Ptpn22 Modifies Regulatory T Cell Homeostasis via GITR Upregulation.
ABSTRACT: PTPN22 gene variation associates with multiple autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. Loss of function studies have demonstrated that PTPN22 impinges on the homeostatic behavior of regulatory T (Treg) cells, a lineage critical for immune tolerance. The frequency and absolute number of Treg cells is increased in Ptpn22-deficient mice, but the mechanism driving this increase is unknown. In this study, we show that Ptpn22 knockdown (KD) promoted the expansion of the Treg cell compartment by upregulating the glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family-related protein (GITR) and increasing GITR signaling. Ptpn22 KD did not accelerate cell division but instead prolonged Treg cell survival, as measured by a decrease in the frequency of apoptotic Treg cells. Loss of Ptpn22 caused a concomitant increase in the proportion of CD44(hi)CD62L(lo) effector Treg cells, at the expense of CD44(lo)CD62L(hi) central Treg cells. The increase in Treg cell numbers, but not their differentiation toward an effector phenotype, was dependent on GITR signaling, because blockade of GITR ligand prevented Treg cell expansion caused by Ptpn22 KD. These findings indicate that GITR plays a key role in regulating the overall size of the Treg cell pool. Our results suggest that the size and composition of the Treg cell compartment are independently controlled and have implications for the design of immunotherapies that seek to improve Treg cell function.
Project description:The manner in which regulatory T cells (Treg cells) control lymphocyte homeostasis is not fully understood. We identified two Treg cell populations with differing degrees of self-reactivity and distinct regulatory functions. We found that GITR(hi)PD-1(hi)CD25(hi) (Triple(hi)) Treg cells were highly self-reactive and controlled lympho-proliferation in peripheral lymph nodes. GITR(lo)PD-1(lo)CD25(lo) (Triple(lo)) Treg cells were less self-reactive and limited the development of colitis by promoting the conversion of CD4(+) Tconv cells into induced Treg cells (iTreg cells). Although Foxp3-deficient (Scurfy) mice lacked Treg cells, they contained Triple(hi)-like and Triple(lo)-like CD4(+) T cells zsuper> T cells infiltrated the skin, whereas Scurfy Triple(lo)CD4(+) T cells induced colitis and wasting disease. These findings indicate that the affinity of the T cell antigen receptor for self antigen drives the differentiation of Treg cells into distinct subsets with non-overlapping regulatory activities.
Project description:The skin, similar to most nonlymphoid tissues, contains substantial numbers of T cells. Among these, memory T cells serve a sentinel role to protect against pathogens, and regulatory T cells (Tregs) terminate immune responses as a check against unrestrained inflammation. Previously, we created conditional knockout mice with Treg-specific deletion of CD28. Although these mice have normal numbers of Tregs, these cells have lower levels of CTLA-4, PD-1, and CCR6, and the animals develop systemic autoimmunity characterized by prominent skin inflammation. In this study, we have performed a detailed analysis of the skin disease in these mice. Our data show that Treg-expressed CD28 is required for optimal maturation of CD44(lo)CD62L(hi) central Tregs into CD44(hi)CD62L(lo) effector Tregs (eTregs), as well as induction of CCR6 among the cells that do become eTregs. Although CD28-deficient Tregs are able to regulate inflammation normally when injected directly into the skin, they fail to home properly to inflamed skin. Collectively, these results suggest a key role for CD28 costimulation in promoting a central Treg to eTreg transition with appropriate upregulation of chemokine receptors such as CCR6 that are required for tissue homing.
Project description:Limited improvement in long term survival of lung cancer patients has been achieved by conventional chemotherapy or targeted therapy. To explore the potentials of tumor initiating cells (TIC)-directed therapy, it is essential to identify the cell targets and understand their maintenance mechanisms. We have analyzed the performance of ALDH/CD44 co-expression as TIC markers and treatment targets of lung cancer using well-validated in vitro and in vivo analyses in multiple established and patient-derived lung cancer cells. The ALDH(hi)CD44(hi) subset showed the highest enhancement of stem cell phenotypic properties compared to ALDH(hi)CD44(lo), ALDH(lo)CD44(hi), ALDH(lo)CD44(lo) cells and unsorted controls. They showed higher invasion capacities, pluripotency genes and epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors expression, lower intercellular adhesion protein expression and higher G2/M phase cell cycle fraction. In immunosuppressed mice, the ALDH(hi)CD44(hi)xenografts showed the highest tumor induction frequency, serial transplantability, shortest latency, largest volume and highest growth rates. Inhibition of sonic Hedgehog and Notch developmental pathways reduced ALDH+CD44+ compartment. Chemotherapy and targeted therapy resulted in higher AALDH(hi)CD44(hi) subset viability and ALDH(lo)CD44(lo) subset apoptosis fraction. ALDH inhibition and CD44 knockdown led to reduced stemness gene expression and sensitization to drug treatment. In accordance, clinical lung cancers containing a higher abundance of ALDH and CD44-coexpressing cells was associated with lower recurrence-free survival. Together, results suggested theALDH(hi)CD44(hi)compartment was the cellular mediator of tumorigenicity and drug resistance. Further investigation of the regulatory mechanisms underlying ALDH(hi)CD44(hi)TIC maintenance would be beneficial for the development of long term lung cancer control.
Project description:The rapid recall of influenza virus-specific CD8(+) T cell effector function is protective, although our understanding of T cell memory remains incomplete. Recent debate has focused particularly on the CD62L lymph node homing receptor. The present analysis shows that although functional memory can be established from both CD62L(hi) and CD62L(lo) CD8(+) T cell subsets soon after initial encounter between naïve precursors and antigen, the optimal precursors are CD8(+)CD44(hi)CD25(lo) immune lymphocytes isolated from draining lymph nodes on day 3.5 after influenza virus infection. Analysis of primed T cells at different times after challenge indicates that the capacity to transfer memory is diminished at the peak of the primary cytotoxic T lymphocyte response, challenging speculations that the transition to memory first requires full differentiation to effector status. It seems that location rather than CD62Lhi/lo phenotype may be the more profitable focus for further dissection of the early establishment of T cell memory.
Project description:Transcriptional pathways controlling the development of CD44(hi) memory phenotype (MP) T cells with "innate-like" functions are not well understood. Here we show that the BTB (bric-a-brac, tramtrack, broad complex) domain-containing protein promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) is expressed in CD44(hi), but not in CD44(lo), CD4(+) T cells. Transgenic expression of PLZF during T cell development and in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells induced a T cell intrinsic program leading to an increase in peripheral CD44(hi) MP CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and a corresponding decrease of naïve CD44(lo) T cells. The MP CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells produced IFNgamma upon PMA/ionomycin stimulation, thus showing innate-like function. Changes in the naïve versus memory-like subset distribution were already evident in single-positive thymocytes, indicating PLZF-induced T cell developmental alterations. In addition, CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells in PLZF transgenic mice showed impaired development and were severely reduced in the periphery. Finally, after anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation, CD4(+) transgenic T cells showed reduced IL-2 and IFNgamma production but increased IL-4 secretion as a result of enhanced IL-4 production of the CD44(hi)CD62L(+) subset. Our data indicate that PLZF is a novel regulator of the development of CD44(hi) MP T cells with a characteristic partial innate-like phenotype.
Project description:How follicular helper T cells (T(FH) cells) differentiate to regulate B cell immunity is critical for effective protein vaccination. Here we define three transcription factor T-bet-expressing antigen-specific effector helper T cell subsets with distinguishable function, migratory properties and developmental programming in vivo. Expression of the transcriptional repressor Blimp-1 distinguished T zone 'lymphoid' effector helper T cells (CD62L(hi)CCR7(hi)) from CXCR5(lo) 'emigrant' effector helper T cells and CXCR5(hi) 'resident' T(FH) cells expressing the transcriptional repressor Bcl-6 (CD62L(lo)CCR7(lo)). We then show by adoptive transfer and intact polyclonal responses that helper T cells with the highest specific binding of peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II and the most restricted T cell antigen receptor junctional diversity 'preferentially' developed into the antigen-specific effector T(FH) compartment. Our studies demonstrate a central function for differences in the binding strength of the T cell antigen receptor in the antigen-specific mechanisms that 'program' specialized effector T(FH) function in vivo.
Project description:Naïve CD44-lo/CD62L-hi/CD8+ T cells from C3H.SW mice were compared to CD44-hi/CD82L-lo/CD8+ effector memory T cells and CD44-lo/CD62L-hi/CD8+ postmitotic T cells, using 3 biological replicates of each type of sample. The later two cells types were highly purified at day 14 after transplantation from GVHD B6/SJL mice receiving donor C3H.SW mouse-derived naive CD44-lo/CD62L-hi/CD8+ T cells and T cell-depleted bone marrow. Recipient mice had first been lethally irradiated at a dose of 10Gy in two fractions. This is a MHC-identical minor histocompatibility antigen-mismatched mouse GVHD model of human allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Naive T cell samples were from pools of 2 mice each, while effector memory and postmitotic T cell samples were purified from pools of T cells from 4 mice each. After RNA extraction and cleanup, biotin labeled cRNA was prepared from 600 ng total RNA, using two rounds of in vitro transcription, and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 arrays using standard techniques. Keywords: Cell type comparison 9 samples were analyzed on 9 Affymetrix microarrays to assay mRNA levels. There were 3 biological replicates of each of 3 different cell types.
Project description:CD8(+) T cells are commonly divided into naïve CD44(lo)CD122(lo) and "memory phenotype" CD44(hi)CD122(hi) cells. Here we show data suggesting that these two cell populations represent independent CD8(+) T cell subsets. Whereas IL-15(-/-) mice lack CD44(hi)CD122(hi) CD8(+) T cells, mice deficient in the kinase ITK lack CD44(lo)CD122(lo) cells among CD8(+) T cells. The same defects were observed during thymus development. CD44(hi)CD122(hi) cells were found among double-positive thymocytes and increased in frequency during CD8 development in wild-type mice. At the mature stage, IL-15(-/-) mice harbored virtually no CD44(hi)CD122(hi) CD8(+) thymocytes. In contrast, ITK(-/-) mice lacked CD44(lo)CD122(lo) CD8(+) cells at this stage. We generated mice with genetic deletions in both IL-15 and ITK and observed a severe reduction of all CD8(+) T cells. The two CD44(lo)CD122(lo) and CD44(hi)CD122(hi) CD8(+) T cell subsets differed in the periphery in that natural killer (NK) receptor expression was found only on CD44(hi)CD122(hi) CD8(+) T cells. This expression was paralleled by their ability to respond to both T cell receptor and NK receptor engagements. In contrast, CD44(lo)CD122(lo) CD8(+) T cells mounted stronger responses to T cell receptor stimulation but failed to recognize NK receptor ligands. Thus, whereas ITK-dependent CD44(lo)CD122(lo) CD8(+) T cells appear to represent conventional CD8(+) T cells, IL-15-dependent CD44(hi)CD122(hi) CD8(+) T cells may have functions in both adaptive and innate immunity.
Project description:Most memory phenotype (MP) CD44(hi) CD8(+) cells are resting interleukin (IL)-15-dependent cells characterized by high expression of the IL-2/IL-15 receptor beta (CD122). However, some MP CD8(+) cells have a CD122(lo) phenotype and are IL-15 independent. Here, evidence is presented that the CD122(lo) subset of MP CD8(+) cells is controlled largely by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Many of these cells display surface markers typical of recently activated T cells (CD62L(lo), CD69(hi), CD43(hi), and CD127(lo)) and show a high rate of background proliferation. Cells with this phenotype are highly enriched in common gamma chain-deficient mice and absent from MHC-I(-/-) mice. Unlike CD122(hi) CD8(+) cells, CD122(lo) MP CD8(+) cells survive poorly after transfer to MHC-I(-/-) hosts and cease to proliferate. Although distinctly different from typical antigen-specific memory cells, CD122(lo) MP CD8(+) cells closely resemble the antigen-dependent memory CD8(+) cells found in chronic viral infections.
Project description:Naïve CD44-lo/CD62L-hi/CD8+ T cells from C3H.SW mice were compared to CD44-hi/CD82L-lo/CD8+ effector memory T cells and CD44-lo/CD62L-hi/CD8+ postmitotic T cells, using 3 biological replicates of each type of sample. The later two cells types were highly purified at day 14 after transplantation from GVHD B6/SJL mice receiving donor C3H.SW mouse-derived naive CD44-lo/CD62L-hi/CD8+ T cells and T cell-depleted bone marrow. Recipient mice had first been lethally irradiated at a dose of 10Gy in two fractions. This is a MHC-identical minor histocompatibility antigen-mismatched mouse GVHD model of human allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Naive T cell samples were from pools of 2 mice each, while effector memory and postmitotic T cell samples were purified from pools of T cells from 4 mice each. After RNA extraction and cleanup, biotin labeled cRNA was prepared from 600 ng total RNA, using two rounds of in vitro transcription, and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 arrays using standard techniques. Keywords: Cell type comparison Overall design: 9 samples were analyzed on 9 Affymetrix microarrays to assay mRNA levels. There were 3 biological replicates of each of 3 different cell types.