Bariatric surgery implementation trends in the USA from 2002 to 2012.
ABSTRACT: Many beneficial health care interventions are either not put into practice or fail to diffuse over time due to complex contextual factors that affect implementation and diffusion. Bariatric surgery is an example of an effective intervention that recently experienced a plateau and decrease in rates, with minimal documented justification for this trend. While there are conceptual models that provide frameworks of general innovation implementation and diffusion, few studies have tested these models with data to measure the relative effects of factors that affect diffusion of specific health care interventions.A literature review identified factors associated with implementation and diffusion of health care innovations. These factors were utilized to construct a conceptual model of diffusion to explain changes in bariatric surgery over time. Six data sources were used to construct measures of the study population and factors in the model that may affect diffusion of surgery. The population included obese and morbidly obese patients from 2002 to 2012 who had bariatric surgery in 15 states. Multivariable models were used to identify environmental, population, and medical practice factors that facilitated or impeded diffusion of bariatric surgery over time.It was found that while bariatric surgery rates increased over time, the speed of growth in surgeries, or diffusion, slowed. Higher cumulative number of surgeries and higher proportion of the state population in age group 50-59 slowed surgery growth, but presence of Medicare centers of excellence increased the speed of surgery diffusion. Over time, the factors affecting the diffusion of bariatric surgery fluctuated, indicating that diffusion is affected by temporal and cumulative effects.The primary driver of diffusion of bariatric surgery was the extent of centers of excellence presence in a state. Higher cumulative surgery rates and higher proportions of older populations in a state slowed diffusion. Surprisingly, measures of the presence of champions were not significant, perhaps because these are difficult to measure in the aggregate. Our results generally support the conceptual model of diffusion developed from the literature, which may be useful for examining other innovations, as well as for designing interventions to support rapid diffusion of innovations to improve health outcomes and quality of care.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Bariatric surgery centres of excellence are relatively new in Canada and were first started in Ontario in 2009. This study presents short-term outcomes of Canada's largest bariatric collaborative, from Ontario, during its first 3 years.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a population-based cohort study that included all patients (age ? 18) who received a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy for the purpose of weight loss from March 2009 to April 2012 within Ontario. Data were derived from the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract and Hospital Morbidity Databases. Primary outcomes included short-term overall complication rate, reoperation rate, anastomotic leak rate and death. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for overall complications. A median odds ratio (OR) was used to compare risk-adjusted complication rates across centres of excellence.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 5007 procedures (91.7% Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 8.3% sleeve gastrectomy) were performed during the 3-year study period, with an overall complication rate of 11.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.8%-12.6%). The leak rate was 0.84% (95% CI 0.61%-1.13%), the reoperation rate was 4.6% (95% CI 4.0%-5.2%) and mortality was 0.16% (95% CI 0.07%-0.31%). Male sex, chronic kidney disease and osteoarthritis were identified as risk factors for overall complications (<i>p</i> value < 0.05). The median ORs across centres of excellence, calculated for both overall complications and reoperation rate, were 1.76 and 1.49, respectively.<h4>Interpretation</h4>Bariatric surgery within Ontario has similar short-term outcomes to those of other major world centres. The variability of outcomes within centres of excellence highlights areas for program quality improvement.
Project description:Aims:Every year, over 200 000 individuals undergo bariatric surgery for the treatment of extreme obesity in the United States. Several retrospective studies describe the occurrence of orthostatic intolerance (OI) syndrome after bariatric surgery. However, the incidence of this syndrome remains unknown. Materials and methods:We used a prospective, de-identified registry of 4547 patients who have undergone bariatric surgery at Vanderbilt to identify cases of new-onset OI. Structured chart reviews were conducted for all subjects who reported new-onset OI post surgery. Cases of OI were confirmed using an operational case definition developed by the Vanderbilt Autonomic Dysfunction Center, and autonomic function tests results were examined for evidence of impaired autonomic function. The cumulative incidence of post-bariatric surgery OI syndrome was estimated using a life table. Results:Seven hundred forty-one of 4547 (16.3%) patients included in our cohort reported new OI symptoms after surgery. After the chart review, we confirmed the presence of post-bariatric surgery OI syndrome in 85 patients, 14 with severe OI requiring pressor agents. At 5 years post surgery, follow-up is reduced to 15%; the unadjusted 5-year prevalence of OI was 1.9%. The cumulative incidence of OI syndrome adjusted for loss of follow-up was 4.2%. Most OI cases developed during weight-stable months (±5 kg). At the time of identification, 13% of OI cases showed evidence of impaired sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. Conclusion:OI is frequent in the bariatric population, affecting 4.2% of patients within the first 5 years postoperatively. In 13% of post-bariatric surgery OI patients, there was evidence of impaired sympathetic vasoconstriction activity.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>In the United States, reports about perioperative complications associated with bariatric surgery led to the establishment of accreditation criteria for bariatric centers of excellence and many bariatric centers obtaining accreditation. Currently, most bariatric procedures occur at these centers, but to what extent they uniformly provide high-quality care remains unknown.<h4>Objective</h4>To describe the variation in surgical outcomes across bariatric centers of excellence and the geographic availability of high-quality centers.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>This retrospective review analyzed the claims data of 145?527 patients who underwent bariatric surgery at bariatric centers of excellence between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2013. Data were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's State Inpatient Database. This database included unique hospital identification numbers in 12 states (Arkansas, Arizona, Florida, Iowa, Massachusetts, Maryland, North Carolina, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, Washington, and Wisconsin), allowing comparisons among 165 centers of excellence located in those states. Participants were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Those included in the study cohort were patients with a primary diagnosis of morbid obesity and who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, laparoscopic gastric band placement, or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Excluded from the cohort were patients younger than 18 years or who had an abdominal malignant neoplasm. Data were analyzed July 1, 2016, through January 10, 2017.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Risk-adjusted and reliability-adjusted serious complication rates within 30 days of the index operation were calculated for each center. Centers were stratified by geographic location and operative volume.<h4>Results</h4>In this analysis of claims data from 145?527 patients, wide variation in quality was found across 165 bariatric centers of excellence, both nationwide and statewide. At the national level, the risk-adjusted and reliability-adjusted serious complication rates at each center varied 17-fold, ranging from 0.6% to 10.3%. At the state level, variation ranged from 2.1-fold (Wisconsin decile range, 1.5%-3.3%) to 9.5-fold (Nebraska decile range, 1.0%-10.3%). After dividing hospitals into quintiles of quality on the basis of their adjusted complication rates, 38 of 132 (28.8%) had a center in a higher quintile of quality located within the same hospital service area. Variation in rates of complications existed at centers with low volume (annual mean [SD] procedure volume, 156  patients; complication range, 0.6%-6.4%; 9.8-fold variation), medium volume (annual mean [SD] procedure volume, 239  patients; complication range, 0.6%-10.3%; 17.5-fold variation), and high volume (annual mean [SD] procedure volume,?448  patients; complication range, 0.6%-4.9%; 7.5-fold variation).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Even among accredited bariatric surgery centers, wide variation exists in rates of postoperative serious complications across geographic location and operative volumes. Given that a large proportion of centers are geographically located near higher-performing centers, opportunities for improvement through regional collaboratives or selective referral should be considered.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Evaluating the efficacy of a laparoscopically guided, surgical transversus abdominis plane (TAP) and rectus sheath (RS) block in reducing analgesic consumption while improving functional outcomes in patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. METHODS:150 patients Living with obesity undergoing elective laparoscopic Roux-En-Y gastric bypass for obesity will be recruited to this double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomised controlled trial from a Bariatric Centre of Excellence over a period of 6?months. Patients will be electronically randomised on a 1:1 basis to either an intervention or placebo group. Those on the intervention arm will receive a total of 60?mL 0.25% ropivacaine, divided into four injections: two for TAP and two for RS block under laparoscopic visualisation. The placebo arm will receive normal saline in the same manner. A standardised surgical and anaesthetic protocol will be followed, with care in adherence to the Enhanced Recovery after Bariatric Surgery guidelines. ANALYSIS:Demographic information and relevant medical history will be collected from the 150 patients enrolled in the study. Our primary efficacy endpoint is cumulative postoperative narcotic use. Secondary outcomes are peak expiratory flow, postoperative pain score and the 6?min walk test. Quality of recovery (QoR) will be assessed using a validated questionnaire (QoR-40). Statistical analysis will be conducted to assess differences within and between the two groups. The repeated measures will be analysed by a mixed modelling approach and results reported through publication. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethics approval was obtained (20170749-01H) through our institutional research ethics board (Ottawa Health Science Network Research Ethics Board) and the study results, regardless of the outcome, will be reported in a manuscript submitted for a medical/surgical journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:Pre-results NCT03367728.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Effective treatments are lacking for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), a condition characterised by raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and papilloedema, and found primarily in obese women. Weight loss and lowering body mass index (BMI) have been shown to lower ICP and improve symptoms in IIH; however, weight loss is typically not maintained, meaning IIH symptoms return. The Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Weight Trial (IIH:WT) will assess whether bariatric surgery is an effective long-term treatment for patients with IIH with a BMI over 35?kg/m2. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommends bariatric surgery in people with a BMI over 35?kg/m2 and a qualifying comorbidity; currently IIH does not qualify as a comorbidity. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:IIH:WT is a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled clinical trial of 64 participants with active IIH and a BMI over 35?kg/m2. Participants will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to bariatric surgery or a dietary weight loss programme and followed up for 5 years. The primary outcome measure is ICP at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures include ICP at 24 and 60 months, and IIH symptoms, visual function, papilloedema, headache, quality of life and cost-effectiveness at 12, 24 and 60 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:IIH:WT is registered as ISRCTN40152829 and on ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02124486 and is in the pre-results stage.
Project description:In 2009, the Ontario Bariatric Network was established to address the exploding demand by Ontario residents for bariatric surgery services outside Canada. We compared the use of postoperative hospital services between out-of-country surgery recipients and patients within the Ontario Bariatric Network.We conducted a population-based, comparative study using administrative data held at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. We included Ontario residents who underwent bariatric surgery between 2007 and 2012 either outside the country or at one of the Ontario Bariatric Network's designated centres of excellence. The primary outcome was use of hospital services in Ontario within 1 year after surgery.A total of 4852 patients received bariatric surgery out of country, and 5179 patients underwent surgery through the Ontario Bariatric Network. After adjustment, surgery at a network centre was associated with a significantly lower utilization rate of postoperative hospital services than surgery out of country (rate ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84 to 0.97). No statistically significant differences were found with respect to time in critical care or mortality. However, the physician assessment and reoperation rates were significantly higher among patients who received surgery at a network centre than among those who had bariatric surgery out of country (rate ratio 4.10, 95% CI 3.69 to 4.56, and rate ratio 1.84, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.53, respectively).The implementation of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary provincial program to replace outsourcing of bariatric surgical services was associated with less use of postoperative hospital services by Ontario residents undergoing bariatric surgery. Future research should include an economic evaluation to determine the costs and benefits of the Ontario Bariatric Network.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bariatric surgery is considered to be the most effective method of weight loss today. The aim of the present Swedish study, which was performed in a country that has universal health care, was to investigate if there is an association between socioeconomic factors and bariatric surgery by taking body mass index (BMI) into account. METHODS:In this prospective cohort study, BMI data were collected for the period 1985-2010 from the Military Service Conscription Register (for men) and from the Medical Birth Register in the first trimester (for women). The follow-up period started in 2005 and continued until 2012. Age-standardized cumulative incidence rates (CR) of bariatric surgery were compared between different BMI groups by considering individual variables. We analyzed the association between the individual variables and bariatric surgery using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS:In the study population of 814,703 women and 787,027 men, a total of 7433 women and 1961 men underwent bariatric surgery. In women, the hazard ratios (HRs) for bariatric surgery were higher for low and middle income and educational levels, compared to high income and educational levels. In men, the highest HR for bariatric surgery was found among those with a high income. The HRs when comparing the different socioeconomic groups in those with BMI > 40 kg/m2 showed no significant results, except for middle education in women. CONCLUSION:Differences in bariatric surgery between socioeconomic groups were found, favoring those with a low socioeconomic status. However, very few socioeconomic differences were found amongst those who had a BMI > 40 kg/m2. This indicates that the Swedish healthcare system seems to have achieved equal access to health care for bariatric surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Morbid obesity is associated with an increased risk of thrombotic events, which has been attributed to increased thrombotic activity. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to explain this increased risk, including an inflammatory state with upregulation of procoagulant and antifibrinolytic proteins. We therefore hypothesize that patients with morbid obesity are hypercoagulable and will revert to normal after bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate changes in the hypercoagulable state after bariatric surgery. SETTING:University Hospital, Bariatric Center of Excellence, United States. METHODS:Thromboelastography (TEG) data were collected on 72 subjects with morbid obesity, with 36 who had 6 months of follow-up after bariatric surgery. TEG data of 75 healthy subjects (HS) without obesity, recent trauma or surgery, acute infection, or chronic conditions (e.g., liver, cardiovascular, or kidney disease; cancer; diabetes; autoimmune or inflammatory disorders; and disorders of coagulation) were used for comparison. TEG was performed alone and with the addition of 75 and 150 ng/mL tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) to quantify fibrinolysis resistance (tPA-challenged TEG). RESULTS:The bariatric surgery cohort had a median age of 40.5 years, a median body mass index of 44.6 kg/m2, and 90% female patients. Median body mass index reduced significantly 6 months post surgery but remained elevated compared with the HS group (31.4 versus 25.4 kg/m2, P < .0001). At 6 months post surgery, subjects had longer reaction time (mean difference, 1.3; P = .02), lower maximum amplitude (-2.4, P = .01), and increased fibrinolysis with low-dose (3.1, P < .0001) and high-dose tPA-challenged TEG (9, P < .0001). Compared with HS, the postsurgery TEG values were still more likely to be abnormal (all P < .05). CONCLUSIONS:Patients with morbid obesity form stronger clots more rapidly and are more resistant to fibrinolysis than subjects without obesity. Bariatric surgery significantly improved the hypercoagulable profile and fibrinolysis resistance of morbid obesity.
Project description:Ranked highly in its association with serious medical comorbidities, obesity, a rapidly growing epidemic worldwide, poses a significant socio-economic burden. While bariatric procedures offer the most efficacious treatment for weight loss, a subset of patients risk weight recidivism. Due to the heterogeneity of obesity, it is likely that there are phenotypes or sub-groups of patients that require evidence-based psychological support to produce more sustainable outcomes. So far, however, characteristics of patients have not led to a personalized treatment algorithm for bariatric surgery. Maintenance of weight loss following bariatric surgery requires long-term modification of eating behaviors and physical activity. A recent Clinical Obesity Maintenance Model (COMM) proposed a conceptual framework of salient constructs, including the role of habit, behavioral clusters, emotion dysregulation, mood, health literacy, and executive function as interconnected drivers of obesity maintaining behaviors relevant to the field of bariatric psychology. The primary aim of this concise review is to bring together emerging findings from experimental and epidemiological studies relating to the COMM constructs that may inform the assessment and follow up of bariatric surgery. We also aim to explain the phenotypes that need to be understood and screened prior to bariatric surgery to enable better pre-surgery intervention and optimum post-surgery response.
Project description:Studies on the impact of presurgery weight loss and lifestyle preparation on outcomes following bariatric surgery are needed.To evaluate whether a presurgery behavioral lifestyle intervention improves weight loss through a 24-month postsurgery period.Bariatric Center of Excellence at a large, urban medical center.Candidates for bariatric surgery were randomized to a 6-month behavioral lifestyle intervention or to 6 months of usual presurgical care. The lifestyle intervention consisted of 8 weekly face-to-face sessions, followed by 16 weeks of face-to-face and telephone sessions before surgery; the intervention also included 3 monthly telephone contacts after surgery. Assessments were conducted 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery.Participants who underwent surgery (n = 143) were 90.2% female and 86.7% White. Average age was 44.9 years, and average body mass index was 47.5 kg/m(2) at study enrollment. At follow-up, 131 (91.6%), 126 (88.1%), 117 (81.8%) patients participated in the 6-, 12-, and 24-month assessments, respectively. Percent weight loss from study enrollment to 6 and 12 months after surgery was comparable for both groups, but at 24 months after surgery, the lifestyle group had significantly smaller percent weight loss compared with the usual care group (26.5% versus 29.5%, respectively, P = .02).Presurgery lifestyle intervention did not improve weight loss at 24 months after surgery. The findings from this study raise questions about the utility and timing of adjunctive lifestyle interventions for bariatric surgery patients.