A Novel Heterocyclic Compound CE-104 Enhances Spatial Working Memory in the Radial Arm Maze in Rats and Modulates the Dopaminergic System.
ABSTRACT: Various psychostimulants targeting monoamine neurotransmitter transporters (MATs) have been shown to rescue cognition in patients with neurological disorders and improve cognitive abilities in healthy subjects at low doses. Here, we examined the effects upon cognition of a chemically synthesized novel MAT inhibiting compound 2-(benzhydrylsulfinylmethyl)-4-methylthiazole (named as CE-104). The efficacy of CE-104 in blocking MAT [dopamine transporter (DAT), serotonin transporter (SERT), and norepinephrine transporter] was determined using in vitro neurotransmitter uptake assay. The effect of the drug at low doses (1 and 10 mg/kg) on spatial memory was studied in male rats in the radial arm maze (RAM). Furthermore, the dopamine receptor and transporter complex levels of frontal cortex (FC) tissue of trained and untrained animals treated either with the drug or vehicle were quantified on blue native PAGE (BN-PAGE). The drug inhibited dopamine (IC50: 27.88 ?M) and norepinephrine uptake (IC50: 160.40 ?M), but had a negligible effect on SERT. In the RAM, both drug-dose groups improved spatial working memory during the performance phase of RAM as compared to vehicle. BN-PAGE Western blot quantification of dopamine receptor and transporter complexes revealed that D1, D2, D3, and DAT complexes were modulated due to training and by drug effects. The drug's ability to block DAT and its influence on DAT and receptor complex levels in the FC is proposed as a possible mechanism for the observed learning and memory enhancement in the RAM.
Project description:A series of drugs have been reported to increase memory performance modulating the dopaminergic system and herein modafinil was tested for its working memory (WM) enhancing properties. Reuptake inhibition of dopamine, serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) by modafinil was tested. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups (modafinil-treated 1-5-10 mg/kg body weight, trained and untrained and vehicle treated trained and untrained rats; daily injected intraperitoneally for a period of 10 days) and tested in a radial arm maze (RAM), a paradigm for testing spatial WM. Hippocampi were taken 6 h following the last day of training and complexes containing the unphosphorylated or phosphorylated dopamine transporter (DAT-CC and pDAT-CC) and complexes containing the D1-3 dopamine receptor subunits (D1-D3-CC) were determined. Modafinil was binding to the DAT but insignificantly to SERT or NET and dopamine reuptake was blocked specifically (IC50 = 11.11 ?M; SERT 1547 ?M; NET 182 ?M). From day 8 (day 9 for 1 mg/kg body weight) modafinil was decreasing WM errors (WMEs) in the RAM significantly and remarkably at all doses tested as compared to the vehicle controls. WMEs were linked to the D2R-CC and the pDAT-CC. pDAT and D1-D3-CC levels were modulated significantly and modafinil was shown to enhance spatial WM in the rat in a well-documented paradigm at all the three doses and dopamine reuptake inhibition with subsequent modulation of D1-3-CC is proposed as a possible mechanism of action.
Project description:Tricyclic antidepressants exert their pharmacological effect-inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine-by directly blocking neurotransmitter transporters (SERT, NET, and DAT, respectively) in the presynaptic membrane. The drug-binding site and the mechanism of this inhibition are poorly understood. We determined the crystal structure at 2.9 angstroms of the bacterial leucine transporter (LeuT), a homolog of SERT, NET, and DAT, in complex with leucine and the antidepressant desipramine. Desipramine binds at the inner end of the extracellular cavity of the transporter and is held in place by a hairpin loop and by a salt bridge. This binding site is separated from the leucine-binding site by the extracellular gate of the transporter. By directly locking the gate, desipramine prevents conformational changes and blocks substrate transport. Mutagenesis experiments on human SERT and DAT indicate that both the desipramine-binding site and its inhibition mechanism are probably conserved in the human neurotransmitter transporters.
Project description:(+/-)-Citalopram (1, 1-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile), and its eutomer, escitalopram (S-(+)-1) are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) that are used clinically to treat anxiety and depression. To further explore structure-activity relationships at the serotonin transporter (SERT), a series of (+/-)-4- and 5-substituted citalopram analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for binding at the SERT, dopamine transporter (DAT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) in native rodent tissue. Many of these analogues showed high SERT binding affinities (Ki=1-40 nM) and selectivities over both NET and DAT. Selected enantiomeric pairs of analogues were synthesized and both retained enantioselectivity as with S- and R-1, wherein S>R at the SERT. In addition, the enantiomeric pairs of 1 and 5 were tested for binding at the homologous bacterial leucine transporter (LeuT), wherein low affinities and the absence of enantioselectivity suggested distinctive binding sites for these compounds at SERT as compared to LeuT. These novel ligands will provide molecular tools to elucidate drug-protein interactions at the SERT and to relate those to behavioral actions in vivo.
Project description:There are three known high-affinity targets for cocaine: the dopamine transporter (DAT), the serotonin transporter (SERT), and the norepinephrine transporter (NET). Decades of studies support the dopamine (DA) hypothesis that the blockade of DAT and the subsequent increase in extracellular DA primarily mediate cocaine reward and reinforcement. Contrary to expectations, DAT knockout (DAT-KO) mice and SERT or NET knockout mice still self-administer cocaine and/or display conditioned place preference (CPP) to cocaine, which led to the reevaluation of the DA hypothesis and the proposal of redundant reward pathways. To study the role of DAT in cocaine reward, we have generated a knockin mouse line carrying a functional DAT that is insensitive to cocaine. In these mice, cocaine suppressed locomotor activity, did not elevate extracellular DA in the nucleus accumbens, and did not produce reward as measured by CPP. This result suggests that blockade of DAT is necessary for cocaine reward in mice with a functional DAT. This mouse model is unique in that it is specifically designed to differentiate the role of DAT from the roles of NET and SERT in cocaine-induced biochemical and behavioral effects.
Project description:Synaptic levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine are modulated by their respective plasma membrane transporters, albeit with a few exceptions. Monoamine transporters remove monoamines from the synaptic cleft and thus influence the degree and duration of signaling. Abnormal concentrations of these neuronal transmitters are implicated in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including addiction, depression, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This work concentrates on the norepinephrine transporter (NET), using a battery of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging techniques and histological correlates to probe the effects of genetic deletion of the norepinephrine transporter on brain metabolism, anatomy and functional connectivity. MRS recorded in the striatum of NET knockout mice indicated a lower concentration of NAA that correlates with histological observations of subtle dysmorphisms in the striatum and internal capsule. As with DAT and SERT knockout mice, we detected minimal structural alterations in NET knockout mice by tensor-based morphometric analysis. In contrast, longitudinal imaging after stereotaxic prefrontal cortical injection of manganese, an established neuronal circuitry tracer, revealed that the reward circuit in the NET knockout mouse is biased toward anterior portions of the brain. This is similar to previous results observed for the dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout mouse, but dissimilar from work with serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout mice where Mn(2+) tracings extended to more posterior structures than in wildtype animals. These observations correlate with behavioral studies indicating that SERT knockout mice display anxiety-like phenotypes, while NET knockouts and to a lesser extent DAT knockout mice display antidepressant-like phenotypic features. Thus, the mainly anterior activity detected with manganese-enhanced MRI in the DAT and NET knockout mice is likely indicative of more robust connectivity in the frontal portion of the reward circuit of the DAT and NET knockout mice compared to the SERT knockout mice.
Project description:The plasma-membrane monoamine transporters (MATs), including the serotonin (SERT), norepinephrine (NET) and dopamine (DAT) transporters, serve a pivotal role in limiting monoamine-mediated neurotransmission through the reuptake of their respective monoamine neurotransmitters. The transporters are the main target of clinically used psychostimulants and antidepressants. Despite the availability of several potent and selective MAT substrates and inhibitors the continuing need for therapeutic drugs to treat brain disorders involving aberrant monoamine signaling provides a compelling reason to identify novel ways of targeting and modulating the MATs. Designing novel modulators of MAT function have been limited by the lack of three dimensional structure information of the individual MATs. However, crystal structures of LeuT, a bacterial homolog of MATs, in a substrate-bound occluded, substrate-free outward-open, and an apo inward-open state and also with competitive and non-competitive inhibitors have been determined. In addition, several structures of the Drosophila DAT have also been resolved. Together with computational modeling and experimental data gathered over the past decade, these structures have dramatically advanced our understanding of several aspects of SERT, NET, and DAT transporter function, including some of the molecular determinants of ligand interaction at orthosteric substrate and inhibitor binding pockets. In addition progress has been made in the understanding of how allosteric modulation of MAT function can be achieved. Here we will review all the efforts up to date that has been made through computational approaches employing structural models of MATs to design small molecule modulators to the orthosteric and allosteric sites using virtual screening techniques.
Project description:Recognition of psychostimulants such as cocaine and the amphetamines by the dopamine transporter (DAT) protein is principally responsible for the euphoria and addiction associated with these drugs. Using as a template the crystal structure of a distantly related bacterial leucine transporter, 3-D DAT computer molecular models have been generated. Ligand docking to such models has revealed potential substrate and inhibitor binding pockets, subsequently confirmed by in vitro pharmacology. An inhibitor pocket defined by the DAT model to be within the "extracellular vestibule", just to the extracellular side of the external gate of the primary substrate pocket, was used for virtual screening of a structural library of compounds. High-throughput docking and application of pharmacophore constraints within this vestibular inhibitor pocket identified a compound structurally dissimilar to the classic monoamine (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) transporter (MAT) inhibitors. The compound displaced binding of radiolabeled cocaine analogs at all three MATs, usually with nanomolar K(i) values and within two fold of cocaine's affinity at the norepinephrine transporter. Although a very weak dopamine uptake inhibitor itself, this compound reduced by three fold the potency of cocaine in inhibiting DAT-mediated cellular uptake of dopamine. To our knowledge, the present findings are the first to successfully employ "receptor-based" computer modeling to identify moderate-to-high affinity MAT ligands. In silico ligand screening using MAT models provides a rapid, low cost discovery process that should accelerate identification of novel ligand scaffolds and provide lead compounds in combating psychostimulant addiction and in treating other monoamine-related CNS diseases.
Project description:Irreversible tropane analogs have been useful in identifying binding sites of cocaine on biogenic amine transporters, including transporters for dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET). The present study characterizes the properties of the novel phenylisothiocyanate tropane HD-205, synthesized from the highly potent 2-napthyl tropane analog WF-23. In radioligand binding studies in brain membranes, direct IC(50) values of HD-205 were 4.1, 14 and 280nM at DAT, SERT and NET, respectively. Wash-resistant binding was characterized by preincubation of HD-205 with brain membranes, followed by extensive washing before performing transporter radioligand binding. Results for HD-205 showed wash-resistant IC(50) values of 191, 230 and 840nM at DAT, SERT and NET, respectively. Saturation binding studies with [(125)I]RTI-55 in membranes pretreated with 100nM HD-205 showed that HD-205 significantly decreased the B(max) but not K(D) of DAT and SERT binding. To further characterize its irreversible binding, an iodinated analog of HD-205, HD-244, was prepared from a trimethylsilyl precursor. The direct IC(50) of HD-244 at DAT was 20nM. [(125)I]HD-244 was synthesized with chloramine-T, purified on HPLC, reacted with rat striatal membranes, and proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE. Results showed several non-specific labeled bands, but only a single specific band of radioactivity co-migrating with an immunoreactive DAT band at approx. 80 kilodaltons was detected, suggesting that [(125)I]HD-244 covalently labeled DAT protein in striatal membranes. These results demonstrate that phenylisothiocyanate analogs of WF-23 can be used as potential ligands to map distinct binding sites of cocaine analogs at DAT.
Project description:To further explore the basic structural motifs (3S,6S)-6-benzhydryl-N-benzyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-3-amine and (2S,4R,5R)-2-benzhydryl-5-(benzylamino)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-ol, developed by our research group, for monoamine transport inhibition, we designed and synthesized various structurally altered analogues. The new compounds were tested for their affinities for the dopamine transporter (DAT), the serotonin transporter (SERT), and the norepinephrine transporter (NET) in rat brain by measuring their capacity to inhibit the uptake of [(3)H]DA, [(3)H]5-HT, and [(3)H]NE, respectively. Our results point to novel compounds with a TUI, DNRI, SNRI, or SSRI profile. Among the TUIs, compound 2 g exhibited a balanced potency for all three monoamine transporters (K(i): 60, 79, and 70.3 nM for DAT, SERT, and NET, respectively). In the rat forced swim test, compound 2 g produced a significant decrease in immobility in drug-treated rats relative to vehicle, indicating a potential antidepressant property.
Project description:A series of 4-bicyclic heteroaryl 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline inhibitors of the serotonin transporter (SERT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and dopamine transporter (DAT) was discovered. The synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of these triple reuptake inhibitors (TRIs) will be discussed. Compound 10i (AMR-2), a very potent inhibitor of SERT, NET, and DAT, showed efficacy in the rat forced-swim and mouse tail suspension models with minimum effective doses of 0.3 and 1 mg/kg (po), respectively. At efficacious doses in these assays, 10i exhibited substantial occupancy levels at the three transporters in both rat and mouse brain. The study of the metabolism of 10i revealed the formation of a significant active metabolite, compound 13.