The nuclear receptor REV-ERB? represses the transcription of growth/differentiation factor 10 and 15 genes in rat endometrium stromal cells.
ABSTRACT: Cellular oscillators in the uterus play critical roles in the gestation processes of mammals through entraining of the clock proteins to numerous downstream genes, including growth/differentiation factor (Gdf)10 and Gdf15. The expression of Gdf10 and Gdf15 is significantly increased in the uterus during decidualization, but the mechanism underlying the regulation of Gdf gene expression in the uterus is poorly understood. Here, we focused on the function of the cellular oscillators in the expression of Gdf family by using uterine endometrial stromal cells (UESCs) isolated from pregnant Per2-dLuc transgenic rats. A significant decline of Per2-dLuc bioluminescence activity was induced in in vitro decidualized UESCs, and concomitantly the expression of canonical clock genes was downregulated. Conversely, the expression of Gdf10 and Gdf15 of the Gdf was upregulated. In UESCs transfected with Bmal1-specific siRNA, in which Rev-erb? expression was downregulated, Gdf10 and Gdf15 were upregulated. However, Gdf5, Gdf7, and Gdf11 were not significantly affected by Bmal1 silencing. The expression of Gdf10 and Gdf15 was enhanced after treatment with a REV-ERB? antagonist in the presence or absence of progesterone. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR analysis revealed the inhibitory effect of REV-ERB? on the expression of Gdf10 and Gdf15 in UESCs by recognizing their gene promoters. Collectively, our findings indicate that the attenuation of REV-ERB? leads to an upregulation of Gdf10 and Gdf15 in decidual cells, in which cellular oscillators are impaired. Our results provide novel evidence regarding the functions of cellular oscillators regulating the expression of downstream genes during the differentiation of UESCs.
Project description:The mammalian clock system is composed of a master clock and peripheral clocks. At the molecular level, the rhythm-generating mechanism is controlled by a molecular clock composed of positive and negative feedback loops. However, the underlying mechanisms for molecular clock regulation that affect circadian clock function remain unclear. Here, we show that Egr1 (early growth response 1), an early growth response gene, is expressed in mouse liver in a circadian manner. Consistently, Egr1 is transactivated by the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer through a conserved E-box response element. In hepatocytes, EGR1 regulates the transcription of several core clock genes, including Bmal1, Per1, Per2, Rev-erb? and Rev-erb?, and the rhythm amplitude of their expression is dependent on EGR1's transcriptional function. Further mechanistic studies indicated that EGR1 binds to the proximal region of the Per1 promoter to activate its transcription directly. When the peripheral clock is altered by light or feeding behavior transposition in Egr1-deficient mice, the expression phase of hepatic clock genes shifts normally, but the amplitude is also altered. Our data reveal a critical role for EGR1 in the regulation of hepatic clock circuitry, which may contribute to the rhythm stability of peripheral clock oscillators.
Project description:Clock gene expression was associated with different components of metabolic syndrome (MS) in human adipose tissue. However, no study has been done to compare the expression of clock genes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from lean and obese subjects and its clinical implications. Therefore, we studied in lean and obese women the endogenous 24 h expression of clock genes in isolated adipocytes and its association with MS components. VAT was obtained from lean (BMI 21-25 kg/m2; n?=?21) and morbidly obese women (BMI >40 kg/m2; n?=?28). The 24 h pattern of clock genes was analyzed every 6 hours using RT-PCR. Correlation of clinical data was studied by Spearman analysis. The 24 h pattern of clock genes showed that obesity alters the expression of CLOCK, BMAL1, PER1, CRY2 and REV-ERB ALPHA in adipocytes with changes found in CRY2 and REV-ERB ALPHA throughout the 24 h period. The same results were confirmed in VAT and stromal cells (SC) showing an upregulation of CRY2 and REV-ERB ALPHA from obese women. A positive correlation was observed for REV-ERB ALPHA gene expression with BMI and waist circumference in the obese population. Expression of ROR ALPHA was correlated with HDL levels and CLOCK with LDL. Obese subjects with MS exhibited positive correlation in the PER2 gene with LDL cholesterol, whereas REV-ERB ALPHA was correlated with waist circumference. We identified CRY2 and REV-ERB ALPHA as the clock genes upregulated in obesity during the 24 h period and that REV-ERB ALPHA is an important gene associated with MS.
Project description:The use of emerging tobacco products, such as waterpipe or hookah and electronic cigarettes (e-cigs), has gained significant popularity and are promoted as safer alternatives to conventional cigarettes. Circadian systems are internal biological oscillations that are considered important regulators of immune functions in mammals. Tobacco induced inflammatory lung diseases frequently exhibit time-of-day/night variation in lung function and symptom severity. We investigated the impact of inhaled e-cig vapor and waterpipe smoke (WPS) on pulmonary circadian molecular clock disruption by determining the changes in expression levels and abundance of core clock component genes (BMAL1, CLOCK) and clock-controlled output genes (Rev-erb?, Per2, Rev-erb?, Cry2, Ror?) in mouse lungs. We showed that the expression levels of these pulmonary core clock genes and clock-controlled output genes were altered significantly following exposure to WPS (Bmal1, Clock, and Rev-erb?). We further showed a significant yet differential effect on expression levels of core clock and clock-controlled genes (Bmal1, Per2) in the lungs of mice exposed to e-cig vapor containing nicotine. Thus, acute exposure to WPS and e-cig vapor containing nicotine contributes to altered expression of circadian molecular clock genes in mouse lungs, which may have repercussions on lung cellular and biological functions.
Project description:The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which in mammals serves as the master circadian pacemaker by synchronizing autonomous clocks in peripheral tissues, is composed of coupled single-cell oscillators that are driven by interlocking positive/negative transcriptional/translational feedback loops. Several studies have suggested that heme, a common prosthetic group that is synthesized and degraded in a circadian manner in the SCN, may modulate the function of several feedback loop components, including the REV-ERB nuclear receptors and PERIOD2 (PER2). We found that ferric heme (hemin, 3-100 microM) dose-dependently and reversibly damped luminescence rhythms in SCN explants from mice expressing a PER2::LUCIFERASE (PER2::LUC) fusion protein. Inhibitors of heme oxygenases (HOs, which degrade heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and iron) mimicked heme's effects on PER2 rhythms. In contrast, heme and HO inhibition did not damp luminescence rhythms in thymus and esophagus explants and had only a small effect on PER2::LUC damping in spleen explants, suggesting that heme's effects are tissue-specific. Analysis of the effects of heme's degradation products on SCN PER2::LUC rhythms indicated that they probably were not responsible for heme's effects on rhythms. The heme synthesis inhibitor N-methylprotoporphyrinIX (NMP) lengthened the circadian period of SCN PER2::LUC rhythms by about an hour. These data are consistent with an important role for heme in the circadian system.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Following on from the emerging importance of the pancreas circadian clock on islet function and the development of type 2 diabetes in rodent models, we aimed to examine circadian gene expression in human islets. The oscillator properties were assessed in intact islets as well as in beta cells. METHODS: We established a system for long-term bioluminescence recording in cultured human islets, employing lentivector gene delivery of the core clock gene Bmal1 (also known as Arntl)-luciferase reporter. Beta cells were stably labelled using a rat insulin2 promoter fluorescent construct. Single-islet/cell oscillation profiles were measured by combined bioluminescence-fluorescence time-lapse microscopy. RESULTS: Human islets synchronised in vitro exhibited self-sustained circadian oscillations of Bmal1-luciferase expression at both the population and single-islet levels, with period lengths of 23.6 and 23.9 h, respectively. Endogenous BMAL1 and CRY1 transcript expression was circadian in synchronised islets over 48 h, and antiphasic to REV-ERB? (also known as NR1D1), PER1, PER2, PER3 and DBP transcript circadian profiles. HNF1A and PDX1 exhibited weak circadian oscillations, in phase with the REV-ERB? transcript. Dispersed islet cells were strongly oscillating as well, at population and single-cell levels. Importantly, beta and non-beta cells revealed oscillatory profiles that were well synchronised with each other. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We provide for the first time compelling evidence for high-amplitude cell-autonomous circadian oscillators displayed in human pancreatic islets and in dispersed human islet cells. Moreover, these clocks are synchronised between beta and non-beta cells in primary human islet cell cultures.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Our previous studies revealed that application of the inhalation anesthetic, sevoflurane, reversibly repressed the expression of Per2 in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). We aimed to examine whether sevoflurane directly affects the SCN. METHODS: We performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to investigate rat Per2 expression under sevoflurane-treatment. The in vivo effects of sevoflurane on rPer2 expression were examined by quantitative in situ hybridization with a radioactively-labeled cRNA probe. Additionally, we examined the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on rest/activity rhythms in the rat. In the in vitro experiments, we applied sevoflurane to SCN explant cultures from Per2-dLuc transgenic rats, and monitored luciferase bioluminescence, representing Per2 promoter activity. Bioluminescence from two peripheral organs, the kidney cortex and the anterior pituitary gland, were also analyzed. RESULTS: Application of sevoflurane in rats significantly suppressed Per2 expression in the SCN compared with untreated animals. We observed no sevoflurane-induced phase-shift in the rest/activity rhythms. In the in vitro experiments, the intermittent application of sevoflurane repressed the increase of Per2-dLuc luminescence and led to a phase delay in the Per2-dLuc luminescence rhythm. Sevoflurane treatment did not suppress bioluminescence in the kidney cortex or the anterior pituitary gland. CONCLUSION: The suppression of Per2-dLuc luminescence by sevoflurane in in vitro SCN cultures isolated from peripheral inputs and other nuclei suggest a direct action of sevoflurane on the SCN itself. That sevoflurane has no such effect on peripheral organs suggests that this action might be mediated through a neuron-specific cellular mechanism or a regulation of the signal transduction between neurons.
Project description:The peripheral circadian oscillator plays an essential role in synchronizing local physiology to operate in a circadian manner via regulation of the expression of clock-controlled genes. In the murine uterus, the endometrial stromal cells undergo proliferation and differentiation into decidual cells in response to ovarian steroids and blastocyst implantation at the early stage of pregnancy. The circadian clock genes are attenuated in the decidualizing cells only 2 days after implantation. The present study aimed to evaluate the circadian rhythms of clock genes and clock-controlled genes expressed in the rat uterus endometrial stromal cells (UESCs) during the stage of implantation. The real-time monitoring system of Per2 promoter activity was employed to precisely evaluate the generation of circadian rhythms in the UESCs prepared from transgenic rats constructed with mouse Per2 promoter-destabilized luciferase reporter gene (Per2-dLuc). During monitoring Per2-dLuc oscillation after synchronization with dexamethasone, total RNA was isolated from the cultured UESCs at four-time points (6-h interval) in the first to second phases and cDNA was synthesized. cRNA was synthesized from the double strand cDNA and hybridized on a DNA microarray. RT-qPCR was performed to confirm the expression of core clock genes revealed by DNA microarray analysis. Several clock genes such as Bmal1, Rev-erbα, and Per2 displayed significant rhythms. Of 12,252 genes showing significantly expression, 7,235 genes displayed significant alterations (p < 0.05). These genes were related to growth factors, transcription factors, receptors, channels, and enzymes. Some candidates as clock-controlled genes were evaluated by using RNA interference to Bmal1 mRNA. Down-regulation of Igf1 gene expression was observed by Bmal1 silencing, whereas the expression of Inhβa, Fas, and Caspase3 were significantly increased. These results indicate that clock-controlled genes are up- or down-regulated in rat UESCs during the stage of decidualization. DNA microarray analysis coupled with RNA interference will be helpful to understand the physiological roles of some oscillating genes in blastocyst implantation and placenta formation. The circadian clock positively or negatively regulates the expression of clock-controlled genes, including growth factors and apoptosis-related factors. To search the clock-controlled genes expressed during the period of implantation, we analyzed the clock genes and clock-controlled genes expressed in cultured uterus endometrial stromal cells prepared from pregnant rats at the stage of implantation using DNA microarray technology. We used transgenic rats constructed with mouse Per2 promoter-destabilized luciferase (Per2-dLuc) reporter gene to precisely adjust the time of gene expression. In addition, several genes of significantly expressed genes including growth factor genes and apoptosis-related genes were analyzed using RNA interference to Bmal1 mRNA whether these were controlled under circadian clockwork.
Project description:In this study, we demonstrate that the lack of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR) ? or ? expression in mice significantly reduced the peak expression level of Cry1, Bmal1, E4bp4, Rev-Erb? and Per2 in an ROR isotype- and tissue-selective manner without affecting the phase of their rhythmic expression. Analysis of ROR?/ROR? double knockout mice indicated that in certain tissues ROR? and ROR? exhibited a certain degree of redundancy in regulating clock gene expression. Reporter gene analysis showed that ROR? was able to induce reporter gene activity through the RORE-containing regulatory regions of Cry1, Bmal1, Rev-Erb? and E4bp4. Co-expression of Rev-Erb? or addition of a novel ROR antagonist repressed this activation. ChIP-Seq and ChIP-Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) analysis demonstrated that in vivo ROR? regulate these genes directly and in a Zeitgeber time (ZT)-dependent manner through these ROREs. This transcriptional activation by RORs was associated with changes in histone acetylation and chromatin accessibility. The rhythmic expression of ROR?1 by clock proteins may lead to the rhythmic expression of ROR?1 target genes. The presence of ROR? binding sites and its down-regulation in ROR?-/- liver suggest that the rhythmic expression of Avpr1a depends on ROR? consistent with the concept that ROR?1 provides a link between the clock machinery and its regulation of metabolic genes.
Project description:In mammals, several genes involved in liver lipid and cholesterol homeostasis are rhythmically expressed with expression shown to be regulated by clock genes via Rev-erb 1?. In order to elucidate clock gene regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), the orphan nuclear receptor Rev-erb 1? was cloned and 24 h expression of clock genes, transcription factors and genes involved in cholesterol and lipid metabolism determined in liver of parr acclimated to a long-day photoperiod, which was previously shown to elicit rhythmic clock gene expression in the brain. Of the 31 genes analysed, significant daily expression was demonstrated in the clock gene Bmal1, transcription factor genes Srebp1, Lxr, Ppar? and Ppar?, and several lipid metabolism genes Hmgcr, Ipi, ApoCII and El. The possible regulatory mechanisms and pathways, and the functional significance of these patterns of expression were discussed. Importantly and in contrast to mammals, Per1, Per2, Fas, Srebp2, Cyp71? and Rev-erb 1? did not display significant daily rhythmicity in salmon. The present study is the first report characterising 24 h profiles of gene expression in liver of Atlantic salmon. However, more importantly, the predominant role of lipids in the nutrition and metabolism of fish, and of feed efficiency in determining farming economics, means that daily rhythmicity in the regulation of lipid metabolism will be an area of considerable interest for future research in commercially important species.
Project description:The mammalian circadian clockwork is composed of a core PER/CRY feedback loop and additional interlocking loops. In particular, the ROR/REV/Bmal1 loop, consisting of ROR activators and REV-ERB repressors that regulate Bmal1 expression, is thought to "stabilize" core clock function. However, due to functional redundancy and pleiotropic effects of gene deletions, the role of the ROR/REV/Bmal1 loop has not been accurately defined. In this study, we examined cell-autonomous circadian oscillations using combined gene knockout and RNA interference and demonstrated that REV-ERBalpha and beta are functionally redundant and are required for rhythmic Bmal1 expression. In contrast, the RORs contribute to Bmal1 amplitude but are dispensable for Bmal1 rhythm. We provide direct in vivo genetic evidence that the REV-ERBs also participate in combinatorial regulation of Cry1 and Rorc expression, leading to their phase-delay relative to Rev-erbalpha. Thus, the REV-ERBs play a more prominent role than the RORs in the basic clock mechanism. The cellular genetic approach permitted testing of the robustness of the intracellular core clock function. We showed that cells deficient in both REV-ERBalpha and beta function, or those expressing constitutive BMAL1, were still able to generate and maintain normal Per2 rhythmicity. Our findings thus underscore the resilience of the intracellular clock mechanism and provide important insights into the transcriptional topologies underlying the circadian clock. Since REV-ERB function and Bmal1 mRNA/protein cycling are not necessary for basic clock function, we propose that the major role of the ROR/REV/Bmal1 loop and its constituents is to control rhythmic transcription of clock output genes.