Common Anesthetic-binding Site for Inhibition of Pentameric Ligand-gated Ion Channels.
ABSTRACT: Identifying functionally relevant anesthetic-binding sites in pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) is an important step toward understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying anesthetic action. The anesthetic propofol is known to inhibit cation-conducting pLGICs, including a prokaryotic pLGIC from Erwinia chrysanthemi (ELIC), but the sites responsible for functional inhibition remain undetermined.We photolabeled ELIC with a light-activated derivative of propofol (AziPm) and performed fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to support propofol binding to a transmembrane domain (TMD) intrasubunit pocket. To differentiate sites responsible for propofol inhibition from those that are functionally irrelevant, we made an ELIC-?-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR) chimera that replaced the ELIC-TMD with the ?1?3GABAAR-TMD and compared functional responses of ELIC-GABAAR and ELIC with propofol modulations.Photolabeling showed multiple AziPm-binding sites in the extracellular domain (ECD) but only one site in the TMD with labeled residues M265 and F308 in the resting state of ELIC. Notably, this TMD site is an intrasubunit pocket that overlaps with binding sites for anesthetics, including propofol, found previously in other pLGICs. Fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic resonance experiments supported propofol binding to this TMD intrasubunit pocket only in the absence of agonist. Functional measurements of ELIC-GABAAR showed propofol potentiation of the agonist-elicited current instead of inhibition observed on ELIC.The distinctly different responses of ELIC and ELIC-GABAAR to propofol support the functional relevance of propofol binding to the TMD. Combining the newly identified TMD intrasubunit pocket in ELIC with equivalent TMD anesthetic sites found previously in other cationic pLGICs, we propose this TMD pocket as a common site for anesthetic inhibition of pLGICs.
Project description:Propofol, an intravenous general anesthetic, produces many of its anesthetic effects in vivo by potentiating the responses of GABA type A receptors (GABAAR), members of the superfamily of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) that contain anion-selective channels. Propofol also inhibits pLGICs containing cation-selective channels, including nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and GLIC, a prokaryotic proton-gated homologue from Gloeobacter violaceus . In the structure of GLIC cocrystallized with propofol at pH 4 (presumed open/desensitized states), propofol was localized to an intrasubunit pocket at the extracellular end of the transmembrane domain within the bundle of transmembrane ?-helices (Nury, H, et al. (2011) Nature 469, 428-431). To identify propofol binding sites in GLIC in solution, we used a recently developed photoreactive propofol analogue (2-isopropyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]phenol or AziPm) that acts as an anesthetic in vivo and potentiates GABAAR in vitro. For GLIC expressed in Xenopus oocytes, propofol and AziPm inhibited current responses at pH 5.5 (EC20) with IC50 values of 20 and 50 ?M, respectively. When [(3)H]AziPm (7 ?M) was used to photolabel detergent-solubilized, affinity-purified GLIC at pH 4.4, protein microsequencing identified propofol-inhibitable photolabeling of three residues in the GLIC transmembrane domain: Met-205, Tyr-254, and Asn-307 in the M1, M3, and M4 transmembrane helices, respectively. Thus, for GLIC in solution, propofol and AziPm bind competitively to a site in proximity to these residues, which, in the GLIC crystal structure, are in contact with the propofol bound in the intrasubunit pocket.
Project description:Propofol acts as a positive allosteric modulator of ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs), an interaction necessary for its anesthetic potency in vivo as a general anesthetic. Identifying the location of propofol-binding sites is necessary to understand its mechanism of GABAAR modulation. [(3)H]2-(3-Methyl-3H-diaziren-3-yl)ethyl 1-(phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (azietomidate) and R-[(3)H]5-allyl-1-methyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl)barbituric acid (mTFD-MPAB), photoreactive analogs of 2-ethyl 1-(phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (etomidate) and mephobarbital, respectively, have identified two homologous but pharmacologically distinct classes of intersubunit-binding sites for general anesthetics in the GABAAR transmembrane domain. Here, we use a photoreactive analog of propofol (2-isopropyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]phenol ([(3)H]AziPm)) to identify propofol-binding sites in heterologously expressed human ?1?3 GABAARs. Propofol, AziPm, etomidate, and R-mTFD-MPAB each inhibited [(3)H]AziPm photoincorporation into GABAAR subunits maximally by ? 50%. When the amino acids photolabeled by [(3)H]AziPm were identified by protein microsequencing, we found propofol-inhibitable photolabeling of amino acids in the ?3-?1 subunit interface (?3Met-286 in ?3M3 and ?1Met-236 in ?1M1), previously photolabeled by [(3)H]azietomidate, and ?1Ile-239, located one helical turn below ?1Met-236. There was also propofol-inhibitable [(3)H]AziPm photolabeling of ?3Met-227 in ?M1, the amino acid in the ?1-?3 subunit interface photolabeled by R-[(3)H]mTFD-MPAB. The propofol-inhibitable [(3)H]AziPm photolabeling in the GABAAR ?3 subunit in conjunction with the concentration dependence of inhibition of that photolabeling by etomidate or R-mTFD-MPAB also establish that each anesthetic binds to the homologous site at the ?3-?3 subunit interface. These results establish that AziPm as well as propofol bind to the homologous intersubunit sites in the GABAAR transmembrane domain that binds etomidate or R-mTFD-MPAB with high affinity.
Project description:Propofol, a widely used intravenous general anesthetic, acts at anesthetic concentrations as a positive allosteric modulator of ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors and at higher concentration as an inhibitor of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Here, we characterize propofol binding sites in a muscle-type nAChR by use of a photoreactive analog of propofol, 2-isopropyl-5-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]phenol (AziPm). Based upon radioligand binding assays, AziPm stabilized the Torpedo nAChR in the resting state, whereas propofol stabilized the desensitized state. nAChR-rich membranes were photolabeled with [(3)H]AziPm, and labeled amino acids were identified by Edman degradation. [(3)H]AziPm binds at three sites within the nAChR transmembrane domain: (i) an intrasubunit site in the ? subunit helix bundle, photolabeling in the nAChR desensitized state (+agonist) ?M2-18' and two residues in ?M1 (?Phe-232 and ?Cys-236); (ii) in the ion channel, photolabeling in the nAChR resting, closed channel state (-agonist) amino acids in the M2 helices (?M2-6', ?M2-6' and -13', and ?M2-13') that line the channel lumen (with photolabeling reduced by >90% in the desensitized state); and (iii) at the ?-? interface, photolabeling ?M2-10'. Propofol enhanced [(3)H]AziPm photolabeling at ?M2-10'. Propofol inhibited [(3)H]AziPm photolabeling within the ? subunit helix bundle at lower concentrations (IC50 = 40 ?m) than it inhibited ion channel photolabeling (IC50 = 125 ?m). These results identify for the first time a single intrasubunit propofol binding site in the nAChR transmembrane domain and suggest that this is the functionally relevant inhibitory binding site.
Project description:General anesthetics exert many of their CNS actions by binding to and modulating membrane-embedded pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs). The structural mechanisms underlying how anesthetics modulate pLGIC function remain largely unknown. GLIC, a prokaryotic pLGIC homologue, is inhibited by general anesthetics, suggesting anesthetics stabilize a closed channel state, but in anesthetic-bound GLIC crystal structures the channel appears open. Here, using functional GLIC channels expressed in oocytes, we examined whether propofol induces structural rearrangements in the GLIC transmembrane domain (TMD). Residues in the GLIC TMD that frame intrasubunit and intersubunit water-accessible cavities were individually mutated to cysteine. We measured and compared the rates of modification of the introduced cysteines by sulfhydryl-reactive reagents in the absence and presence of propofol. Propofol slowed the rate of modification of L240C (intersubunit) and increased the rate of modification of T254C (intrasubunit), indicating that propofol binding induces structural rearrangements in these cavities that alter the local environment near these residues. Propofol acceleration of T254C modification suggests that in the resting state propofol does not bind in the TMD intrasubunit cavity as observed in the crystal structure of GLIC with bound propofol (Nury, H., Van Renterghem, C., Weng, Y., Tran, A., Baaden, M., Dufresne, V., Changeux, J. P., Sonner, J. M., Delarue, M., and Corringer, P. J. (2011) Nature 469, 428-431). In silico docking using a GLIC closed channel homology model suggests propofol binds to intersubunit sites in the TMD in the resting state. Propofol-induced motions in the intersubunit cavity were distinct from motions associated with channel activation, indicating propofol stabilizes a novel closed state.
Project description:meta-Azi-propofol (AziPm) is a photoactive analog of the general anesthetic propofol. We photolabeled a myelin-enriched fraction from rat brain with [(3)H]AziPm and identified the sirtuin deacetylase SIRT2 as a target of the anesthetic. AziPm photolabeled three SIRT2 residues (Tyr(139), Phe(190), and Met(206)) that are located in a single allosteric protein site, and propofol inhibited [(3)H]AziPm photolabeling of this site in myelin SIRT2. Structural modeling and in vitro experiments with recombinant human SIRT2 determined that propofol and [(3)H]AziPm only bind specifically and competitively to the enzyme when co-equilibrated with other substrates, which suggests that the anesthetic site is either created or stabilized in enzymatic conformations that are induced by substrate binding. In contrast to SIRT2, specific binding of [(3)H]AziPm or propofol to recombinant human SIRT1 was not observed. Residues that line the propofol binding site on SIRT2 contact the sirtuin co-substrate NAD(+) during enzymatic catalysis, and assays that measured SIRT2 deacetylation of acetylated ?-tubulin revealed that propofol inhibits enzymatic function. We conclude that propofol inhibits the mammalian deacetylase SIRT2 through a conformation-specific, allosteric protein site that is unique from the previously described binding sites of other inhibitors. This suggests that propofol might influence cellular events that are regulated by protein acetylation state.
Project description:Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) are members of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. Drugs acting as positive allosteric modulators of muscle-type ?2??? nAChRs, of use in treatment of neuromuscular disorders, have been hard to identify. However, identification of nAChR allosteric modulator binding sites has been facilitated by using drugs developed as photoreactive GABAAR modulators. Recently, R-1-methyl-5-allyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirinylphenyl) barbituric acid (R-mTFD-MPAB), an anesthetic and GABAAR potentiator, has been shown to inhibit Torpedo ?2??? nAChRs, binding in the ion channel and to a ?+-?- subunit interface site similar to its GABAAR intersubunit binding site. In contrast, S-1-methyl-5-propyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirinylphenyl) barbituric acid (S-mTFD-MPPB) acts as a convulsant and GABAAR inhibitor. Photolabeling studies established that S-mTFD-MPPB binds to the same GABAAR intersubunit binding site as R-mTFD-MPAB, but with negative rather than positive energetic coupling to GABA binding. We now show that S-mTFD-MPPB binds with the same state (agonist) dependence as R-mTFD-MPAB within the nAChR ion channel, but it does not bind to the intersubunit binding site. Rather, S-mTFD-MPPB binds to intrasubunit sites within the ? and ? subunits, photolabeling ?Val-218 (?M1), ?Phe-232 (?M1), ?Thr-274 (?M2), and ?Ile-288 (?M3). Propofol, a general anesthetic that binds to GABAAR intersubunit sites, inhibited [3H]S-mTFD-MPPB photolabeling of these nAChR intrasubunit binding sites. These results demonstrate that in an nAChR, the subtle difference in structure between S-mTFD-MPPB and R-mTFD-MPAB (chirality; 5-propyl versus 5-allyl) determines selectivity for intra- versus intersubunit sites, in contrast to GABAARs, where this difference affects state dependence of binding to a common site.
Project description:Type A ?-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAARs) are inhibitory pentameric ligand-gated ion channels in the brain. Many anesthetics and neurosteroids act through binding to the GABAAR transmembrane domain (TMD), but the structural basis of their actions is not well understood and no resting-state GABAAR structure has been determined. Here, we report crystal structures of apo and the neurosteroid anesthetic alphaxalone-bound desensitized chimeric ?1GABAAR (ELIC-?1GABAAR). The chimera retains the functional and pharmacological properties of GABAARs, including potentiation, activation and desensitization by alphaxalone. The apo-state structure reveals an unconventional activation gate at the intracellular end of the pore. The desensitized structure illustrates molecular determinants for alphaxalone binding to an inter-subunit TMD site. These structures suggest a plausible signaling pathway from alphaxalone binding at the bottom of the TMD to the channel gate in the pore-lining TM2 through the TM1-TM2 linker. The study provides a framework to discover new GABAAR modulators with therapeutic potential.
Project description:Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) are essential determinants of synaptic transmission, and are modulated by specific lipids including anionic phospholipids. The exact modulatory effect of anionic phospholipids in pLGICs and the mechanism of this effect are not well understood. Using native mass spectrometry, coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and functional assays, we show that the anionic phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylglycerol (POPG), preferentially binds to and stabilizes the pLGIC, Erwinia ligand-gated ion channel (ELIC), and decreases ELIC desensitization. Mutations of five arginines located in the interfacial regions of the transmembrane domain (TMD) reduce POPG binding, and a subset of these mutations increase ELIC desensitization. In contrast, a mutation that decreases ELIC desensitization, increases POPG binding. The results support a mechanism by which POPG stabilizes the open state of ELIC relative to the desensitized state by direct binding at specific sites.
Project description:Microtubule-based molecular motors mediate transport of intracellular cargo to subdomains in neurons. Previous evidence has suggested that the anesthetic propofol decreases the average run-length potential of the major anterograde transporters kinesin-1 and kinesin-2 without altering their velocity. This effect on kinesin has not been observed with other inhibitors, stimulating considerable interest in the underlying mechanism. Here, we used a photoactive derivative of propofol, meta-azipropofol (AziPm), to search for potential propofol-binding sites in kinesin. Single-molecule motility assays confirmed that AziPm and propofol similarly inhibit kinesin-1 and kinesin-2. We then applied AziPm in semiquantitative radiolabeling and MS microsequencing assays to identify propofol-binding sites within microtubule-kinesin complexes. The radiolabeling experiments suggested preferential AziPm binding to the ATP-bound microtubule-kinesin complex. The photolabeled residues were contained within the kinesin motor domain rather than at the motor domain-?-tubulin interface. No residues within the P-loop of kinesin were photolabeled, indicating an inhibitory mechanism that does not directly affect ATPase activity and has an effect on run length without changing velocity. Our results also indicated that when the kinesin motor interacts with the microtubule during its processive run, a site forms in kinesin to which propofol can then bind and allosterically disrupt the kinesin-microtubule interaction, resulting in kinesin detachment and run termination. The discovery of the propofol-binding allosteric site in kinesin may improve our understanding of the strict coordination of the motor heads during the processive run. We hypothesize that propofol's potent effect on intracellular transport contributes to various components of its anesthetic action.
Project description:GABA(A) receptors play a crucial role in the actions of general anesthetics. The recently published crystal structure of the general anesthetic propofol bound to Gloeobacter violaceus ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC), a bacterial homolog of GABA(A) receptors, provided an opportunity to explore structure-based ligand discovery for pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs). We used molecular docking of 153,000 commercially available compounds to identify molecules that interact with the propofol binding site in GLIC. In total, 29 compounds were selected for functional testing on recombinant GLIC, and 16 of these compounds modulated GLIC function. Active compounds were also tested on recombinant GABA(A) receptors, and point mutations around the presumed binding pocket were introduced into GLIC and GABA(A) receptors to test for binding specificity. The potency of active compounds was only weakly correlated with properties such as lipophilicity or molecular weight. One compound was found to mimic the actions of propofol on GLIC and GABA(A), and to be sensitive to mutations that reduce the action of propofol in both receptors. Mutant receptors also provided insight about the position of the binding sites and the relevance of the receptor's conformation for anesthetic actions. Overall, the findings support the feasibility of the use of virtual screening to discover allosteric modulators of pLGICs, and suggest that GLIC is a valid model system to identify novel GABA(A) receptor ligands.