhile, QKI overexpression in atrial myocytes restored the LPS-stimulated macrophage-induced electrical remodeling through enhanced binding of QKI to CACNA1C mRNA, which upregulated the expression of CACNA1C as well as I Ca-L. In contrast, QKI knockout inhibited CACNA1C expression. Finally, using transcription factor activation profiling plate array and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we revealed that special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 activated QKI transcription. Taken together, our study uncovered the functional interaction between macrophages and atrial myocytes in AF. AF induced pro-inflammatory macrophage polarization while pro-inflammatory macrophages exacerbated atrial electrical remodeling by secreting IL-1?, further inhibiting QKI expression in atrial myocytes, which contributed to I Ca-L downregulation. Our study demonstrates a novel molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis and progression of AF and suggests that QKI is a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>In the hours to days after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), there is an inflammatory response within the brain characterized by the infiltration of peripheral neutrophils and macrophages and the activation of brain-resident microglia and astrocytes. Despite the strong correlation of aging and ICH incidence, and increasing information about cellular responses, little is known about the temporal- and age-related molecular responses of the brain after ICH. Here, we monitored a panel of 27 genes at 6 h and 1, 3, and 7 days after ICH was induced by injecting collagenase into the striatum of young adult and aged rats. Several molecules (CR3, TLR2, TLR4, IL-1?, TNF?, iNOS, IL-6) were selected to reflect the classical activation of innate immune cells (macrophages, microglia) and the potential to exacerbate inflammation and damage brain cells. Most of the others are associated with the resolution of innate inflammation, alternative pathways of macrophage/microglial activation, and the repair phase after acute injury (TGF?, IL-1ra, IL-1r2, IL-4, IL-13, IL-4R?, IL-13R?1, IL-13R?2, MRC1, ARG1, CD163, CCL22). In young animals, the up-regulation of 26 in 27 genes (not IL-4) was detected within the first week. Differences in timing or levels between young and aged animals were detected for 18 of 27 genes examined (TLR2, GFAP, IL-1?, IL-1ra, IL-1r2, iNOS, IL-6, TGF?, MMP9, MMP12, IL-13, IL-4R?, IL-13R?1, IL-13R?2, MRC1, ARG1, CD163, CCL22), with a generally less pronounced or delayed inflammatory response in the aged animals. Importantly, within this complex response to experimental ICH, the induction of pro-inflammatory, potentially harmful mediators often coincided with resolving and beneficial molecules.<h4>Electronic supplementary material</h4>The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12975-012-0151-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.