Density of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes correlates with extent of brain edema and overall survival time in patients with brain metastases.
ABSTRACT: The immune microenvironment of the brain differs from that of other organs and the role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in brain metastases (BM), one of the most common and devastating complication of cancer, is unclear. We investigated TIL subsets and their prognostic impact in 116 BM specimens using immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD8, CD45RO, FOXP3, PD1 and PD-L1. The Immunoscore was calculated as published previously. Overall, we found TIL infiltration in 115/116 (99.1%) BM specimens. PD-L1 expression was evident in 19/67 (28.4%) BM specimens and showed no correlation with TIL density (p > 0.05). TIL density was not associated with corticosteroid administration (p > 0.05). A significant difference in infiltration density according to TIL subtype was present (p < 0.001; Chi Square); high infiltration was most frequently observed for CD3+ TILs (95/116; 81.9%) and least frequently for PD1+ TILs (18/116; 15.5%; p < 0.001). Highest TIL density was observed in melanoma, followed by renal cell cancer and lung cancer BM (p < 0.001). The density of CD8(+) TILs correlated positively with the extent of peritumoral edema seen on pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (p = 0.031). The density of CD3+ (15 vs. 6 mo; p = 0.015), CD8(+) (15 vs. 11 mo; p = 0.030) and CD45RO+ TILs (18 vs. 8 mo; p = 0.006) showed a positive correlation with favorable median OS times. Immunoscore showed significant correlation with survival prognosis (27 vs. 10 mo; p < 0.001). The prognostic impact of Immunoscore was independent from established prognostic parameters at multivariable analysis (HR 0.612, p < 0.001). In conclusion, our data indicate that dense TILs infiltrates are common in BM and correlate with the amount of peritumoral brain edema and survival prognosis, thus identifying the immune system as potential biomarker for cancer patients with CNS affection. Further studies are needed to substantiate our findings.
Project description:Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are vital in limiting cancer progression and may supplement the TNM classification. CD45RO(+) memory TILs show major prognostic impact in various malignancies but have not been extensively explored in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we aimed to evaluate their potential in a NSCLC TNM-Immunoscore. Tissue microarrays were constructed from tumor tissue samples from two cohorts including in total 536 patients (University Hospital of North Norway, n = 285; Nordland Hospital, n = 251) with primary resected stage I to IIIA NSCLC. The density of CD45RO(+) and CD8(+) TILs in tumor epithelial and stromal compartments of the tumors was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. In univariate analyses, intraepithelial CD45RO(+) TIL density (T-CD45RO) was a significant prognostic factor for disease-specific survival (P = .007), limited to the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) histology subgroup (P < .001), where it was significant in both cohorts (University Hospital of North Norway, P = .003; Nordland Hospital, P = .022). Combining T-CD45RO and stromal CD8(+) TIL density (S-CD8) increased the prognostic impact in SCC (P < .001) and showed a significant impact within all pathological stages (I, P = .025; II, P < .001; III, P = .001). In the multivariate analysis, T-CD45RO was an independent positive prognostic factor for SCC (hazard ratio 2.65, 95% confidence interval 1.64-4.28, P < .001), and in combination with S-CD8, the prognostic impact increased vastly (high + high versus low + low: hazard ratio 6.50, 95% confidence interval 3.54-11.91, P < .001). In conclusion, T-CD45RO was an independent prognostic factor for SCC NSCLC. When combined with S-CD8, the prognostic impact increased and was significant within each pathological stage. We propose CD45RO as a candidate marker for TNM-Immunoscore in SCC NSCLC.
Project description:The immunoscore (IS), an index based on the density of CD3+ and CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the tumor center (CT) and invasive margin (IM), has gained considerable attention as a prognostic marker. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have also been reported to have prognostic value. However, its clinical significance has not been fully clarified in patients with advanced CRC who present with distant metastases.The density of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, FOXP3+, CD68+, and CD163+ immune cells within CRC tissue procured from three sites-the primary CT, IM, and distant metastasis (DM)-was determined using immunohistochemistry and digital image analyzer (n=196). The IS was obtained by quantifying the densities of CD3+ and CD8+ TILs in the CT and IM. IS-metastatic and IS-macrophage-additional IS models designed in this study-were obtained by adding the score of CD3 and CD8 in DM and the score of CD163 in primary tumors (CT and IM), respectively, to the IS.Higher IS, IS-metastatic, and IS-macrophage values were significantly correlated with better prognosis (p=0.020, p?0.001, and p=0.005, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that only IS-metastatic was an independent prognostic marker (p=0.012). No significant correlation was observed between KRAS mutation and three IS models. However, in the subgroup analysis, IS-metastatic showed a prognostic association regardless of the KRAS mutational status.IS is a reproducible method for predicting the survival of patients with advanced CRC. Additionally, an IS including the CD3+ and CD8+ TIL densities at DM could be a strong prognostic marker for advanced CRC.
Project description:PURPOSE:In colorectal cancer (CRC), whether the immune score can be used to predict the clinical prognosis of the patient has not been completely established. Besides, the prognostic values of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in different anatomical locations, counting sites, and subtypes have been controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to analyze and determine the prognostic value of TILs indices including TIL subsets, infiltrating sites, and anatomical sites. METHODS:Relevant literature was obtained by searching PubMed and Google Scholar. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) of the overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) was computed to investigate the prognostic significance of CD3+, CD8+, CD45RO+, and FOXP3+ T cells. RESULTS:A total of 22 studies involving 5108 patients were included in the meta-analysis. In CC, based on T cell subtypes analysis, the final results indicated that CD8+ and FOXP3+ infiltrating cells, but not CD3+ T cells were prognostic markers for DFS and OS. In addition, with regard to the counting location of TILs, subgroup analysis revealed that only high FOXP3+ infiltrates in the tumor stroma (ST) were significantly associated with OS (HR = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.22-0.67, P = 0.0007), whereas in invasive margin (IM), high density of CD3+ infiltrating cells indicated increased DFS (HR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.62-0.93, P = 0.008). At the tumor center (TC), high CD8+ T cells infiltration was associated with improved DFS (HR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.38-0.65, P < 0.00001). In RC, whether CSS or OS, high-density TIL was associated with improved prognosis. CONCLUSION:In a single counting site, high-density TILs reflect favorable prognostic value in CC or RC. For CC, more prospective studies are needed to verify whether different anatomical sites affect the distribution of TILs and thus the prognosis of patients. For RC, further studies should analyze the prognostic value of the immune score.
Project description:Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is suggested to be a predictive biomarker in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). However, the differential expression of PD-L1 in primary lung tumor vs. synchronous metastases, especially brain metastasis (BM), remains unclear. This study assessed the concordance of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and CD8+ TIL intensity between primary lung tumors and synchronous BMs from 24 NSCLC patients. PD-L1, CD3, and CD8 positivity was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). PD-L1 scoring was based on the proportion of tumor cells with membranous expression of PD-L1 and the cutoff values <1%, 1-49%, and ?50%. CD3 and CD8 positivity in TILs was evaluated semi-quantitatively and the proportion of CD3+/CD8+ TILs was determined. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells and TILs was evaluated in relation to CD3+/CD8+ TIL proportions and the intensity of CD8+ TILs between the paired primary lung and BM tissues. In the primary lung tumors, PD-L1 positivity was observed in 25%, 37.5%, and 37.5% cases for the cutoff values <1%, 1-49%, and ?50%, respectively. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells was strongly correlated between the paired primary lung and BM tissues, in all cutoff groups. However, PD-L1 expression on TILs and the proportion of CD3+/CD8+ TILs were not strongly correlated in all three groups between the paired primary lung tumors and BMs. The intensity of CD8+ TILs was concordant in only 54.16% of the paired primary lung tumors and BMs. This study showed a high concordance of PD-L1 expression in neoplastic cells between primary NSCLC and synchronous BMs.
Project description:Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignancy arising from the biliary tract epithelial cells with poor prognosis. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL)s and programmed cell death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) have a prognostic impact in various solid tumors. We aimed to investigate TILs and PD-L1 expression and their clinical relevance in cholangiocarcinoma. Tumor samples from 44 patients with resected and histologically verified extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma were evaluated for CD8, CD45RO and PD-L1 expression, and their correlations with clinicopathological data and survival data were analyzed. Total 44 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tissues were evaluated. CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL)s were observed in 30 (68%) tumors. Among them, 14 had CD8+CD45RO+ TILs. PD-L1 was expressed on cancer cells in 10 (22.7%) tumors in 34 evaluable extrahepatic cholangiocarciniomas. The presence of CD8+ TILs or CD8+CD45RO+ TILs was not associated with clinical staging or tumor differentiation. Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with CD8+CD45RO+ TILs had longer overall survival (OS) on univariate (P = 0.013) and multivariate (P = 0.012) analysis. Neither CD8+TIL nor PD-L1 expression on cancer cells correlated significantly with OS. These results add to the understanding of the clinical features associated with CD8 TILs and PD-L1 expression in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and they support the potential rationale of using PD-1 blockade immunotherapy in cholangiocarcinoma.
Project description:One histopathological characteristic of intracranial germinoma is abundant tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) showing a two-cell pattern with large undifferentiated tumor cells. The programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death 1 ligand (PD-L) axis has recently been recognized as an anti-tumor immune system. To evaluate intratumor immune status in intracranial germinoma, we examined expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 (clone 28-8) and subtypes of TILs. Expressions of PD-1 and PD-L1 were detected immunohistochemically in 25 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 24 patients with intracranial germinoma consisting of 22 primary and 3 recurrent tumors. To evaluate subtypes of TILs, quantification of lymphocytes with CD3, CD8, CD4, and Foxp3 was performed. Statistical analyses were performed among PD-1, PD-L1 and subtypes of TILs. In 25 tumor tissue, expressions of PD-1 in TILs and PD-L1 in tumor cells were identified in 96% (24/25) and 92% (23/25), respectively. Expression of PD-1 was associated with CD3+ TIL density. Expression of PD-1 correlated with Foxp3+ TIL density and CD8+ TIL density, but not with CD4+ TIL density. Furthermore, expression of PD-1 correlated strongly with Foxp3+/CD4+ ratio. Taken together, increase of PD-1+ expression is associated with accumulation of Foxp3+ and CD8+ TILs. These findings intimate that PD-1/PD-L1 axis might shape the immune infiltration suggesting a modulation of the immune response and subsequent tumor growth in intracranial germinoma. Anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 are potential immune therapeutic strategies in intracranial germinoma.
Project description:Aim:To investigate the correlation between clinicopathological features and risk stratification in cervical cancer patients, and evaluate the feasibility of tumor-infiltrating immune cells as prognostic biomarkers in clinical practice. Methods:CD3+ tumor infiltrating T cells (TILs), CD45RO+ TILs, CD4+ TILs, CD8+ TILs, FOXP3+ TILs (regulatory T cells, Tregs), CD68+ tumor associated macrophages (TAMs), CD163+ TAMs, and PD-L1+ tumor cells were immunostained in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (PPFE) tissues from 96 cervical cancer patients. Immunostaining density and other clinicopathological features such as age, FIGO stage, histopathologic type, Ki67 index, HPV status, lymhovasular invasion status (LVI), lymph node metastasis, tumor size, stromal invasion status, surgical margin status, and parametrial invasion, were evaluated for their roles in risk stratification of cervical cancer patients. Results:The results showed that significant differences of lymph node metastasis (p = 0.003), surgical margin status (p = 0.020), and stromal invasion status (p = 0.004) existed between lVI(-) and LVI(+) patients. CD3+ TILs in the central tumor area (p = 0.010), CD4+ TILs in the central tumor area (p = 0.045), CD8 + TILs in the central tumor area (p = 0.033), and CD8+ TILs in the invasive margin area (p = 0.004) showed significant differences between lVI(-) and LVI(+) patients. When patients were grouped by status of lymph node metastasis, significant differences of FIGO stage (p = 0.005), LVI status (p = 0.003), CD3+ TILs in the central tumor area (p = 0.045), CD45RO+ TILs in the central tumor area (p = 0.033), and CD45RO+ TILs in the invasive margin area (p = 0.028) were also observed. After the patients were stratified into low-, intermediate-, and high risk groups, significant differences of FIGO stage (p = 0.018), status of lymph node metastasis (p = 0.000), LVI status (p = 0.000), parametrial invasion status (p=0.012), stromal invasion status (p = 0.000), tumor growth pattern (p = 0.015) and tumor size (p = 0.000) were identified among 3 groups of patients, while only CD45RO+ TILs in the invasive margin area (p = 0.018) and FOXP3+ TILs in the central tumor area (p = 0.009) were statistically different among three groups of patients. Spearman's correlation analysis demonstrated that FIGO stage, LVI status, status of lymph node metastasis, parametrial invasion, stromal invasion status, and tumor size positively correlated with risk stratification (P = 0.005, 0.020, 0.000, 0.022, 0.000, and 0.000 respectively), while CD45RO+ TILs in the invasive margin area and FOXP3+ TILs in the central tumor area showed statistically negative correlation with risk stratification (P = 0.031, 0.009 respectively). Conclusion:Our study suggested that CD45RO+ TILs in the invasive margin area and FOXP3+ TILs in the central tumor area might be useful biomarkers for risk stratification in cervical cancer patients. Large cohort studies of cervical cancer patients are required to validate our hypothesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are described as an important immune modulator in the tumor microenvironment and are associated with breast cancer (BC) outcome. The spatial analysis of TILs and TIL subtype distribution at the invasive tumor front (ITF) and the tumor center (TC) might provide further insights into tumor progression. METHODS:We analyzed core biopsies from 87 pre-therapeutic BC patients for total TILs and the following subtypes: CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD20+ and CD68+ cells in correlation to clinicopathological parameters and disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow. RESULTS:TILs and TIL subtypes showed significantly different spatial distribution among both tumor areas. TILs, especially CD3+ T cells were associated with the tumor status and tumor grading. BC patients responding to neoadjuvant chemotherapy had significantly more TILs and CD3+ T cells at the TC. The presence of DTCs after NACT was related to CD4+ infiltration at the TC. CONCLUSION:The dissimilar spatial association of TILs and TIL subtypes with clinicopathological parameters, NACT response and minimal residual disease underlines the necessity of detailed TIL analysis for a better understanding of immune modulatory processes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We aimed to compare intra- and extracranial responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in lung cancer with brain metastases (BM), and to explore tumor microenvironments of the brain and lungs focusing on the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) pathway. METHODS:Two cohorts of lung cancer patients with BM were analyzed. Cohort 1 included 18 patients treated with nivolumab or pembrolizumab, and intra- and extracranial responses were assessed. Cohort 2 comprised 20 patients who underwent both primary lung surgery and brain metastasectomy. Specimens from cohort 2 were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis for the following markers: CD3, CD4, CD8, FOXP3, and PD-1 on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and PD-L1 on tumor cells. RESULTS:Seven patients (38.9%) in cohort 1 showed progressive disease in both primary and intracranial lesions. Although the other 11 patients exhibited a partial response or stable disease in the primary lesion, eight showed a progression in BM. Interestingly, PD-1+ TILs were significantly decreased in BM (P?=?0.034). For fifteen patients with adenocarcinoma, more distinctive patterns were observed in CD3+ (P?=?0.078), CD8+ (P?=?0.055), FOXP3+ (P?=?0.016), and PD-1+ (P?=?0.016) TILs. CONCLUSIONS:There may be discordant responses to an ICI of lung cancer between primary lung lesion and BM based on discrepancies in the tumor microenvironment. The diminished infiltration of PD-1+ TILs in tumor tissue within the brain may be one of the major factors that hinder the response to anti-PD-1 antibody in BM.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The presence of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and defects in homologous recombination (HR) are each important prognostic factors in ovarian carcinoma (OC). We characterized the association between HR deficiency (HRD) and the presence of TILs in a cohort of OC patients and the relative contribution to overall survival. METHODS:Patients with carcinoma of the ovary, fallopian tube, or peritoneum were prospectively enrolled. Malignant neoplasm and serum samples were collected. Immunohistochemistry for CD3+ T cells and CD68+ tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) was performed on specimens collected at primary surgery. Damaging germline and somatic mutations in genes in the HR-mediated repair (HRR) pathway were identified using BROCA sequencing. HRD was defined as a damaging mutation in one of 12 genes in the HRR pathway or promoter hypermethylation in BRCA1 or RAD51C. RESULTS:Ninety-eight of 250 patients included in the analysis had HRD OC (39.2%). HRD OC were enriched for CD3+ TILs and CD68+ TAMs. High CD3+ TIL was present in 65.3% of HRD OC compared to 43.4% of non-HRD OC (P?=?0.001). High CD68+ TAM was present in 66.3% of HRD OC compared to 50.7% of non-HRD OC (P?=?0.015). Patients with HRD OC and high CD3+ TILs had the longest median overall survival compared to non-HRD OC with low CD3+ TILs (70.9 vs. 35.8?months, adjusted HR 0.38, 95% CI (0.25-0.59)). CONCLUSIONS:Patients that have both CD3+ TILs and HRD OC are afforded the greatest improvement in overall survival. This finding may have therapeutic implications for OC patients treated with emerging immunotherapies.