ABSTRACT: The MAF family transcription factors are homologs of v-Maf, the oncogenic component of the avian retrovirus AS42. They are subdivided into 2 groups, small and large MAF proteins, according to their structure, function, and molecular size. MAFK is a member of the small MAF family and acts as a dominant negative form of large MAFs. In previous research we generated transgenic mice that overexpress MAFK in order to suppress the function of large MAF proteins in pancreatic ?-cells. These mice developed hyperglycemia in adulthood due to impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The aim of the current study is to examine the effects of ?-cell-specific Mafk overexpression in endocrine cell development. The developing islets of Mafk-transgenic embryos appeared to be disorganized with an inversion of total numbers of insulin+ and glucagon+ cells due to reduced ?-cell proliferation. Gene expression analysis by quantitative RT-PCR revealed decreased levels of ?-cell-related genes whose expressions are known to be controlled by large MAF proteins. Additionally, these changes were accompanied with a significant increase in key ?-cell transcription factors likely due to compensatory mechanisms that might have been activated in response to the ?-cell loss. Finally, microarray comparison of gene expression profiles between wild-type and transgenic pancreata revealed alteration of some uncharacterized genes including Pcbd1, Fam132a, Cryba2, and Npy, which might play important roles during pancreatic endocrine development. Taken together, these results suggest that Mafk overexpression impairs endocrine development through a regulation of numerous ?-cell-related genes. The microarray analysis provided a unique data set of differentially expressed genes that might contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis that governs the development and function of endocrine pancreas.
Project description:Although majority of the genes linked to early-onset cataract exhibit lens fiber cell-enriched expression, our understanding of gene regulation in these cells is limited to function of just eight transcription factors and largely in the context of crystallins. We report on small Maf transcription factors Mafg and Mafk as regulators of several non-crystallin human cataract-associated genes in fiber cells and establish their significance to this disease. We applied a bioinformatics tool for cataract gene discovery iSyTE to identify Mafg and its co-regulators in the lens, and generated various null-allelic combinations of Mafg:Mafk mouse mutants for phenotypic and molecular analysis. By age 4 months, Mafg-/-:Mafk+/- mutants exhibit lens defects that progressively develop into cataract. High-resolution phenotypic characterization of Mafg-/-:Mafk+/- mouse lens reveals severely disorganized fiber cells, while microarray-based expression profiling identifies 97 differentially regulated genes (DRGs). Integrative analysis of Mafg-/-:Mafk+/- lens-DRGs with (1) binding motifs and genomic targets of small Mafs and their regulatory partners, (2) iSyTE lens expression data, and (3) interactions between DRGs in the String database, unravel a detailed small Maf regulatory network in the lens, several nodes of which are linked to cataract. This approach identifies 36 high-priority candidates from the original 97 DRGs. Significantly, 8/36 (22%) DRGs are associated with cataracts in human (GSTO1, MGST1, SC4MOL, UCHL1) or mouse (Aldh3a1, Crygf, Hspb1, Pcbd1), suggesting a multifactorial etiology that includes oxidative stress and misregulation of sterol synthesis. These data identify Mafg and Mafk as new cataract-associated candidates and define their function in regulating largely non-crystallin genes linked to human cataract.
Project description:The three small Maf proteins, MafF, MafG and MafK, have been implicated in a number of physiological processes, including development, differentiation, haematopoiesis and stress response. Here we report the constitutive expression of mafF, mafG and mafK in six human cell lines derived from various tissues (HepG2, IMR-32, K-562, HEK-293, RD and A549). The expression patterns of mafF, mafG and mafK varied widely among cell lines. Because small Maf proteins have been implicated in electrophile response element (EpRE)-mediated stress response, the ability of three EpRE activators [pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC), phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and t-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ)] to induce small Maf expression was examined in detail in HepG2 cells. Both PDTC and PEITC induced mafF, mafG and mafK expression, whereas tBHQ failed to markedly induce any of the three small Mafs. Where a response was observed, mafF was induced to the greatest extent compared with mafG and mafK, and this response was transcriptionally mediated. PDTC also induced small Maf expression in the other cell lines examined, with patterns of induction varying among cell lines. The differences in expression among the cell lines examined, coupled with the induction patterns observed, indicate that the three small maf genes are stress-responsive, but may be regulated via differing mechanisms. Furthermore, the fact that tBHQ, PDTC and PEITC induce EpRE activity, but that tBHQ fails to markedly induce any of the small Mafs, suggests that up-regulation of small Mafs is not an absolute requirement for EpRE-mediated gene expression.
Project description:Members of the small Maf family of transcription factors play important roles in hematopoiesis. Using transgenic assays, we discovered a tissue-specific enhancer 3' to the mafK gene. This enhancer directs mafK transcription in hematopoietic as well as in developing cardiac muscle cells, and was thus designated the hematopoietic and cardiac enhancer of mafK (HCEK). Only two of four GATA consensus motifs identified within HCEK contributed to enhancer activity, and both of these sites were required for both cardiac and hematopoietic transcriptional activation. The expression profile of MafK significantly overlapped that of GATA-1 in hematopoietic cells and of GATA-4/-6 in cardiac tissues. Each of these GATA factors bound with high specificity to both of the critical GATA sites in HCEK. Hence, the mafK gene is regulated by different GATA proteins in the hematopoietic and cardiac compartments through the same two GATA-binding sites in HCEK. These data provide the first in vivo demonstration that distinct members of a related transcription factor family activate the tissue-specific expression of a single target gene using the same cis-regulatory element.
Project description:Although majority of the genes linked to pediatric cataract exhibit lens fiber cell-enriched expression, our understanding of gene regulation in these cells is limited to function of just eight transcription factors and largely in the context of crystallins. Here, we identify small Maf transcription factors MafG and MafK as regulators of several non-crystallin human cataract genes in fiber cells and establish their significance to cataract. We applied a bioinformatics tool for cataract gene discovery iSyTE to identify MafG and its co-regulators in the lens, and generated various null-allelic combinations of MafG:MafK mouse mutants for phenotypic and molecular analysis. By age 4-months, MafG-/-:MafK+/- mutants exhibit lens defects that progressively develop into cataract. High-resolution phenotypic characterization of MafG-/-:MafK+/- lens reveals severe defects in fiber cells, while microarrays-based expression profiling identifies 97 differentially regulated genes (DRGs). Integrative analysis of MafG-/-:MafK+/- lens-DRGs with 1) binding-motifs and genomic targets of small Mafs and their regulatory partners, 2) iSyTE lens-expression data, and 3) interactions between DRGs in the String database, unravels a detailed small Maf regulatory network in the lens, several nodes of which are linked to human cataract. This analysis prioritizes 36 highly promising candidates from the original 97 DRGs. Significantly, 8/36 (22%) DRGs are associated with cataracts in human (GSTO1, MGST1, SC4MOL, UCHL1) or mouse (Aldh3a1, Crygf, Hspb1, Pcbd1), suggesting a multifactorial etiology that includes elevation of oxidative stress. These data identify MafG and MafK as new cataract-associated candidates and define their function in regulating largely non-crystallin genes linked to mouse and human cataract. Microarray comparision of lenses from mixed background (129Sv/J, C57BL/6J, and ICR) control (MafG+/-:MafK+/-; no-cataract) and compound (MafG-/-:MafK+/-; cataract) mouse mutants
Project description:MafF-/-: MafG+/+: MafK-/- mice are viable, while MafF-/-: MafG-/-: MafK-/- mice are embryonic lethal. To get an insight into the cause of the lethality of small Maf triple knockout mice, transcriptome analysis was performed using whole embyos of MafF-/-: MafG-/-: MafK-/- at E10.5 and those of MafF-/-: MafG+/+: MafK-/- at E9.5 or E10.5. Because MafF-/-: MafG-/-: MafK-/- embryos exhibit growth retardation, the gene expression profile of MafF-/-: MafG-/-: MafK-/- embryos at E10.5 was compared with that of MafF-/-: MafG+/+: MafK-/- embyos at E9.5. The gene expression profile of MafF-/-: MafG+/+: MafK-/- embryos at E10.5 was also examined as an alternative control. Total RNA was prepared from pooled three embryos for each sample.
Project description:To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in maf protein K (MAFK), which encodes the MAFK, lead to increased susceptibility to ulcerative colitis in the Japanese population.This case control study examined the associations between MAFK single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs4268033 G>A, rs3735656 T>C and rs10226620 C>T) and ulcerative colitis susceptibility in 174 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) cases, and 748 subjects without no lower abdominal symptoms, diarrhea or hematochezia (controls). In addition, as the second controls, we set 360 subjects, who have an irregular bowel movement without abnormal lower endoscopic findings (IBM controls).The genotype frequency of rs4268033 AA and allelic frequency of the rs4268033A allele were significantly higher in the UC cases than in both controls (P = 0.0005 and < 0.0001, P = 0.015 and 0.0027 vs controls and IBM controls, respectively). Logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age and gender showed that the rs4268033 AA and rs3735656 CC genotypes were significantly associated with susceptibility to UC development (OR = 2.63, 95%CI: 1.61-4.30, P = 0.0001 and OR = 1.81; 95%CI: 1.12-2.94, P = 0.015, respectively). Similar findings were observed by the comparison with IBM controls. In addition, the rs4268033 AA genotype was significantly associated with all phenotypes of UC except early onset. There was no significant association between rs10226620 and ulcerative colitis.Our results provide the first evidence that MAFK genetic polymorphisms are significantly associated with susceptibility to UC development. In particular, rs4268033 is closely associated with an increased risk for the development of UC.
Project description:Using a zebrafish model of hepatoerythropoietic porphyria (HEP), we identify a previously unknown mechanism underlying heme-mediated regulation of exocrine zymogens. Zebrafish bach1b, nrf2a and mafK are all expressed in the zebrafish exocrine pancreas. Overexpression of bach1b or knockdown of nrf2a result in the downregulation of the expression of the exocrine zymogens, whereas overexpression of nrf2a or knockdown of bach1b cause their upregulation. In vitro luciferase assays demonstrate that heme activates the zymogens in a dosage-dependent manner and that the zymogen promoter activities require the integral Maf recognition element (MARE) motif. The Bach1b-MafK heterodimer represses the zymogen promoters, whereas the Nrf2a-MafK heterodimer activates them. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays show that MafK binds to the MARE sites in the 5' regulatory regions of the zymogens. Taken together, these data indicate that heme stimulates the exchange of Bach1b for Nrf2a at MafK-occupied MARE sites and that, particularly in heme-deficient porphyria, the repressive Bach1b-MafK heterodimer dominates, which can be exchanged for the activating Nrf2a-MafK heterodimer upon treatment with hemin. These results provide novel insights into the regulation of exocrine function, as well as the pathogenesis of porphyria, and should be useful for designing new therapies for both types of disease.
Project description:Members of the small Maf family (MafK, MafF, and MafG) are basic region leucine zipper (bZip) proteins that can function as transcriptional activators or repressors. The dimer compositions of their DNA binding forms determine whether the small Maf family proteins activate or repress transcription. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen with a GAL4-MafK fusion protein, we have identified two novel bZip transcription factors, Bach1 and Bach2, as heterodimerization partners of MafK. In addition to a Cap'n'collar-type bZip domain, these Bach proteins possess a BTB domain which is a protein interaction motif; Bach1 and Bach2 show significant similarity to each other in these regions but are otherwise divergent. Whereas expression of Bach1 appears ubiquitous, that of Bach2 is restricted to monocytes and neuronal cells. Bach proteins bind in vitro to NF-E2 binding sites, recognition elements for the hematopoietic transcription factor NF-E2, by forming heterodimers with MafK. Furthermore, a DNA binding complex that contained MafK as well as Bach2 or a protein related closely to Bach2 was found to be present in mouse brain cells. Bach1 and Bach2 function as transcription repressors in transfection assays using fibroblast cells, but they function as a transcriptional activator and repressor, respectively, in cultured erythroid cells. The results suggest that members of the Bach family play important roles in coordinating transcription activation and repression by MafK.
Project description:MAFK is one of small Maf transcripton factor famiy molecules. We found MAFK is highly expressed in several cancer cells and related to tumorigenesis. Then, we established MAFK stable cell lines using NMuMG cells (mouse mammary glad epithelium) and used microarrays to examine gene expression alteration. Overall design: RNAs from NMuMG-mock cells and MAFK stably expressing cell lines (clones 4 and 10) were hybridized on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:We used serial analysis of gene expression to identify new NGF-responsive immediate early genes (IEGs) with potential roles in neuronal differentiation. Among those identified was MafK, a small Maf family basic region and leucine zipper transcriptional repressor and coactivator expressed in immature neurons. NGF treatment elevates the levels of both MafK transcripts and protein. In contrast, there is no effect on expression of the closely related MafG. Unlike many other NGF-responsive IEGs, MafK regulation shows selectivity and is unresponsive to epidermal growth factor, depolarization, or cAMP derivatives. Inhibitor studies indicate that NGF-promoted MafK regulation is mediated by an atypical isoform of PKC but not by mitogen-activated kinase kinase, phospholipase Cgamma, or phosphoinositide 3'-kinase. Interference with MafK expression or activity by small interfering RNA and dominant negative strategies, respectively, suppresses NGF-promoted outgrowth and maintenance of neurites by PC12 cells and neurite outgrowth by immature telencephalic neurons. Our findings support a role for MafK as a novel regulator of neuronal differentiation.