Inversion of Spin Signal and Spin Filtering in Ferromagnet|Hexagonal Boron Nitride-Graphene van der Waals Heterostructures.
ABSTRACT: Two dimensional atomically thin crystals of graphene and its insulating isomorph hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) are promising materials for spintronic applications. While graphene is an ideal medium for long distance spin transport, h-BN is an insulating tunnel barrier that has potential for efficient spin polarized tunneling from ferromagnets. Here, we demonstrate the spin filtering effect in cobalt|few layer h-BN|graphene junctions leading to a large negative spin polarization in graphene at room temperature. Through nonlocal pure spin transport and Hanle precession measurements performed on devices with different interface barrier conditions, we associate the negative spin polarization with high resistance few layer h-BN|ferromagnet contacts. Detailed bias and gate dependent measurements reinforce the robustness of the effect in our devices. These spintronic effects in two-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures hold promise for future spin based logic and memory applications.
Project description:Two-dimensional (2D) crystals offer a unique platform due to their remarkable and contrasting spintronic properties, such as weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in graphene and strong SOC in molybdenum disulfide (MoS<sub>2</sub>). Here we combine graphene and MoS<sub>2</sub> in a van der Waals heterostructure (vdWh) to demonstrate the electric gate control of the spin current and spin lifetime at room temperature. By performing non-local spin valve and Hanle measurements, we unambiguously prove the gate tunability of the spin current and spin lifetime in graphene/MoS<sub>2</sub> vdWhs at 300?K. This unprecedented control over the spin parameters by orders of magnitude stems from the gate tuning of the Schottky barrier at the MoS<sub>2</sub>/graphene interface and MoS<sub>2</sub> channel conductivity leading to spin dephasing in high-SOC material. Our findings demonstrate an all-electrical spintronic device at room temperature with the creation, transport and control of the spin in 2D materials heterostructures, which can be key building blocks in future device architectures.
Project description:Ferromagnetic materials are the widely used source of spin-polarized electrons in spintronic devices, which are controlled by external magnetic fields or spin-transfer torque methods. However, with increasing demand for smaller and faster spintronic components utilization of spin-orbit phenomena provides promising alternatives. New materials with unique spin textures are highly desirable since all-electric creation and control of spin polarization is expected where the strength, as well as an arbitrary orientation of the polarization, can be defined without the use of a magnetic field. In this work, we use a novel spin-orbit crystal BiTeBr for this purpose. Because of its giant Rashba spin splitting, bulk spin polarization is created at room temperature by an electric current. Integrating BiTeBr crystal into graphene-based spin valve devices, we demonstrate for the first time that it acts as a current-controlled spin injector, opening new avenues for future spintronic applications in integrated circuits.
Project description:The van der Waals heterostructures of two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals constitute a new paradigm in nanoscience. Hybrid devices of graphene with insulating 2D hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) have emerged as promising nanoelectronic architectures through demonstrations of ultrahigh electron mobilities and charge-based tunnel transistors. Here, we expand the functional horizon of such 2D materials demonstrating the quantum tunneling of spin polarized electrons through atomic planes of CVD grown h-BN. We report excellent tunneling behavior of h-BN layers together with tunnel spin injection and transport in graphene using ferromagnet/h-BN contacts. Employing h-BN tunnel contacts, we observe enhancements in both spin signal amplitude and lifetime by an order of magnitude. We demonstrate spin transport and precession over micrometer-scale distances with spin lifetime up to 0.46 nanosecond. Our results and complementary magnetoresistance calculations illustrate that CVD h-BN tunnel barrier provides a reliable, reproducible and alternative approach to address the conductivity mismatch problem for spin injection into graphene.
Project description:A distinguishing feature of spin accumulation in ferromagnet-semiconductor devices is its precession in a magnetic field. This is the basis for detection techniques such as the Hanle effect, but these approaches become ineffective as the spin lifetime in the semiconductor decreases. For this reason, no electrical Hanle measurement has been demonstrated in GaAs at room temperature. We show here that by forcing the magnetization in the ferromagnet to precess at resonance instead of relying only on the Larmor precession of the spin accumulation in the semiconductor, an electrically generated spin accumulation can be detected up to 300 K. The injection bias and temperature dependence of the measured spin signal agree with those obtained using traditional methods. We further show that this approach enables a measurement of short spin lifetimes (<100 ps), a regime that is not accessible in semiconductors using traditional Hanle techniques.
Project description:We study spin transport in a fully hBN encapsulated monolayer-graphene van der Waals heterostructure at room temperature. A top-layer of bilayer-hBN is used as a tunnel barrier for spin-injection and detection in graphene with ferromagnetic cobalt electrodes. We report surprisingly large and bias-induced (differential) spin-injection (detection) polarizations up to 50% (135%) at a positive voltage bias of +?0.6?V, as well as sign inverted polarizations up to -70% (-60%) at a reverse bias of -0.4?V. This demonstrates the potential of bilayer-hBN tunnel barriers for practical graphene spintronics applications. With such enhanced spin-injection and detection polarizations, we report a record two-terminal (inverted) spin-valve signals up to 800?? with a magnetoresistance ratio of 2.7%, and achieve spin accumulations up to 4.1?meV. We propose how these numbers can be increased further, for future technologically relevant graphene based spintronic devices.In 2D spin-valve devices, effective spin injection and detection can be potentially realised combining graphene with an ideal hBN tunnel barrier. Here, the authors report that a bilayer hBN tunnel barrier allows up to 100% spin-injection and detection in a fully hBN-encapsulated graphene heterostructure.
Project description:Recently the hybrid organic-inorganic trihalide perovskites have shown remarkable performance as active layers in photovoltaic and other optoelectronic devices. However, their spin characteristic properties have not been fully studied, although due to the relatively large spin-orbit coupling these materials may show great promise for spintronic applications. Here we demonstrate spin-polarized carrier injection into methylammonium lead bromide films from metallic ferromagnetic electrodes in two spintronic-based devices: a 'spin light emitting diode' that results in circularly polarized electroluminescence emission; and a 'vertical spin valve' that shows giant magnetoresistance. In addition, we also apply a magnetic field perpendicular to the injected spins orientation for measuring the 'Hanle effect', from which we obtain a relatively long spin lifetime for the electrically injected carriers. Our measurements initiate the field of hybrid perovskites spin-related optoelectronic applications.
Project description:Topological insulators (TIs) are enticing prospects for the future of spintronics due to their large spin-orbit coupling and dissipationless, counter-propagating conduction channels in the surface state. However, a means to interact with and exploit the topological surface state remains elusive. Here, we report a study of spin pumping at the TI-ferromagnet interface, investigating spin transfer dynamics in a spin-valve like structure using element specific time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and ferromagnetic resonance. Gilbert damping increases approximately linearly with increasing TI thickness, indicating efficient behaviour as a spin sink. However, layer-resolved measurements suggest that a dynamic coupling is limited. These results shed new light on the spin dynamics of this novel material class, and suggest great potential for TIs in spintronic devices, through their novel magnetodynamics that persist even up to room temperature.
Project description:Unique electronic spin textures in topological states of matter are promising for emerging spin-orbit driven memory and logic technologies. However, there are several challenges related to the enhancement of their performance, electrical gate-tunability, interference from trivial bulk states, and heterostructure interfaces. We address these challenges by integrating two-dimensional graphene with a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) in van der Waals heterostructures to take advantage of their remarkable spintronic properties and engineer proximity-induced spin-charge conversion phenomena. In these heterostructures, we experimentally demonstrate a gate-tunable spin-galvanic effect (SGE) at room temperature, allowing for efficient conversion of a non-equilibrium spin polarization into a transverse charge current. Systematic measurements of SGE in various device geometries via a spin switch, spin precession, and magnetization rotation experiments establish the robustness of spin-charge conversion in the Gr-TI heterostructures. Importantly, using a gate voltage, we reveal a strong electric field tunability of both amplitude and sign of the spin-galvanic signal. These findings provide an efficient route for realizing all-electrical and gate-tunable spin-orbit technology using TIs and graphene in heterostructures, which can enhance the performance and reduce power dissipation in spintronic circuits.
Project description:Graphene is an ideal medium for long-distance spin communication in future spintronic technologies. So far, the prospect is limited by the smaller sizes of exfoliated graphene flakes and lower spin transport properties of large-area chemical vapour-deposited (CVD) graphene. Here we demonstrate a high spintronic performance in CVD graphene on SiO2/Si substrate at room temperature. We show pure spin transport and precession over long channel lengths extending up to 16??m with a spin lifetime of 1.2?ns and a spin diffusion length ?6??m at room temperature. These spin parameters are up to six times higher than previous reports and highest at room temperature for any form of pristine graphene on industrial standard SiO2/Si substrates. Our detailed investigation reinforces the observed performance in CVD graphene over wafer scale and opens up new prospects for the development of lateral spin-based memory and logic applications.
Project description:The use of organic materials in spintronic devices has been seriously considered after recent experimental works have shown unexpected spin-dependent electrical properties. The basis for the confection of any spintronic device is ability of selecting the appropriated spin polarization. In this direction, DNA has been pointed out as a potential candidate for spin selection due to the spin-orbit coupling originating from the electric field generated by accumulated electrical charges along the helix. Here, we demonstrate that spin-orbit coupling is the minimum ingredient necessary to promote a spatial spin separation and the generation of spin-current. We show that the up and down spin components have different velocities that give rise to a spin-current. By using a simple situation where spin-orbit coupling is present, we provide qualitative justifications to our results that clearly point to helicoidal molecules as serious candidates to integrate spintronic devices.