Continuous neuromonitoring using transcranial Doppler reflects blood flow during carbon dioxide challenge in primates with global cerebral ischemia.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:At present, there is no consensus on the optimal monitoring method for cerebral blood flow (CBF) in neurointensive care patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether continuous transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring with modulation of partial pressure of CO2 reflects CBF changes. This hypothesis was tested in 2 pathological settings in which cerebral ischemia can be imminent: after an episode of cerebral ischemia and during vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. METHODS:Sixteen cynomolgus monkeys were divided into 3 groups: 1) chemoregulation in control animals to assess the physiological range of CBF regulation, 2) chemoregulation during vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 3) chemoregulation after transient cerebral ischemia. We surgically placed a thermal CBF probe over the cortex perfused by the right middle cerebral artery. Corresponding TCD values were acquired simultaneously while partial pressure of CO2 was changed within a range of 25 to 65 mm Hg (chemoregulation). A correlation coefficient of CBF with TCD values of greater than r equals 0.8 was considered clinically relevant. RESULTS:CBF and CBF velocity correlated strongly after cerebral ischemia (r = 0.83, P < 0.001). Correlations were poor in chemoregulation controls (r = 0.2) and in the vasospasm group (r = 0.55). CONCLUSION:The present study provides experimental support that, in clearly defined conditions, continuous TCD monitoring combined with chemoregulation testing may provide an estimate of CBF in the early postischemic period.
Project description:Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be complicated by delayed cerebral ischemia, which is a major cause of unfavorable clinical outcome and death in SAH-patients. Delayed cerebral ischemia is presumably related to the development of vasospasm triggered by the presence of blood in the basal cisterns. To date, oral application of the calcium antagonist nimodipine is the only prophylactic treatment for vasospasm recognized under international guidelines.In retrospective trials lumbar drainage of cerebrospinal fluid has been shown to be a safe and feasible measure to remove the blood from the basal cisterns and decrease the incidence of delayed cerebral ischemia and vasospasm in the respective study populations. However, the efficacy of lumbar drainage has not been evaluated prospectively in a randomized controlled trial yet.This is a protocol for a 2-arm randomized controlled trial to compare an intervention group receiving early continuous lumbar CSF-drainage and standard neurointensive care to a control group receiving standard neurointensive care only. Adults suffering from a first aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage whose aneurysm has been secured by means of coiling or clipping are eligible for trial participation. The effect of early CSF drainage (starting < 72 h after securing the aneurysm) will be measured in the following ways: the primary endpoint will be disability after 6 months, assessed by a blinded investigator during a personal visit or standardized telephone interview using the modified Rankin Scale. Secondary endpoints include mortality after 6 months, angiographic vasospasm, transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) mean flow velocity in both middle cerebral arteries and rate of shunt insertion at 6 months after hospital discharge.Here, we present the study design of a multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial to investigate whether early application of a lumbar drainage improves clinical outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is thought to cause ischemia. To evaluate the contribution of vasospasm to delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), we investigated the effect of vasospasm on cerebral perfusion and the relationship of vasospasm with DCI. METHODS: We studied 37 consecutive SAH patients with CT angiography (CTA) and CT perfusion (CTP) on admission and within 14 days after admission or at time of clinical deterioration. CTP values (cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and mean transit time), degree of vasospasm on CTA, and occurrence of DCI were recorded. Vasospasm was categorized as follows: no spasm (0-25% decrease in vessel diameter), moderate spasm (25-50% decrease), and severe spasm (>50% decrease). The correspondence of the flow territory of the most spastic vessel with the least perfused region was evaluated, and differences in perfusion values and occurrence of DCI between degrees of vasospasm were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Fourteen patients had no vasospasm, 16 were moderate, and seven were severe. In 65% of patients with spasm, the flow territory of the most spastic vessel corresponded with the least perfused region. There was significant CBF (milliliters per 100 g per minute) difference (-21.3; 95% CI, -37 <--> -5.3) between flow territories of severe and no vasospasm. Four of seven patients with severe, six of 16 with moderate, and three of 14 patients with no vasospasm had DCI. CONCLUSION: Vasospasm decreases cerebral perfusion, but corresponds with the least perfused region in only two thirds of our patients. Furthermore, almost half of patients with severe vasospasm do not have DCI. Thus, although severe vasospasm can decrease perfusion, it may not result in DCI.
Project description:Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a life-threatening disease requiring neurocritical care. Delayed cerebral ischemia is a well-known complication that contributes to unfavorable neurological outcomes. Cerebral vasospasm has been thought to be the main cause of delayed cerebral ischemia, and although several studies were able to decrease cerebral vasospasm, none showed improved neurological outcomes. Our target is not cerebral vasospasm but improving neurological outcomes. The purpose of this review is to discuss what intensivists should know and can do to improve clinical outcomes in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.Delayed cerebral ischemia is thought to be due to not only vasospasm but also multifactorial mechanisms. Additionally, the concept of early brain injury, which occurs within the first 72 h after the hemorrhage, has become an important concern. Increasing sympathetic activity after the hemorrhage is associated with cardiopulmonary complications and poor outcomes. Serum lactate measurement may be a valuable marker reflecting the severity of sympathetic activity. The transpulmonary thermodilution method will bring about an advanced understanding of hemodynamic management. Fever is a well-recognized symptom and targeted temperature management is an anticipated intervention. To avoid hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, performing moderate glucose control and minimizing glucose variability are important concepts in glycemic management, but the optimal target range remains unknown. Dysnatremia seems to be associated with negative outcomes. It is not clear yet that maintaining normonatremia actively improves neurological outcomes. Optimal duration of intensive care management has not been determined.Although we have an advanced understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical characteristics of subarachnoid hemorrhage, there are many controversies in the intensive care unit management of subarachnoid hemorrhage. With an awareness of not only delayed cerebral ischemia but also early brain injury, more attention should be given to various aspects to improve neurological outcomes.
Project description:Angiographic vasospasm frequently complicates subarachnoid hemorrhage and has been implicated in the development of delayed cerebral ischemia. Whether large-vessel narrowing adequately accounts for the critical reductions in regional cerebral blood flow underlying ischemia is unclear. We sought to clarify the relationship between angiographic vasospasm and regional hypoperfusion.Twenty-five patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage underwent cerebral catheter angiography and 15O-positron emission tomographic imaging within 1 day of each other (median of 7 days after subarachnoid hemorrhage). Severity of vasospasm was assessed in each intracranial artery, whereas cerebral blood flow and oxygen extraction fraction were measured in 28 brain regions distributed across these vascular territories. We analyzed the association between vasospasm and perfusion and compared frequency of hypoperfusion (cerebral blood flow<25 mL/100 g/min) and oligemia (low oxygen delivery with oxygen extraction fraction?0.5) in territories with versus without significant vasospasm.Twenty-four percent of 652 brain regions were supplied by vessels with significant vasospasm. Cerebral blood flow was lower in such regions (38.6±12 versus 48.7±16 mL/100 g/min), whereas oxygen extraction fraction was higher (0.48±0.19 versus 0.37±0.14, both P<0.001). Hypoperfusion was seen in 46 regions (7%), but 66% of these were supplied by vessels with no significant vasospasm; 24% occurred in patients without angiographic vasospasm. Similarly, oligemia occurred more frequently outside territories with vasospasm.Angiographic vasospasm is associated with reductions in cerebral perfusion. However, regional hypoperfusion and oligemia frequently occurred in territories and patients without vasospasm. Other factors in addition to large-vessel narrowing must contribute to critical reductions in perfusion.
Project description:Symptomatic ischemia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is common but poorly understood and inadequately treated. Severe constriction of the major arteries at the base of the brain, termed vasospasm, traditionally has been thought to be a proximal event underlying these ischemias, although microvascular changes also have been described. The vast majority of studies aimed at understanding the pathogenesis of ischemic deficits, and vasospasm have focused on the interaction of the "spasmogen" of the extravasated blood with the smooth muscle and endothelium of the arteries. This has led to a comparative neglect of the contribution of the CNS to the maintenance of cerebral perfusion. In the present study, we focused on the role of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in modulating cerebral perfusion at rest and following an experimental SAH in the rat. Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry and three-dimensional optical microangiography. Focal application of a GABA(A) receptor agonist and antagonist was used to respectively inactivate and activate the RVM. We show here that the RVM modulates cerebral blood flow under resting conditions, and further, contributes to restoration of cerebral perfusion following a high-grade SAH. Failure of this brainstem compensatory mechanism could be significant for acute perfusion deficits seen in patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Project description:Cerebral vasospasm in the first 2 weeks after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is recognized as a major predictor of delayed cerebral ischemia. The routine screening for cerebral vasospasm with either transcranial Doppler or CT angiography has been advocated, although its diagnostic value has not yet been determined. Our study investigated the diagnostic accuracy of detecting vasospasm by transcranial Doppler and CT angiography for the prediction of delayed cerebral ischemia and functional outcome. Additionally, agreement between transcranial Doppler and CT angiography was determined. Design:Prospective diagnostic accuracy study. Settings:Neurocritical care unit and neurosurgical ward at a tertiary academic medical center. Patients:Between 2013 and 2016, 59 consenting patients were included. Intervention:Patients undergo both transcranial Doppler and CT angiography for detection of cerebral vasospasm on days 5 and 10 after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Delayed cerebral ischemia was defined as secondary neurologic deterioration, not explained otherwise. Unfavorable outcome was defined modified Rankin Scale > 2 at 6 months. Measurements and Main Results:On transcranial Doppler, cerebral vasospasm was observed in 26 patients (45%). On CT angiography, vasospasm was observed in 54 patients (95%). The agreement between transcranial Doppler and CT angiography was 0.47. Delayed cerebral ischemia occurred in 16 patients (27%); unfavorable outcome in 12 patients (20%). Transcranial Doppler predicted delayed cerebral ischemia with a sensitivity of 0.44 (day 5) and 0.50 (day 10), with a specificity of 0.67 (day 5) and 0.57 (day 10). CT angiography predicted delayed cerebral ischemia with a sensitivity of 0.81 (day 5 and 10) and with a specificity of 0.070 (day 5) and 0.00 (day 10). The highest accuracy for predicting unfavorable outcome was on day 5 (0.61 for transcranial Doppler vs 0.27 for CT angiography). Conclusion:The diagnostic accuracy of both CT angiography and transcranial Doppler for detection of cerebral vasospasm as well as prediction of delayed cerebral ischemia and functional outcome is limited. The agreement between CT angiography and transcranial Doppler is low.
Project description:Background: Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is frequently used with computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTP) to evaluate whether endovascular vasospasm treatment is indicated for subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with delayed cerebral ischemia. However, objective parameters for CTA evaluation are lacking. In this study, we used an automated, investigator-independent, digital method to detect vasospasm, and we evaluated whether the method could predict the need for subsequent endovascular vasospasm treatment. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts and analyzed imaging data for 40 consecutive patients with subarachnoid hemorrhages. The cerebrovascular trees were digitally reconstructed from CTA data, and vessel volume and the length of the arteries of the circle of Willis and their peripheral branches were determined. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis based on a comparison with digital subtraction angiographies was used to determine volumetric thresholds that indicated severe vasospasm for each vessel segment. Results: The automated threshold-based volumetric evaluation of CTA data was able to detect severe vasospasm with high sensitivity and negative predictive value for predicting cerebral hypoperfusion on CTP, although the specificity and positive predictive value were low. Combining the automated detection of vasospasm on CTA and cerebral hypoperfusion on CTP was superior to CTP or CTA alone in predicting endovascular vasospasm treatment within 24 h after the examination. Conclusions: This digital volumetric analysis of the cerebrovascular tree allowed the objective, investigator-independent detection and quantification of vasospasms. This method could be used to standardize diagnostics and the selection of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with delayed cerebral ischemia for endovascular diagnostics and possible interventions.
Project description:Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) induces acute changes in the cerebral microcirculation. Recent findings ex vivo suggest neurovascular coupling (NVC), the process that increases cerebral blood flow upon neuronal activity, is also impaired after SAH. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether this occurs also in vivo. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to either sham surgery or SAH by filament perforation. Twenty-four hours later NVC was tested by forepaw stimulation and CO2 reactivity by inhalation of 10% CO2. Vessel diameter was assessed in vivo by two-photon microscopy. NVC was also investigated ex vivo using brain slices. Cerebral arterioles of sham-operated mice dilated to 130% of baseline upon CO2 inhalation or forepaw stimulation and cerebral blood flow (CBF) increased. Following SAH, however, CO2 reactivity was completely lost and the majority of cerebral arterioles showed paradoxical constriction in vivo and ex vivo resulting in a reduced CBF response. As previous results showed intact NVC 3?h after SAH, the current findings indicate that impairment of NVC after cerebral hemorrhage occurs secondarily and is progressive. Since neuronal activity-induced vasoconstriction (inverse NVC) is likely to further aggravate SAH-induced cerebral ischemia and subsequent brain damage, inverse NVC may represent a novel therapeutic target after SAH.
Project description:Precise in vivo evaluation of cerebral vasospasm caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage has remained a critical but unsolved issue in experimental small animal models. In this study, we used synchrotron radiation angiography to study the vasospasm of anterior circulation arteries in two subarachnoid hemorrhage models in rats. Synchrotron radiation angiography, laser Doppler flowmetry-cerebral blood flow measurement, [(125)I]N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine cerebral blood flow measurement and terminal examinations were applied to evaluate the changes of anterior circulation arteries in two subarachnoid hemorrhage models made by blood injection into cisterna magna and prechiasmatic cistern. Using synchrotron radiation angiography technique, we detected cerebral vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage rats compared to the controls (p<0.05). We also identified two interesting findings: 1) both middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery shrunk the most at day 3 after subarachnoid hemorrhage; 2) the diameter of anterior cerebral artery in the prechiasmatic cistern injection group was smaller than that in the cisterna magna injection group (p<0.05), but not for middle cerebral artery. We concluded that synchrotron radiation angiography provided a novel technique, which could directly evaluate cerebral vasospasm in small animal experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage models. The courses of vasospasm in these two injection models are similar; however, the model produced by prechiasmatic cistern injection is more suitable for study of anterior circulation vasospasm.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Delayed ischemic neurologic deficits secondary to vasospasm are a major cause of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Treatment of vasospasm after SAH is associated with complications, and reliable techniques for evaluating effects of treatment of vasospasm in such patients are warranted. We present the use of perfusion computed tomography (PTC) to evaluate the effect of transluminal percutaneous angioplasty in a with SAH and vasospasm-induced ischemia. METHODS: Dynamic PCT with deconvolution produced maps of time-to-peak, mean transit time, regional cerebral blood flow, and regional cerebral blood volume, with a computerized automated map of the infarct and penumbra. CT scanners with quadruple detector array were used before and after angioplasty. RESULTS: Before angioplasty and intraarterial papaverine, PCT showed normal to decreased cerebral blood flow and increased cerebral blood volume and mean transit time in the middle cerebral artery territory of the left hemisphere. After angioplasty and intraarterial papaverine, PCT showed normalization of perfusion parameters. CONCLUSION: PCT can be a useful technique in monitoring angioplasty treatment effects in patients with vasospasm after SAH.