Applicability and Efficiency of NGS in Routine Diagnosis: In-Depth Performance Analysis of a Complete Workflow for CFTR Mutation Analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Actually, about 2000 sequence variations have been documented in the CFTR gene requiring extensive and multi-step genetic testing in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and CFTR-related disorders. We present a two phases study, with validation and performance monitoring, of a single experiment methodology based on multiplex PCR and high throughput sequencing that allows detection of all variants, including large rearrangements, affecting the coding regions plus three deep intronic loci. METHODS:A total of 340 samples, including 257 patients and 83 previously characterized control samples, were sequenced in 17 MiSeq runs and analyzed with two bioinformatic pipelines in routine diagnostic conditions. We obtained 100% coverage for all the target regions in every tested sample. RESULTS:We correctly identified all the 87 known variants in the control samples and successfully confirmed the 62 variants identified among the patients without observing false positive results. Large rearrangements were identified in 18/18 control samples. Only 17 patient samples showed false positive signals (6.6%), 12 of which showed a borderline result for a single amplicon. We also demonstrated the ability of the assay to detect allele specific dropout of amplicons when a sequence variation occurs at a primer binding site thus limiting the risk for false negative results. CONCLUSIONS:We described here the first NGS workflow for CFTR routine analysis that demonstrated equivalent diagnostic performances compared to Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. This study illustrates the advantages of NGS in term of scalability, workload reduction and cost-effectiveness in combination with an improvement of the overall data quality due to the simultaneous detection of SNVs and large rearrangements.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR). There are over 2000 different pathogenic and non-pathogenic variants described in association with a broad clinical heterogeneity. The most common types of mutations in this gene are single nucleotide substitutions or small deletions and insertions. However, large rearrangements, such as large duplications or deletions, are also a possible cause of CF; these variations are rarely tested in routine screenings, and much of them remain unidentified in some populations, especially those with high ethnic heterogeneity. METHODS:The present study utilized the Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) technique for the detection of duplications and deletions in 165 CF patients from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil), which after extensive mutational screening, still exhibited one or two unidentified CF alleles. RESULTS:Five patients with alterations in MLPA signals were detected. After validation, we identified three copy number variations, one large duplication (CFTRdup2-3) and two large deletions (CFTRdel25-26 and CFTRdel25-27-CTTNBP2). Two detected deletions were not validated. They were false positives caused by a small deletion of 18 base pairs (232del18) and a point mutation (S168L) in the probe binding site. CONCLUSION:Our results highlight the importance of screening for large rearrangements in CF cases with no or only one CFTR mutation defined.
Project description:This work describes the set-up of a shared platform among the laboratories of the Alleanza Contro il Cancro (ACC) Italian Research Network for the identification of fusion transcripts in sarcomas by using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). Different NGS approaches, including anchored multiplex PCR and hybrid capture-based panels, were employed to profile a large set of sarcomas of different histotypes. The analysis confirmed the reliability of NGS RNA-based approaches in detecting sarcoma-specific rearrangements. Overall, the anchored multiplex PCR assay proved to be a fast and easy-to-analyze approach for routine diagnostics laboratories.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Next-generation sequencing (NGS) data are used for both clinical care and clinical research. DNA sequence variants identified using NGS are often returned to patients/participants as part of clinical or research protocols. The current standard of care is to validate NGS variants using Sanger sequencing, which is costly and time-consuming. METHODS:We performed a large-scale, systematic evaluation of Sanger-based validation of NGS variants using data from the ClinSeq® project. We first used NGS data from 19 genes in 5 participants, comparing them to high-throughput Sanger sequencing results on the same samples, and found no discrepancies among 234 NGS variants. We then compared NGS variants in 5 genes from 684 participants against data from Sanger sequencing. RESULTS:Of over 5800 NGS-derived variants, 19 were not validated by Sanger data. Using newly designed sequencing primers, Sanger sequencing confirmed 17 of the NGS variants, and the remaining 2 variants had low quality scores from exome sequencing. Overall, we measured a validation rate of 99.965% for NGS variants using Sanger sequencing, which was higher than many existing medical tests that do not necessitate orthogonal validation. CONCLUSIONS:A single round of Sanger sequencing is more likely to incorrectly refute a true-positive variant from NGS than to correctly identify a false-positive variant from NGS. Validation of NGS-derived variants using Sanger sequencing has limited utility, and best practice standards should not include routine orthogonal Sanger validation of NGS variants.
Project description:BACKGROUND: By performing extensive scanning of whole coding and flanking sequences of the CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) gene, we had previously identified point mutations in 167 out of 182 (91.7%) males with isolated congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens (CBAVD). Conventional PCR-based methods of mutation analysis do not detect gross DNA lesions. In this study, we looked for large rearrangements within the whole CFTR locus in the 32 CBAVD patients with only one or no mutation. METHODS: We developed a semi-quantitative fluorescent PCR assay (SQF-PCR), which relies on the comparison of the fluorescent profiles of multiplex PCR fragments obtained from different DNA samples. We confirmed the gross alterations by junction fragment amplification and identified their breakpoints by direct sequencing. RESULTS: We detected two large genomic heterozygous deletions, one encompassing exon 2 (c.54-5811_c.164+2186del8108ins182) [or CFTRdele2], the other removing exons 22 to 24 (c.3964-3890_c.4443+3143del9454ins5) [or CFTRdele 22_24], in two males carrying a typical CBAVD mutation on the other parental CFTR allele. We present the first bioinformatic tool for exon phasing of the CFTR gene, which can help to rename the exons and the nomenclature of small mutations according to international recommendations and to predict the consequence of large rearrangements on the open reading frame. CONCLUSION: Identification of large rearrangements further expands the CFTR mutational spectrum in CBAVD and should now be systematically investigated. We have designed a simple test to specifically detect the presence or absence of the two rearrangements identified in this study.
Project description:The development of simple and rapid methods for the detection of the common genetic mutations associated with cystic fibrosis (CF) requires access to positive-control samples including the 5/7/9T variants of intron 8. We used PCR and a simple multiplex bead-array assay to identify 5/7/9T control samples from 29 commercially available DNA samples. Unpurified PCR products were directly hybridized to color-coded beads containing allele-specific capture probes for 5/7/9T detection. The performance of the assay was investigated using reverse-complement oligonucleotides, individual PCR products, and multiplex PCR products for 5/7/9T detection within a complex CFTR screening assay. Samples were genotyped by grouping the relative signal intensities from each capture probe. Of 29 commercially available DNA samples analyzed, 2 5T/7T, 2 5T/9T, 9 7T/9T, 11 7T/7T, and 5 9T/9T genotypes were identified. The genotype within each sample group was confirmed by DNA sequencing. The assay was compatible with the analysis of 10 to 1000 ng of genomic DNA isolated from whole blood and allowed for the separate identification of primary CFTR mutations from reflex variants. The correct identification of positive controls demonstrated the utility of a simple bead-array assay and provided accessible samples for assay optimization and for routine quality control in the clinical laboratory.
Project description:Many regions have implemented newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) using a limited panel of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) mutations after immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) analysis. We sought to assess the feasibility of further improving the screening using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology.An NGS assay was used to detect 162 CFTR mutations/variants characterized by the CFTR2 project. We used 67 dried blood spots (DBSs) containing 48 distinct CFTR mutations to validate the assay. NGS assay was retrospectively performed on 165 CF screen-positive samples with one CFTR mutation.The NGS assay was successfully performed using DNA isolated from DBSs, and it correctly detected all CFTR mutations in the validation. Among 165 screen-positive infants with one CFTR mutation, no additional disease-causing mutation was identified in 151 samples consistent with normal sweat tests. Five infants had a CF-causing mutation that was not included in this panel, and nine with two CF-causing mutations were identified.The NGS assay was 100% concordant with traditional methods. Retrospective analysis results indicate an IRT/NGS screening algorithm would enable high sensitivity, better specificity and positive predictive value (PPV). This study lays the foundation for prospective studies and for introducing NGS in NBS laboratories.
Project description:Amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) of immunoglobulin (IG) and T-cell receptor (TR) gene rearrangements for clonality assessment, marker identification and quantification of minimal residual disease (MRD) in lymphoid neoplasms has been the focus of intense research, development and application. However, standardization and validation in a scientifically controlled multicentre setting is still lacking. Therefore, IG/TR assay development and design, including bioinformatics, was performed within the EuroClonality-NGS working group and validated for MRD marker identification in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Five EuroMRD ALL reference laboratories performed IG/TR NGS in 50 diagnostic ALL samples, and compared results with those generated through routine IG/TR Sanger sequencing. A central polytarget quality control (cPT-QC) was used to monitor primer performance, and a central in-tube quality control (cIT-QC) was spiked into each sample as a library-specific quality control and calibrator. NGS identified 259 (average 5.2/sample, range 0-14) clonal sequences vs. Sanger-sequencing 248 (average 5.0/sample, range 0-14). NGS primers covered possible IG/TR rearrangement types more completely compared with local multiplex PCR sets and enabled sequencing of bi-allelic rearrangements and weak PCR products. The cPT-QC showed high reproducibility across all laboratories. These validated and reproducible quality-controlled EuroClonality-NGS assays can be used for standardized NGS-based identification of IG/TR markers in lymphoid malignancies.
Project description:Background:Conventional methods used to identify BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in hereditary cancers, such as Sanger sequencing/multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), are time-consuming and expensive, due to the large size of the genes. The recent introduction of next-generation sequencing (NGS) benchtop platforms offered a powerful alternative for mutation detection, dramatically improving the speed and the efficiency of DNA testing. Here we tested the performance of the Ion Torrent PGM platform with the Ion AmpliSeq BRCA1 and BRCA2 Panel in our clinical routine of breast/ovarian hereditary cancer syndrome assessment. Methods:We first tested the NGS approach in a cohort of 11 patients (training set) who had previously undergone genetic diagnosis in our laboratory by conventional methods. Then, we applied the optimized pipeline to the consecutive cohort of 136 uncharacterized probands (validation set). Results:By minimal adjustments in the analytical pipeline of Torrent Suite Software we obtained a 100% concordance with Sanger results regarding the identification of single nucleotide alterations, insertions, and deletions with the exception of three large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) contained in the training set. The optimized pipeline applied to the validation set (VS), identified pathogenic and polymorphic variants, including a novel BRCA2 pathogenic variant at exon 3, 100% of which were confirmed by Sanger in their correct zygosity status. To identify LGRs, all negative samples of the VS were subjected to MLPA analysis. Discussion:Our experience strongly supports that the Ion Torrent PGM technology in BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline variant identification, combined with MLPA analysis, is highly sensitive, easy to use, faster, and cheaper than traditional (Sanger sequencing/MLPA) approaches.
Project description:Background: Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common malignant childhood tumor of the eye and results from inactivation of both alleles of the RB1 gene. Nowadays RB genetic diagnosis requires classical chromosome investigations, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification analysis (MLPA) and Sanger sequencing. Nevertheless, these techniques show some limitations. We report our experience on a cohort of RB patients using a combined approach of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) and RB1 custom array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH). Methods: A total of 65 patients with retinoblastoma were studied: 29 cases of bilateral RB and 36 cases of unilateral RB. All patients were previously tested with conventional cytogenetics and MLPA techniques. Fifty-three samples were then analysed using NGS. Eleven cases were analysed by RB1 custom aCGH. One last case was studied only by classic cytogenetics. Finally, it has been tested, in a lab sensitivity assay, the capability of NGS to detect artificial mosaicism series in previously recognized samples prepared at 3 different mosaicism frequencies: 10%, 5%, 1%. Results: Of the 29 cases of bilateral RB, 28 resulted positive (96.5%) to the genetic investigation: 22 point mutations and 6 genomic rearrangements (four intragenic and two macrodeletion). A novel germline intragenic duplication, from exon18 to exon 23, was identified in a proband with bilateral RB. Of the 36 available cases of unilateral RB, 8 patients resulted positive (22%) to the genetic investigation: 3 patients showed point mutations while 5 carried large deletion. Finally, we successfully validated, in a lab sensitivity assay, the capability of NGS to accurately measure level of artificial mosaicism down to 1%. Conclusions: NGS and RB1-custom aCGH have demonstrated to be an effective combined approach in order to optimize the overall diagnostic procedures of RB. Custom aCGH is able to accurately detect genomic rearrangements allowing the characterization of their extension. NGS is extremely accurate in detecting single nucleotide variants, relatively simple to perform, cost savings and efficient and has confirmed a high sensitivity and accuracy in identifying low levels of artificial mosaicisms.
Project description:Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common malignant childhood tumor of the eye and results from inactivation of both alleles of the RB1 gene. Nowadays RB genetic diagnosis requires classical chromosome investigations, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification analysis (MLPA) and Sanger sequencing. Nevertheless, these techniques show some limitations. We report our experience on a cohort of RB patients using a combined approach of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) and RB1 custom array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH).A total of 65 patients with retinoblastoma were studied: 29 cases of bilateral RB and 36 cases of unilateral RB. All patients were previously tested with conventional cytogenetics and MLPA techniques. Fifty-three samples were then analysed using NGS. Eleven cases were analysed by RB1 custom aCGH. One last case was studied only by classic cytogenetics. Finally, it has been tested, in a lab sensitivity assay, the capability of NGS to detect artificial mosaicism series in previously recognized samples prepared at 3 different mosaicism frequencies: 10, 5, 1 %.Of the 29 cases of bilateral RB, 28 resulted positive (96.5 %) to the genetic investigation: 22 point mutations and 6 genomic rearrangements (four intragenic and two macrodeletion). A novel germline intragenic duplication, from exon18 to exon 23, was identified in a proband with bilateral RB. Of the 36 available cases of unilateral RB, 8 patients resulted positive (22 %) to the genetic investigation: 3 patients showed point mutations while 5 carried large deletion. Finally, we successfully validated, in a lab sensitivity assay, the capability of NGS to accurately measure level of artificial mosaicism down to 1 %.NGS and RB1-custom aCGH have demonstrated to be an effective combined approach in order to optimize the overall diagnostic procedures of RB. Custom aCGH is able to accurately detect genomic rearrangements allowing the characterization of their extension. NGS is extremely accurate in detecting single nucleotide variants, relatively simple to perform, cost savings and efficient and has confirmed a high sensitivity and accuracy in identifying low levels of artificial mosaicisms.