Dynamics and plasticity of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition induced by miR-200 family inhibition.
ABSTRACT: Whereas miR-200 family is known to be involved in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial biological process observed in normal and pathological contexts, it has been largely unclear how far the functional levels of these tiny RNAs alone can propagate the molecular events to accomplish this process within several days. By developing a potent inhibitor of miR-200 family members (TuD-141/200c), the expression of which is strictly regulatable by the Tet (tetracycline)-On system, we found using a human colorectal cell line, HCT116, that several direct gene target mRNAs (Zeb1/Zeb2, ESRP1, FN1and FHOD1) of miR-200 family were elevated with distinct kinetics. Prompt induction of the transcriptional suppressors, Zeb1/Zeb2 in turn reduced the expression levels of miR-200c/-141 locus, EpCAM, ESRP1 and E-Cad. The loss of ESRP1 subsequently switched the splicing isoforms of CD44 and p120 catenin mRNAs to mesenchymal type. Importantly, within 9 days after the release from the inhibition of miR-200 family, all of the expression changes in the 14 genes observed in this study returned to their original levels in the epithelial cells. This suggests that the inherent epithelial plasticity is supported by a weak retention of key regulatory gene expression in either the epithelial or mesenchymal states through epigenetic regulation.
Project description:MicroRNAs from the miR-200 family are commonly associated with the inhibition of the metastatic potential of cancer cells, following inhibition of ZEB transcription factors expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. However, previous studies performed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma revealed a more complex picture challenging this canonical model. To gain better insights into the role of miR-200 family members in this disease, we analyzed the expression of miR-200a, miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-141, miR-429, and miR-205, and ZEB1, ZEB2, and CDH1 in pancreatic tumors and matching normal adjacent parenchyma and patient-derived xenografts. We found that miR-200a, miR-429, and miR-205 are frequently overexpressed in pancreatic tumors, whereas CDH1 is downregulated, and ZEB1 and ZEB2 levels remain unchanged. Furthermore, we measured a positive correlation between miR-200 family members and CDH1 expression, and a negative correlation between ZEB1 and miR-200c, miR-141, and miR-205 expression, respectively. Interestingly, we identified significant changes in expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition regulators and miR-200 members in patient-derived xenografts. Lastly, functional studies revealed that miR-141 and miR-429 inhibit the tumorigenic potential of pancreatic cancer cells. Taken together, this comprehensive analysis strongly suggests that miRNAs from the miR-200 family, and in particular miR-429, may act as a tumor suppressor gene in pancreatic cancer.
Project description:Members of microRNA-200 (miRNA-200) family have a regulatory role in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) by suppressing Zeb1 and Zeb2 expression. Consistent with its role in suppressing EMT, Hsa-miR-200c-3p (miR-200c), a member of miR-200 family is poorly expressed in mesenchymal-like triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells and ectopic miR-200c expression suppresses cell migration. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-200c potently inhibited TNBC cell growth and tumor development in a mechanism distinct from its ability to downregulate Zeb1 and Zeb2 expression, because silencing them only marginally affected TNBC cell growth. We identified phosphodiesterase 7B (PDE7B) as a bona fide miR-200c target. Importantly, miR-200c-led inhibition in cell growth and tumor development was prevented by forcing PDE7B transgene expression, while knockdown of PDE7B effectively inhibited cell growth. These results suggest that miR-200c inhibits cell growth by targeting PDE7B mRNA. To elucidate mechanism underlying miR-200c/PDE7B regulation of TNBC cell growth, we showed that cAMP concentration was lower in TNBC cells compared with estrogen receptor-positive (ER?+?) cells, and that both miR-200c and PDE7B siRNAs were able to increase cAMP concentration in TNBC cells. High level of cellular cAMP has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in TNBC cells. Our observation that ectopic expression of miR-200c triggered apoptosis indicates that it does so by elevating level of cellular cAMP. Analysis of breast tumor gene expression datasets revealed an inverse association between miR-200c and PDE7B expression. Especially, both low miR-200c and high PDE7B expression were correlated with poor survival of breast cancer patients. Our study supports a critical role of miR-200c/PDE7B relationship in TNBC tumorigenesis.
Project description:The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important mechanism for cancer progression and metastasis. Numerous in vitro and tumor-profiling studies point to the miR-200-Zeb1 axis as crucial in regulating this process, yet in vivo studies involving its regulation within a physiological context are lacking. Here, we show that miR-200 ablation in the Rip-Tag2 insulinoma mouse model induces beta-cell dedifferentiation, initiates an EMT expression program, and promotes tumor invasion. Strikingly, disrupting the miR-200 sites of the endogenous Zeb1 locus causes a similar phenotype. Reexpressing members of the miR-200 superfamily in vitro reveals that the miR-200c family and not the co-expressed and closely related miR-141 family is responsible for regulation of Zeb1 and EMT. Our results thus show that disrupting the in vivo regulation of Zeb1 by miR-200c is sufficient to drive EMT, thus highlighting the importance of this axis in tumor progression and invasion and its potential as a therapeutic target.
Project description:The loss of miR-200 family, through DNA methylation, results in cancer cells undergoing an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and metastasis. In this study, we established that the transcriptional repressor Kaiso directly binds methylated regions of the miR-200 family, and this is reversed with 5-aza treatment. sh-Kaiso PC-3?cells display increased miR-200-a/b/c, miR-141, and miR-429 expression, with miR-200c demonstrating the most significant increase. Interestingly, overexpression of EGFR or treatment with EGF decreases miR-200c expression and this is reversed after treatment with EGFR specific kinase inhibitor PD153035. However, EGF did not have a significant effect on miR-200c in sh-Kaiso DU-145 or PC-3?cell lines, suggesting Kaiso silences miR-200c through the activation of EGFR signaling. Overexpression of Kaiso in LNCaP cells results in decreased expression of miR-200-a/b/c, miR-141, and miR-429, along with increased expression of ZEB1, p-EGFR and total EGFR levels. Overexpression of miR200c in PC-3?cells results in decreased expression of EGFR, ZEB1, ERK1/2 and Kaiso. Additionally, sh-Kaiso PC-3 demonstrates reduced in vivo tumor formation and metastasis. Thus, our data suggests that EGFR signaling regulates the silencing of miR-200 family through Kaiso binding to methylated regions in the promoter.
Project description:The transcription factor ZEB1 is normally not expressed in epithelial cells. When inappropriately expressed in carcinomas, ZEB1 initiates epithelial to mesenchymal transition due to its ability to repress E-cadherin and other genes involved in polarity. Recently, ZEB1 and ZEB2 have been identified as direct targets of the microRNA-200c family. We find that miR-200c levels are high in well-differentiated endometrial, breast, and ovarian cancer cell lines, but extremely low in poorly differentiated cancer cells. Low or absent miR-200c results in aberrant expression of ZEB1 and consequent repression of E-cadherin. Reinstatement of miR-200c to such cells restores E-cadherin and dramatically reduces migration and invasion. Microarray profiling reveals that in addition to ZEB1 and ZEB2, other mesenchymal genes (such as FN1, NTRK2, and QKI), which are also predicted direct targets of miR-200c, are indeed inhibited by addition of exogenous miR-200c. One such gene, class III ?-tubulin (TUBB3), which encodes a tubulin isotype normally found only in neuronal cells, is a direct target of miR-200c. This finding is of particular significance because we show that restoration of miR-200c increases sensitivity to microtubule-targeting agents by 85%. Because expression of TUBB3 is a common mechanism of resistance to microtubule-binding chemotherapeutic agents in many types of solid tumors, the ability of miR-200c to restore chemosensitivity to such agents may be explained by its ability to reduce TUBB3. Because miR-200c is crucial for maintenance of epithelial identity, behavior, and sensitivity to chemotherapy, we propose that it warrants further investigation as a therapeutic strategy for aggressive, drug-resistant cancers.
Project description:Long-term immunity depends partly on the establishment of memory CD8+ T cells. We identified a counterregulatory network between the homologous transcription factors ZEB1 and ZEB2 and the miR-200 microRNA family, which modulates effector CD8+ T cell fates. Unexpectedly, Zeb1 and Zeb2 had reciprocal expression patterns and were functionally uncoupled in CD8+ T cells. ZEB2 promoted terminal differentiation, whereas ZEB1 was critical for memory T cell survival and function. Interestingly, the transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) and miR-200 family members, which counterregulate the coordinated expression of Zeb1 and Zeb2 during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, inversely regulated Zeb1 and Zeb2 expression in CD8+ T cells. TGF-? induced and sustained Zeb1 expression in maturing memory CD8+ T cells. Meanwhile, both TGF-? and miR-200 family members selectively inhibited Zeb2. Additionally, the miR-200 family was necessary for optimal memory CD8+ T cell formation. These data outline a previously unknown genetic pathway in CD8+ T cells that controls effector and memory cell fate decisions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>An individual with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) runs a substantially higher risk of developing aneurysm in the ascending aorta compared to the normal population with tricuspid aortic valves (TAV). Aneurysm formation in patients with BAV and TAV is known to be distinct at the molecular level but the underlying mechanisms are undefined. Here, we investigated the still incompletely described role of microRNAs (miRNAs), important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, in such aortic disease of patients with BAV as compared with TAV.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Using a system biology approach, based on data obtained from proteomic analysis of non-dilated aortas from BAV and TAV patients, we constructed a gene-interaction network of regulatory microRNAs associated with the observed differential protein signature. The miR-200 family was the highest ranked miRNA, hence potentially having the strongest effect on the signalling network associated with BAV. Further, qRT-PCR and ChIP analyses showed lower expression of miR-200c, higher expression of miR-200 target genes, ZEB1/ZEB2 transcription factors, and higher chromatin occupancy of the miR-200c promoter by ZEB1/ZEB2 in BAV patients, indicating a miR-200c/ZEBs negative feedback loop and induction of endothelial/epithelial mesenchymal transition (EndMT/EMT).<h4>Conclusion</h4>We propose that a miR-200-dependent process of EndMT/EMT is a plausible biological mechanism rendering the BAV ascending aorta more prone to aneurysm development. Although initially supported by a miR-200c/ZEB feedback loop, this process is most probably advanced by cooperation of other miRNAs.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The role of miRNAs in acquired endocrine-resistant breast cancer is not fully understood. One hallmark of tumor progression is epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), characterized by a loss of cell adhesion resulting from reduced E-cadherin and increased cell mobility. miR-200 family members regulate EMT by suppressing expression of transcriptional repressors ZEB1/2. Previously we reported that the expression of miR-200a, miR-200b, and miR-200c was lower in LY2 endocrine-resistant, mesenchymal breast cancer cells compared to parental, endocrine sensitive, epithelial MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Here we investigated the regulation of miR-200 family members and their role in endocrine-sensitivity in breast cancer cells.<h4>Results</h4>miR-200 family expression was progressively reduced in a breast cancer cell line model of advancing endocrine/tamoxifen (TAM) resistance. Concomitant with miR-200 decrease, there was an increase in ZEB1 mRNA expression. Overexpression of miR-200b or miR-200c in LY2 cells altered cell morphology to a more epithelial appearance and inhibited cell migration. Further, miR-200b and miR-200c overexpression sensitized LY2 cells to growth inhibition by estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists TAM and fulvestrant. Knockdown of ZEB1 in LY2 cells recapitulated the effect of miR-200b and miR-200c overexpression resulting in inhibition of LY2 cell proliferation by TAM and fulvestrant, but not the aromatase inhibitor exemestane. Demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) in combination with histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) increased miR-200b and miR-200c in LY2 cells. Concomitant with the increase in miR-200b and miR-200c, ZEB1 expression was decreased and cells appeared more epithelial in morphology and were sensitized to TAM and fulvestrant inhibition. Likewise, knockdown of ZEB1 increased antiestrogen sensitivity of LY2 cells resulting in inhibition of cell proliferation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our data indicate that reduced miRNA-200b and miR-200c expression contributes to endocrine resistance in breast cancer cells and that the reduced expression of these miR-200 family members in endocrine-resistant cells can be reversed by 5-aza-dC+TSA.
Project description:MiR-200 family is an important regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and has been implicated in human carcinogenesis. However, their expression and functions in human cancers remain controversial. In the work presented here, we showed that miR-200 family members were frequently down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although all five members of miR-200 family inhibited ZEB1/2 expression in HCC cell lines, we showed that overexpression only of the miR-200b/200c/429 subfamily, but not the miR-200a/141 subfamily, resulted in impeded HCC cell migration. Further investigations led to the identification of RhoA and ROCK2 as specific down-stream targets of the miR-200b/200c/429 subfamily. We demonstrated that the miR-200b/200c/429 subfamily inhibited HCC cell migration through modulating Rho/ROCK mediated cell cytoskeletal reorganization and cell-substratum adhesion. Re-expression of miR-200b significantly suppressed lung metastasis of HCC cells in an orthotopic liver implantation model in vivo. In conclusion, our findings identified the miR-200b/200c/429 subfamily as metastasis suppressor microRNAs in human HCC and highlighted the functional discrepancy among miR-200 family members.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The miR-200c/141 cluster has recently been implicated in the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. The expression of these two miRNAs is inversely correlated with tumorigenicity and invasiveness in several human cancers. The role of these miRNAs in cancer progression is based in part on their capacity to target the EMT activators ZEB1 and ZEB2, two transcription factors, which in turn repress expression of E-cadherin. Little is known about the regulation of the mir200c/141 cluster, whose targeting has been proposed as a promising new therapy for the most aggressive tumors.<h4>Findings</h4>We show that the miR-200c/141 cluster is repressed by DNA methylation of a CpG island located in the promoter region of these miRNAs. Whereas in vitro methylation of the miR-200c/141 promoter led to shutdown of promoter activity, treatment with a demethylating agent caused transcriptional reactivation in breast cancer cells formerly lacking expression of miR-200c and miR-141. More importantly, we observed that DNA methylation of the identified miR-200c/141 promoter was tightly correlated with phenotype and the invasive capacity in a panel of 8 human breast cancer cell lines. In line with this, in vitro induction of EMT by ectopic expression of the EMT transcription factor Twist in human immortalized mammary epithelial cells (HMLE) was accompanied by increased DNA methylation and concomitant repression of the miR-200c/141 locus.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The present study demonstrates that expression of the miR-200c/141 cluster is regulated by DNA methylation, suggesting epigenetic regulation of this miRNA locus in aggressive breast cancer cell lines as well as untransformed mammary epithelial cells. This epigenetic silencing mechanism might represent a novel component of the regulatory circuit for the maintenance of EMT programs in cancer and normal cells.