Draft Genome Sequence of Shewanella sp. Strain P1-14-1, a Bacterial Inducer of Settlement and Morphogenesis in Larvae of the Marine Hydroid Hydractinia echinata.
ABSTRACT: The assembly and annotation of the draft genome sequence of Shewanella sp. strain P1-14-1 are reported here to investigate the genes responsible for interkingdom interactions, secondary metabolite production, and microbial electrogenesis.
Project description:Illumina 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to profile the associated bacterial community of the marine hydroid Hydractinia echinata, a long-standing model system in developmental biology. 56 associated bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Three strains were selected for further in-depth chemical analysis leading to the identification of 17 natural products. Several ?-Proteobacteria were found to induce settlement of the motile larvae, but only six isolates induced the metamorphosis to the primary polyp stage within 24h. Our study paves the way to better understand how bacterial partners contribute to protection, homeostasis and propagation of the hydroid polyp.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus, a colonial cnidarian, is a tractable model system for many cnidarian-specific and general biological questions. Until recently, tests of gene function in Hydractinia have relied on laborious forward genetic approaches, randomly integrated transgenes, or transient knockdown of mRNAs. RESULTS:Here, we report the use of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to generate targeted genomic insertions in H. symbiolonigcarpus. We used CRISPR/Cas9 to promote homologous recombination of two fluorescent reporters, eGFP and tdTomato, into the Eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (Eef1a) locus. We demonstrate that the transgenes are expressed ubiquitously and are stable over two generations of breeding. We further demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing can be used to mark endogenous proteins with FLAG or StrepII-FLAG affinity tags to enable in vivo and ex vivo protein studies. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first account of CRISPR/Cas9 mediated knockins in Hydractinia and the first example of the germline transmission of a CRISPR/Cas9 inserted transgene in a cnidarian. The ability to precisely insert exogenous DNA into the Hydractinia genome will enable sophisticated genetic studies and further development of functional genomics tools in this understudied cnidarian model.
Project description:A novel bacterial behavior called congregation was recently described in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as the accumulation of cells around insoluble electron acceptors (IEA). It is the result of a series of "run-and-reversal" events enabled by modulation of swimming speed and direction. The model proposed that the swimming cells constantly sense their surroundings with specialized outer membrane cytochromes capable of extracellular electron transport (EET). Up to this point, neither the congregation nor attachment behavior have been studied in any other strains. In this study, the wild type of S. oneidensis MR-1 and several deletion mutants as well as eight other Shewanella strains (Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, S. sp. ANA-3, S. sp. W3-18-1, Shewanella amazonensis SB2B, Shewanella loihica PV-4, Shewanella denitrificans OS217, Shewanella baltica OS155, and Shewanella frigidimarina NCIMB400) were screened for the ability to congregate. To monitor congregation and attachment, specialized cell-tracking techniques, as well as a novel cell accumulation after photo-bleaching (CAAP) confocal microscopy technique were utilized in this study. We found a strong correlation between the ability of strain MR-1 to accumulate on mineral surface and the presence of key EET genes such as mtrBC/omcA (SO_1778, SO_1776, and SO_1779) and gene coding for methyl-accepting protein (MCPs) with Ca+ channel chemotaxis receptor (Cache) domain (SO_2240). These EET and taxis genes were previously identified as essential for characteristic run and reversal swimming around IEA surfaces. CN32, ANA-3, and PV-4 congregated around both Fe(OH)3 and MnO2. Two other Shewanella spp. showed preferences for one oxide over the other: preferences that correlated with the metal content of the environments from which the strains were isolated: e.g., W3-18-1, which was isolated from an iron-rich habitat congregated and attached preferentially to Fe(OH)3, while SB2B, which was isolated from a MnO2-rich environment, preferred MnO2.
Project description:Cnidarians possess remarkable powers of regeneration, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this capability are unclear. Studying the hydrozoan Hydractinia echinata we show that a burst of stem cell proliferation occurs following decapitation, forming a blastema at the oral pole within 24 hr. This process is necessary for head regeneration. Knocking down Piwi1, Vasa, Pl10 or Ncol1 expressed by blastema cells inhibited regeneration but not blastema formation. EdU pulse-chase experiments and in vivo tracking of individual transgenic Piwi1(+) stem cells showed that the cellular source for blastema formation is migration of stem cells from a remote area. Surprisingly, no blastema developed at the aboral pole after stolon removal. Instead, polyps transformed into stolons and then budded polyps. Hence, distinct mechanisms act to regenerate different body parts in Hydractinia. This model, where stem cell behavior can be monitored in vivo at single cell resolution, offers new insights for regenerative biology.
Project description:The genus Shewanella is well known for its genetic diversity, its outstanding respiratory capacity, and its high potential for bioremediation. Here, a novel strain isolated from sediments of the Indian Ocean was characterized. A 16S rRNA analysis indicated that it belongs to the species Shewanella decolorationis It was named Shewanella decolorationis LDS1. This strain presented an unusual ability to grow efficiently at temperatures from 24°C to 40°C without apparent modifications of its metabolism, as shown by testing respiratory activities or carbon assimilation, and in a wide range of salt concentrations. Moreover, S. decolorationis LDS1 tolerates high chromate concentrations. Indeed, it was able to grow in the presence of 4?mM chromate at 28°C and 3?mM chromate at 40°C. Interestingly, whatever the temperature, when the culture reached the stationary phase, the strain reduced the chromate present in the growth medium. In addition, S. decolorationis LDS1 degrades different toxic dyes, including anthraquinone, triarylmethane, and azo dyes. Thus, compared to Shewanella oneidensis, this strain presented better capacity to cope with various abiotic stresses, particularly at high temperatures. The analysis of genome sequence preliminary data indicated that, in contrast to S. oneidensis and S. decolorationis S12, S. decolorationis LDS1 possesses the phosphorothioate modification machinery that has been described as participating in survival against various abiotic stresses by protecting DNA. We demonstrate that its heterologous production in S. oneidensis allows it to resist higher concentrations of chromate.IMPORTANCE Shewanella species have long been described as interesting microorganisms in regard to their ability to reduce many organic and inorganic compounds, including metals. However, members of the Shewanella genus are often depicted as cold-water microorganisms, although their optimal growth temperature usually ranges from 25 to 28°C under laboratory growth conditions. Shewanella decolorationis LDS1 is highly attractive, since its metabolism allows it to develop efficiently at temperatures from 24 to 40°C, conserving its ability to respire alternative substrates and to reduce toxic compounds such as chromate or toxic dyes. Our results clearly indicate that this novel strain has the potential to be a powerful tool for bioremediation and unveil one of the mechanisms involved in its chromate resistance.
Project description:Shewanella sp. strain HN-41 was previously shown to produce novel, photoactive, As-S nanotubes via the reduction of As(V) and S(2)O(3)(2-) under anaerobic conditions. To determine if this ability was unique to this bacterium, 10 different Shewanella strains, including Shewanella sp. strain HN-41, Shewanella sp. strain PV-4, Shewanella alga BrY, Shewanella amazonensis SB2B, Shewanella denitrificans OS217, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, Shewanella putrefaciens CN-32, S. putrefaciens IR-1, S. putrefaciens SP200, and S. putrefaciens W3-6-1, were examined for production of As-S nanotubes under standardized conditions. Of the 10 strains examined, three formed As-S nanotubes like those of strain HN-41. While Shewanella sp. strain HN-41 and S. putrefaciens CN-32 rapidly formed As-S precipitates in 7 days, strains S. alga BrY and S. oneidensis MR-1 reduced As(V) at a much lower rate and formed yellow As-S after 30 days. Electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy analyses showed that the morphological and chemical properties of As-S formed by strains S. putrefaciens CN-32, S. alga BrY, and S. oneidensis MR-1 were similar to those previously determined for Shewanella sp. strain HN-41 As-S nanotubes. These studies indicated that the formation of As-S nanotubes is widespread among Shewanella strains and is closely related to bacterial growth and the reduction rate of As(V) and thiosulfate.
Project description:Species of the genus Shewanella are widespread in nature in various habitats, however, little is known about phages affecting Shewanella sp. Here, we report the isolation of phages from diverse freshwater environments that infect and lyse strains of Shewanella oneidensis and other Shewanella sp. Sequence analysis and microscopic imaging strongly indicate that these phages form a so far unclassified genus, now named Shewanella phage Thanatos, which can be positioned within the subfamily of Tevenvirinae (Duplodnaviria; Heunggongvirae; Uroviricota; Caudoviricetes; Caudovirales; Myoviridae; Tevenvirinae). We characterized one member of this group in more detail using S. oneidensis MR-1 as a host. Shewanella phage Thanatos-1 possesses a prolate icosahedral capsule of about 110 nm in height and 70 nm in width and a tail of about 95 nm in length. The dsDNA genome exhibits a GC content of about 34.5%, has a size of 160.6 kbp and encodes about 206 proteins (92 with an annotated putative function) and two tRNAs. Out of those 206, MS analyses identified about 155 phage proteins in PEG-precipitated samples of infected cells. Phage attachment likely requires the outer lipopolysaccharide of S. oneidensis, narrowing the phage's host range. Under the applied conditions, about 20 novel phage particles per cell were produced after a latent period of approximately 40 min, which are stable at a pH range from 4 to 12 and resist temperatures up to 55°C for at least 24 h. Addition of Thanatos to S. oneidensis results in partial dissolution of established biofilms, however, early exposure of planktonic cells to Thanatos significantly enhances biofilm formation. Taken together, we identified a novel genus of Myophages affecting S. oneidensis communities in different ways.
Project description:We present here the genome sequences of Shewanella baltica strain CW2 and Shewanella morhuae strain CW7, isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Salvelinus namaycush (lean lake trout) and Coregonus clupeaformis (whitefish), respectively. These genome sequences provide insights into the niche adaptation of these specific species in freshwater systems.
Project description:The genus Shewanella encompasses a diverse group of Gram negative, primarily aquatic bacteria with a remarkable ecological relevance, an outstanding set of metabolic features and an emergent clinical importance. The rapid expansion of the genus over the 2000 s has prompted questions on the real taxonomic position of some isolates and species. Recent work by us and others identified inconsistencies in the existing species classification. In this study we aimed to clarify such issues across the entire genus, making use of the genomic information publicly available worldwide. Phylogenomic analyses, including comparisons based on genome-wide identity indexes (digital DNA-DNA hybridization and Average Nucleotide Identity) combined with core and accessory genome content evaluation suggested that the taxonomic position of 64 of the 131 analyzed strains should be revisited. Based on the genomic information currently available, emended descriptions for some Shewanella species are proposed. Our study establishes for the first time a whole-genome based phylogeny for Shewanella spp. including a classification at the subspecific level.
Project description:CGH of 46 Shewanella baltica strains using customized oligonucleotide microarrays Overall design: Genomic DNAs from a total of 46 Shewanella baltica strains were extracted, labeled with Cy5, and hybridized onto customized arrays.