Hemodynamic responses to acute angiotensin II infusion are exacerbated in male versus female spontaneously hypertensive rats.
ABSTRACT: We previously reported that male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) are more sensitive to chronic angiotensin (Ang) II-induced hypertension compared with female rats. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that anesthetized male SHRs are also more responsive to acute Ang II-induced increases in blood pressure and renal hemodynamic changes when compared with female SHRs. Baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP) was higher in male SHRs than in female SHRs (135 ± 2 vs. 124 ± 4 mmHg, P < 0.05). Acute intravenous infusion of Ang II (5 ng/kg/min) for 60 minutes significantly increased MAP to 148 ± 2 mmHg in male SHRs (P < 0.05) without a significant change in MAP in female SHRs. Baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was also higher in male SHRs than in female SHRs (2.6 ± 0.3 vs. 1.3 ± 0.1 mL/min, P < 0.05). Ang II infusion for 60 min significantly decreased GFR in male SHRs (2.0 ± 0.2 mL/min; P < 0.05) without significant changes in urine flow rate, sodium, or chloride excretion. In contrast, Ang II infusion increased GFR in female SHRs (1.9 ± 0.2 mL/min; P < 0.05). The increase in GFR upon Ang II infusion in female SHRs was associated with increases in urine flow rate (4.3 ± 0.3 to 7.1 ± 0.9 μL/min), sodium excretion (0.16 ± 0.04 to 0.4 ± 0.1 μmol/min), and chloride excretion (0.7 ± 0.08 to 1.1 ± 0.1 μmol/min; for all P < 0.05). These findings support the hypothesis that there is sex difference in response to acute Ang II infusion in SHRs with females being less responsive to Ang II-induced elevations in blood pressure and decreases in GFR relative to male SHRs.
Project description:We hypothesized that angiotensin (Ang) II hypertensive rats have impaired natriuresis after renal medullary endothelin (ET) B receptor stimulation that would be more evident in male versus female rats. Acute intramedullary infusion of the ET(B) agonist sarafotoxin 6c in normotensive male rats increased sodium excretion from 0.51±0.11 ?mol/min during baseline to 1.64±0.19 ?mol/min (P<0.05) after S6c. After 2 weeks of Ang II infusion (260 ng/kg per minute SC), male rats had an attenuated natriuretic response to S6c of 0.62±0.16 ?mol/min during baseline versus 0.95±0.07 ?mol/min after S6c. In contrast, ET(B)-dependent natriuresis was similar in female hypertensive rats (0.48±0.07 versus 1.5±0.18 ?mol/min; P<0.05) compared with normotensive controls (1.05±0.07 versus 2.14±0.24 ?mol/min; P<0.05). Because ET(A) receptors also mediate natriuresis in normotensive female rats, we examined ET(A) receptor function in female Ang II hypertensive rats. Intramedullary infusion of ET-1 increased sodium excretion in both hypertensive and normotensive female rats, which was partially blocked by the ET(A) antagonist BQ-123. Maximum ET(B) receptor binding in inner medullary membrane preparations was comparable between vehicle and Ang II hypertensive females; however, maximum ET(B) binding was significantly lower in male hypertensive rats (1952±251 versus 985±176 fmol/mg; P<0.05). These results indicate that renal ET(B) function is impaired in male Ang II hypertension attributed, at least in part, to a reduced number of ET(B) binding sites. Furthermore, renal ET receptor function is preserved in female rats during chronic Ang II infusion, suggesting that renal ET receptor function could serve to limit hypertension in females compared with males.
Project description:The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/Angiotensin II (Ang II) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) pathways are coexpressed in most tissues. The balance between these pathways determines, at least in part, whether tissue damage will occur in response to pathological stimuli. The present study tested the hypothesis that male sex and high blood pressure are associated with ACE/ACE2 imbalance in the lungs. Experiments were conducted in male and female Wistar rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Lung ACE and ACE2 gene expression was also evaluated in normotensive and hypertensive humans using the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project. Compared with Wistar rats and female SHRs, male SHRs displayed reduced lung ACE2 mRNA, ACE2 protein abundance and ACE2 activity, and increased Ang II concentration. Lung ACE mRNA levels were higher in male SHRs than in Wistar rats, whereas lung ACE protein abundance and activity were similar among the four groups of rats. Lung Ang-(1-7) concentration was higher in female than in male SHRs (89 ± 17 vs. 43 ± 2 pg/g, P<0.05). Lung ACE to ACE2 mRNA expression in hypertensive patients was significantly higher than that in normotensive subjects. Taken together, these results demonstrate that male hypertensive rats display imbalance between the ACE/Ang II and ACE2/Ang-(1-7) pathways in the lungs mainly attributable to ACE2 down-regulation. Further studies should be conducted to investigate whether this imbalance between ACE/ACE2 may promote and accelerate lung injury in respiratory infections, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Renal proximal tubular sodium and glucose reabsorption are regulated by the sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT2). Changes in this transporter can play a role in hyperglycaemia and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We demonstrated increased glucose absorption in proximal tubule membrane vesicles and increased expression of SGLT2 in hypertensive rats. Here we investigated Angiotensin II (Ang II) -dependent SGLT2 expression induction and the role of SGLT2 induction in the development of Ang II-dependent kidney damage. The aim of this study was to determine whether SGLT2 induction by Ang II is associated with Ang II-dependent kidney damage. We propose the following objectives a) to demonstrate that Ang II induces SGLT2 expression and b) to demonstrate that prevention of SGLT2 expression and activity prevent Ang II-induced kidney damage.<h4>Methods</h4>We used chronic Ang II infusion as a model of kidney damage in male Wistar rats and evaluated systolic blood pressure by telemetric methods. SGLT2 mRNA and protein expression were evaluated by PCR and immunoblotting. SGLT2 activity was evaluated in brush border membrane vesicles by measuring glucose uptake. ROS production was measured by confocal microscopy. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was evaluated by the inulin excretion method, and urinary protein excretion was evaluated by the Bradford method. Biological parameter evaluations were performed, after two weeks of infusion of Ang II. We compared the effects of Angiotensin II (AT1) receptor blockade by Losartan and SGLT2 inhibition by Empagliflozin both as monotherapy treatments and in combination on the development of kidney damage.<h4>Results</h4>Chronic Ang II infusion led to a blood pressure elevation and increased SGLT2 mRNA expression and activity as well as kidney damage, as reflected by increased ROS production, decreased GFR and increased urinary protein excretion. AT1 receptor blockade prevented all these changes. By contrast, SGLT2 inhibition did not affect blood pressure and had a small effect on kidney damage. However, the combination of both drugs resulted in the potentiation of the effects observed by AT1 receptor blockade alone.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We suggest that Ang II-dependent increased SGLT2 induction is one mechanism by which Ang II induces kidney damage.
Project description:Angiotensin (Ang) II-infused hypertensive rats exhibit increases in renal angiotensinogen mRNA and protein, as well as urinary angiotensinogen excretion in association with increased intrarenal Ang II content. The present study was performed to determine if the augmentation of intrarenal angiotensinogen requires activation of Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptors. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200 to 220 g) were divided into 3 groups: sham surgery (n=10), subcutaneous infusion of Ang II (80 ng/min, n=11), and Ang II infusion plus AT1 blocker (ARB), olmesartan (5 mg/d, n=12). Ang II infusion progressively increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) compared with sham (178+/-8 mm Hg versus 119+/-4 at day 11). ARB treatment prevented hypertension (113+/-6 at day 11). Twenty-four-hour urine collections were taken at day 12, and plasma and tissue samples were harvested at day 13. The Ang II+ARB group had a significant increase in plasma Ang II compared with Ang II and sham groups (365+/-46 fmol/mL versus 76+/-9 and 45+/-14, respectively). Nevertheless, ARB treatment markedly limited the enhancement of kidney Ang II by Ang II infusion (65+/-17 fmol/g in sham, 606+/-147 in Ang II group, and 288+/-28 in Ang II+ARB group). Ang II infusion significantly increased kidney angiotensinogen compared with sham (1.69+/-0.21 densitometric units versus 1.00+/-0.17). This change was reflected by increased angiotensinogen immunostaining in proximal tubules. ARB treatment prevented this increase (1.14+/-0.12). Urinary angiotensinogen excretion rates were enhanced 4.7x in Ang II group (4.67+/-0.41 densitometric units versus 1.00+/-0.21) but ARB treatment prevented the augmentation of urinary angiotensinogen (0.96+/-0.23). These data demonstrate that augmentation of intrarenal angiotensinogen in Ang II-infused rats is AT1-dependent and provide further evidence that urinary angiotensinogen is closely linked to intrarenal Ang II in Ang II-dependent hypertension.
Project description:Cytochrome P450 1B1 protects against angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular changes in female mice, most likely via production of 2-methoxyestradiol. This study was conducted to determine whether 2-methoxyestradiol ameliorates Ang II-induced hypertension, renal dysfunction, and end-organ damage in intact Cyp1b1-/-, ovariectomized female, and Cyp1b1+/+ male mice. Ang II or vehicle was infused for 2 weeks and administered concurrently with 2-methoxyestradiol. Mice were placed in metabolic cages on day 12 of Ang II infusion for urine collection for 24 hours. 2-Methoxyestradiol reduced Ang II-induced increases in systolic blood pressure, water consumption, urine output, and proteinuria in intact female Cyp1b1-/- and ovariectomized mice. 2-Methoxyestradiol also reduced Ang II-induced increase in blood pressure, water intake, urine output, and proteinuria in Cyp1b1+/+ male mice. Treatment with 2-methoxyestradiol attenuated Ang II-induced end-organ damage in intact Cyp1b1-/- and ovariectomized Cyp1b1+/+ and Cyp1b1-/- female mice and Cyp1b1+/+ male mice. 2-Methoxyestradiol mitigated Ang II-induced increase in urinary excretion of angiotensinogen in intact Cyp1b1-/- and ovariectomized Cyp1b1+/+ and Cyp1b1-/- female mice but not in Cyp1b1+/+ male mice. The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 antagonist G-15 failed to alter Ang II-induced increases in blood pressure and renal function in Cyp1b1+/+ female mice. These data suggest that 2-methoxyestradiol reduces Ang II-induced hypertension and associated end-organ damage in intact Cyp1b1-/-, ovariectomized Cyp1b1+/+ and Cyp1b1-/- female mice, and Cyp1b1+/+ male mice independent of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1. Therefore, 2-methoxyestradiol could serve as a therapeutic agent for treating hypertension and associated pathogenesis in postmenopausal females, and in males.
Project description:Pioglitazone, a therapeutic drug for diabetes, possesses full PPAR-? agonist activity and increase circulating adiponectin plasma concentration. Plasma adiponectin concentration decreases in hypertensive patients with renal dysfunctions. Present study investigated the reno-protective, altered excretory functions and renal haemodynamic responses to adrenergic agonists and ANG II following separate and combined therapy with pioglitazone in diabetic model of hypertensive rats. Pioglitazone was given orally [10mg/kg/day] for 28 days and adiponectin intraperitoneally [2.5?g/kg/day] for last 7 days. Groups of SHR received either pioglitazone or adiponectin in combination. A group of Wistar Kyoto rats [WKY] served as normotensive controls, whereas streptozotocin administered SHRs served as diabetic hypertensive rats. Metabolic data and plasma samples were taken on day 0, 8, 21 and 28. In acute studies, the renal vasoconstrictor actions of Angiotensin II [ANGII], noradrenaline [NA], phenylephrine [PE] and methoxamine [ME] were determined. Diabetic SHRs control had a higher basal mean arterial blood pressure than the WKY, lower RCBP and plasma adiponectin, higher creatinine clearance and urinary sodium excretion compared to WKY [all P<0.05] which were normalized by the individual drug treatments and to greater degree following combined treatment. Responses to intra-renal administration of NA, PE, ME and ANGII were larger in diabetic SHR than WKY and SHRs [P<0.05]. Adiponectin significantly blunted responses to NA, PE, ME and ANG II in diabetic treated SHRs by 40%, whereas the pioglitazone combined therapy with adiponectin further attenuated the responses to adrenergic agonists by 65%. [all P <0.05]. These findings suggest that adiponectin possesses renoprotective effects and improves renal haemodynamics through adiponectin receptors and PPAR-? in diabetic SHRs, suggesting that synergism exists between adiponectin and pioglitazone. A cross-talk relationship also supposed to exists between adiponectin receptors, PPAR-? and alpha adrenoceptors in renal vasculature of diabetic SHRs.
Project description:Maternal separation during early life is an established chronic behavioral model of early life stress in rats. It is known that perinatal adverse environments increase activity of the renin-angiotensin (Ang) system, specifically Ang II, in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effects of early life stress augment the sensitivity of the Ang II pathway. Using Wistar Kyoto rats, the maternal separation (MS) protocol was performed by separating approximately half of the male pups from their mother 3 h/d from days 2 to 14 of life. Pups remaining with the mother at all times were used as controls. Maternal separation did not influence the plasma basal parameters, such as blood glucose, insulin, Ang II, Ang 1-7 and plasma renin activity. Furthermore, body weight, blood pressure, and heart rate were similar in MS and control rats. The acute pressor response to Ang II was not different in anesthetized MS and control rats. However, the chronic infusion of Ang II (65 ng/min SC) elicited an exaggerated hypertensive response in MS compared with control rats (P<0.05). Surprisingly, HR was dramatically increased during the second week of Ang II infusion in MS compared with control rats (P<0.05). This enhanced Ang II sensitivity was accompanied by a greater vascular inflammatory response in MS versus control rats. Chronic Ang II infusion increased vascular wall structure in both groups similarly. These data indicate that early life stress sensitizes rats to an increased hemodynamic and inflammatory response during Ang II-induced hypertension.
Project description:There is extensive evidence that activation of the immune system is both necessary and required for the development of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension in males. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sex differences exist in the ability of the adaptive immune system to induce Ang II-dependent hypertension and whether central and renal T-cell infiltration during Ang II-induced hypertension is sex dependent. Recombinant activating gene-1 (Rag-1)(-/-) mice, lacking both T and B cells, were used. Male and female Rag-1(-/-) mice received adoptive transfer of male CD3(+) T cells 3 weeks before 14-day Ang II infusion (490 ng/kg per minute). Blood pressure was monitored via tail cuff. In the absence of T cells, systolic blood pressure responses to Ang II were similar between sexes (?22.1 mm Hg males versus ?18 mm : Hg females). After adoptive transfer of male T cells, Ang II significantly increased systolic blood pressure in males (?37.7 mm : Hg; P<0.05) when compared with females (?13.7 mm : Hg). Flow cytometric analysis of total T cells and CD4(+), CD8(+), and regulatory Foxp3(+)-CD4(+) T-cell subsets identified that renal lymphocyte infiltration was significantly increased in males versus females in both control and Ang II-infused animals (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining for CD3(+)-positive T cells in the subfornical organ region of the brain was increased in males when compared with that in females. These results suggest that female Rag-1(-/-) mice are protected from male T-cell-mediated increases in Ang II-induced hypertension when compared with their male counterparts, and this protection may involve sex differences in the magnitude of T-cell infiltration of the kidney and brain.
Project description:Infusion of ANG II in hyperlipidemic mice augments atherosclerosis and causes formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). The purpose of this study was to define the contribution of ANG II-induced hypertension to these vascular pathologies. Male apolipoprotein E (apoE)- and LDL receptor (LDLr)-deficient mice were infused with ANG II (1,000 ng.kg(-1).min(-1)) or norepinephrine (NE; 5.6 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) for 28 days. Infusion of ANG II or NE increased mean arterial pressure (MAP; ANG II, 133 +/- 2.8; NE, 129 +/- 13 mmHg) to a similar extent compared with baseline blood pressures (MAP, 107 +/- 2 mmHg). Abdominal aortic width increased in both apoE-deficient (apoE(-/-)) or LDLr-deficient (LDLr(-/-)) mice infused with ANG II (apoE(-/-): 1.4 +/- 0.1; LDLr(-/-): 1.6 +/- 0.2 mm). In contrast, NE did not change diameters of abdominal aortas (apoE(-/-): 0.91 +/- 0.03; LDLr(-/-): 0.87 +/- 0.02 mm). Similarly, atherosclerotic lesions in aortic arches were much greater in mice infused with ANG II compared with NE. At a subpressor infusion rate of ANG II (500 ng.kg(-1).min(-1)), AAAs developed in 50% of apoE(-/-) mice. Alternatively, administration of hydralazine (250 mg/l) to ANG II-infused apoE(-/-) mice (1,000 ng.kg(-1).min(-1)) lowered systolic blood pressure (day 28: ANG II, 157 +/- 6; ANG II/hydralazine, 135 +/- 6 mmHg) but did not prevent AAA formation or atherosclerosis. These results demonstrate that infusion of ANG II to hyperlipidemic mice induces AAAs and augments atherosclerosis independent of increased blood pressure.
Project description:Previous studies demonstrated that obesity increases inflammation in periaortic adipose tissue and promotes angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). We sought to determine whether weight loss of obese C57BL/6 mice would influence the progression of established AAAs. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HF) for 4 mo and then infused with either saline or ANG II (1,000 ng x kg(-1) x min(-1)) for 3 mo. Mice with dilated suprarenal aortas at 28 days of ANG II infusion were designated to groups fed the HF (HF/HF) or a low-fat diet (LF; 10% kcal as fat; HF/LF) to induce weight loss for the last 2 mo of infusions. Suprarenal aortic lumen diameters of obese mice were increased by ANG II infusion at day 28 (day 0: 1.03 + or - 0.02; day 28: 1.86 + or - 0.14 mm; P < 0.05), but did not progress with continued infusion in HF/HF mice. Moreover, aortic lumen diameters were not different between groups (HF/HF: 1.89 + or - 0.15; HF/LF: 1.79 + or - 0.18 mm). However, maximal diameters of excised AAAs were decreased with weight loss (HF/HF: 2.00 + or - 0.11; HF/LF: 1.55 + or - 0.13 mm; P < 0.05) and had reduced adventitial areas (HF/HF: 1.18 + or - 0.10; HF/LF: 0.54 + or - 0.02 mm(2); P < 0.05). Neovascularization of aortic adventitias was strikingly decreased in HF/LF mice (HF/HF: 43 + or - 5; HF/LF: 12 + or - 2 endothelial cells/adventitial area; P < 0.05). ANG II-induced elevations in adipose mRNA abundance of CD105, an adipose-derived stem cell marker, were abolished with weight loss. These results demonstrate that weight loss limits adventitial expansion of ANG II-induced AAAs. Reduced neovascularization from weight loss may limit progression of AAAs.