Mutual association of Broad bean wilt virus 2 VP37-derived tubules and plasmodesmata obtained from cytological observation.
ABSTRACT: The movement protein VP37 of broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV 2) forms tubules in the plasmodesmata (PD) for the transport of virions between cells. This paper reports a mutual association between the BBWV 2 VP37-tubule complex and PD at the cytological level as determined by transmission electron microscopy. The generation of VP37-tubules within different PD leads to a different occurrence frequency as well as different morphology lines of virus-like particles. In addition, the frequency of VP37-tubules was different between PD found at different cellular interfaces, as well as between single-lined PD and branched PD. VP37-tubule generation also induced structural alterations of PD as well as modifications to the cell wall (CW) in the vicinity of the PD. A structural comparison using three-dimensional (3D) electron tomography (ET), determined that desmotubule structures found in the center of normal PD were absent in PD containing VP37-tubules. Using gold labeling, modification of the CW by callose deposition and cellulose reduction was observable on PD containing VP37-tubule. These cytological observations provide evidence of a mutual association of MP-derived tubules and PD in a natural host, improving our fundamental understanding of interactions between viral MP and PD that result in intercellular movement of virus particles.
Project description:Plant virus cell-to-cell movement is an essential step in viral infections. This process is facilitated by specific virus-encoded movement proteins (MPs), which manipulate the cell wall channels between neighboring cells known as plasmodesmata (PD). Citrus psorosis virus (CPsV) infection in sweet orange involves the formation of tubule-like structures within PD, suggesting that CPsV belongs to "tubule-forming" viruses that encode MPs able to assemble a hollow tubule extending between cells to allow virus movement. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that the MP of CPsV (MPCPsV) indeed forms tubule-like structures at PD upon transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Tubule formation by MPCPsV depends on its cleavage capacity, mediated by a specific aspartic protease motif present in its primary sequence. A single amino acid mutation in this motif abolishes MPCPsV cleavage, alters the subcellular localization of the protein, and negatively affects its activity in facilitating virus movement. The amino-terminal 34-kDa cleavage product (34KCPsV), but not the 20-kDa fragment (20KCPsV), supports virus movement. Moreover, similar to tubule-forming MPs of other viruses, MPCPsV (and also the 34KCPsV cleavage product) can homooligomerize, interact with PD-located protein 1 (PDLP1), and assemble tubule-like structures at PD by a mechanism dependent on the secretory pathway. 20KCPsV retains the protease activity and is able to cleave a cleavage-deficient MPCPsV in trans Altogether, these results demonstrate that CPsV movement depends on the autolytic cleavage of MPCPsV by an aspartic protease activity, which removes the 20KCPsV protease and thereby releases the 34KCPsV protein for PDLP1-dependent tubule formation at PD.IMPORTANCE Infection by citrus psorosis virus (CPsV) involves a self-cleaving aspartic protease activity within the viral movement protein (MP), which results in the production of two peptides, termed 34KCPsV and 20KCPsV, that carry the MP and viral protease activities, respectively. The underlying protease motif within the MP is also found in the MPs of other members of the Aspiviridae family, suggesting that protease-mediated protein processing represents a conserved mechanism of protein expression in this virus family. The results also demonstrate that CPsV and potentially other ophioviruses move by a tubule-guided mechanism. Although several viruses from different genera were shown to use this mechanism for cell-to-cell movement, our results also demonstrate that this mechanism is controlled by posttranslational protein cleavage. Moreover, given that tubule formation and virus movement could be inhibited by a mutation in the protease motif, targeting the protease activity for inactivation could represent an important approach for ophiovirus control.
Project description:Cell-to-cell movement of plant viruses occurs via plasmodesmata (PD), organelles that evolved to facilitate intercellular communications. Viral movement proteins (MP) modify PD to allow passage of the virus particles or nucleoproteins. This passage occurs via several distinct mechanisms one of which is MP-dependent formation of the tubules that traverse PD and provide a conduit for virion translocation. The MP of tubule-forming viruses including Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) recruit the plant PD receptors called Plasmodesmata Located Proteins (PDLP) to mediate tubule assembly and virus movement. Here we show that PDLP1 is transported to PD through a specific route within the secretory pathway in a myosin-dependent manner. This transport relies primarily on the class XI myosins XI-K and XI-2. Inactivation of these myosins using dominant negative inhibition results in mislocalization of PDLP and MP and suppression of GFLV movement. We also found that the proper targeting of specific markers of the Golgi apparatus, the plasma membrane, PD, lipid raft subdomains within the plasma membrane, and the tonoplast was not affected by myosin XI-K inhibition. However, the normal tonoplast dynamics required myosin XI-K activity. These results reveal a new pathway of the myosin-dependent protein trafficking to PD that is hijacked by GFLV to promote tubule-guided transport of this virus between plant cells.
Project description:Plasmodesma (PD) is a channel structure that spans the cell wall and provides symplastic connection between adjacent cells. Various macromolecules are known to be transported through PD in a highly regulated manner, and plant viruses utilize their movement proteins (MPs) to gate the PD to spread cell-to-cell. The mechanism by which MP modifies PD to enable intercelluar traffic remains obscure, due to the lack of knowledge about the host factors that mediate the process. Here, we describe the functional interaction between Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) MP and a plant factor, an ankyrin repeat containing protein (ANK), during the viral cell-to-cell movement. We utilized a reverse genetics approach to gain insight into the possible involvement of ANK in viral movement. To this end, ANK overexpressor and suppressor lines were generated, and the movement of MP was tested. MP movement was facilitated in the ANK-overexpressing plants, and reduced in the ANK-suppressing plants, demonstrating that ANK is a host factor that facilitates MP cell-to-cell movement. Also, the TMV local infection was largely delayed in the ANK-suppressing lines, while enhanced in the ANK-overexpressing lines, showing that ANK is crucially involved in the infection process. Importantly, MP interacted with ANK at PD. Finally, simultaneous expression of MP and ANK markedly decreased the PD levels of callose, ?-1,3-glucan, which is known to act as a molecular sphincter for PD. Thus, the MP-ANK interaction results in the downregulation of callose and increased cell-to-cell movement of the viral protein. These findings suggest that ANK represents a host cellular receptor exploited by MP to aid viral movement by gating PD through relaxation of their callose sphincters.
Project description:Plant virus movement proteins (MPs) localize to plasmodesmata (PD) to facilitate virus cell-to-cell movement. Numerous studies have suggested that MPs use a pathway either through the ER or through the plasma membrane (PM). Furthermore, recent studies reported that ER-PM contact sites and PM microdomains, which are subdomains found in the ER and PM, are involved in virus cell-to-cell movement. However, functional relationship of these subdomains in MP traffic to PD has not been described previously. We demonstrate here the intracellular trafficking of fig mosaic virus MP (MPFMV) using live cell imaging, focusing on its ER-directing signal peptide (SPFMV). Transiently expressed MPFMV was distributed predominantly in PD and patchy microdomains of the PM. Investigation of ER translocation efficiency revealed that SPFMV has quite low efficiency compared with SPs of well-characterized plant proteins, calreticulin and CLAVATA3. An MPFMV mutant lacking SPFMV localized exclusively to the PM microdomains, whereas SP chimeras, in which the SP of MPFMV was replaced by an SP of calreticulin or CLAVATA3, localized exclusively to the nodes of the ER, which was labeled with Arabidopsis synaptotagmin 1, a major component of ER-PM contact sites. From these results, we speculated that the low translocation efficiency of SPFMV contributes to the generation of ER-translocated and the microdomain-localized populations, both of which are necessary for PD localization. Consistent with this hypothesis, SP-deficient MPFMV became localized to PD when co-expressed with an SP chimera. Here we propose a new model for the intracellular trafficking of a viral MP. A substantial portion of MPFMV that fails to be translocated is transferred to the microdomains, whereas the remainder of MPFMV that is successfully translocated into the ER subsequently localizes to ER-PM contact sites and plays an important role in the entry of the microdomain-localized MPFMV into PD.
Project description:Plasmodesmata (PD) are essential but poorly understood structures in plant cell walls that provide symplastic continuity and intercellular communication pathways between adjacent cells and thus play fundamental roles in development and pathogenesis. Viruses encode movement proteins (MPs) that modify these tightly regulated pores to facilitate their spread from cell to cell. The most striking of these modifications is observed for groups of viruses whose MPs form tubules that assemble in PDs and through which virions are transported to neighbouring cells. The nature of the molecular interactions between viral MPs and PD components and their role in viral movement has remained essentially unknown. Here, we show that the family of PD-located proteins (PDLPs) promotes the movement of viruses that use tubule-guided movement by interacting redundantly with tubule-forming MPs within PDs. Genetic disruption of this interaction leads to reduced tubule formation, delayed infection and attenuated symptoms. Our results implicate PDLPs as PD proteins with receptor-like properties involved the assembly of viral MPs into tubules to promote viral movement.
Project description:Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, <i>Cucumovirus</i>, Bromoviridae) is an economically significant virus infecting important horticultural and field crops. Current knowledge regarding the specific functions of its movement protein (MP) is still incomplete. In the present study, potential post-translational modification sites of its MP were assayed with mutant viruses: MP/S28A, MP/S28D, MP/S120A and MP/S120D. Ser28 was identified as an important factor in viral pathogenicity on <i>Nicotiana tabacum</i> cv. Xanthi, <i>Cucumis sativus</i> and <i>Chenopodium murale</i>. The subcellular localization of GFP-tagged movement proteins was determined with confocal laser-scanning microscopy. The wild type movement protein fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) (MP-eGFP) greatly colocalized with callose at plasmodesmata, while MP/S28A-eGFP and MP/S28D-eGFP were detected as punctate spots along the cell membrane without callose colocalization. These results underline the importance of phosphorylatable amino acids in symptom formation and provide data regarding the essential factors for plasmodesmata localization of CMV MP.
Project description:Purpose:To compare the macroscopic and microscopic histologic changes in eyes treated with micropulse transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (MP-TCP) versus continuous wave transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (CW-TCP). Methods:Twelve halves of globes from three pairs of adult cadaveric eyes were randomly assigned to nontreated control, CW-TCP, single MP-TCP treatment, or double MP-TCP treatments, and then sectioned for histologic analysis. Presence or absence of the following four unique histologic changes was recorded: splitting within the ciliary process epithelium (splitting), separation of the pigmented ciliary process epithelium from the stroma (separation), coagulation of collagen and destruction of ciliary process stroma (coagulation), and full-thickness destruction of ciliary process epithelium (destruction). Results:A total of 498 slides were analyzed, and laser scars in all treated specimens were located in the pars plana. Logistic regression analysis showed that compared with controls, CW-TCP-treated specimens were significantly more likely to experience separation (odds ratio [OR] = 11.1, P = 0.02), coagulation (OR = 24.3, P = 0.002), and destruction (OR = 11.1, P = 0.03). Destruction of the ciliary process epithelium was observed exclusively in CW-TCP-treated sections. No significant differences in histologic features were observed between controls and MP-TCP. Conclusions:MP-TCP does not produce significant histologic changes in cadaveric eyes, whereas CW-TCP treatment does. Translational Relevance:These findings improve understanding of the mechanism of MP-TCP, help explain the increased rates of adverse effects following CW-TCP treatment compared with MP-TCP, and describe effects of MP-TCP at various doses.
Project description:Transverse-tubules (T-tubules) play pivotal roles in Ca<sup>2+</sup>-induced, Ca<sup>2+</sup> release and excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyocytes. The purpose of this study was to uncover mechanisms where sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca<sup>2+</sup> ATPase (SERCA2a) improved cardiac function through T-tubule regulation during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). SERCA2a protein expression, cytoplasmic [Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>i</sub>, calpain activity, junctophilin-2 (JPH2) protein expression and intracellular localization, cardiomyocyte T-tubules, contractility and calcium transients in single cardiomyocytes and in vivo cardiac functions were all examined after SERCA2a knockout and overexpression, and Calpain inhibitor PD150606 (PD) pretreatment, following myocardial I/R. This comprehensive approach was adopted to clarify SERCA2a mechanisms in improving cardiac function in mice. Calpain was activated during myocardial I/R, and led to the proteolytic cleavage of JPH2. This altered the T-tubule network, the contraction function/calcium transients in cardiomyocytes and in vivo cardiac functions. During myocardial I/R, PD pretreatment upregulated JPH2 expression and restored it to its intracellular location, repaired the T-tubule network, and contraction function/calcium transients of cardiomyocytes and cardiac functions in vivo. SERCA2a suppressed calpain activity via [Ca<sup>2+</sup>]<sub>i</sub>, and ameliorated these key indices. Our results suggest that SERCA2a ameliorates cardiomyocyte T-tubule remodeling via the calpain/JPH2 pathway, thereby improving cardiac function in myocardial I/R mice.
Project description:Metazoan synaptotagmins are Ca(2+) sensors that regulate exocytosis and endocytosis in various cell types, notably in nerve and neuroendocrine cells [1, 2]. Recently, the structurally related extended synaptotagmins were shown to tether the cortical ER to the plasma membrane in human and yeast cells to maintain ER morphology and stabilize ER-plasma membrane (ER-PM) contact sites for intracellular lipid and Ca(2+) signaling [3, 4]. The Arabidopsis synaptotagmin SYTA regulates endocytosis and the ability of plant virus movement proteins (MPs) to alter plasmodesmata to promote virus cell-to-cell transport [5, 6]. Yet how MPs modify plasmodesmata, the cellular functions of SYTA and how these aid MP activity, and the proteins essential to form plant cell ER-PM contact sites remain unknown. We addressed these questions using an Arabidopsis SYTA knockdown line syta-1 and a Tobamovirus movement protein MP(TVCV) [5, 7]. We report here that SYTA localized to ER-PM contact sites. These sites were depleted and the ER network collapsed in syta-1, and both reformed upon rescue with SYTA. MP(TVCV) accumulation in plasmodesmata, but not secretory trafficking, was also inhibited in syta-1. During infection, MP(TVCV) recruited SYTA to plasmodesmata, and SYTA and the cortical ER were subsequently remodeled to form viral replication sites adjacent to plasmodesmata in which MP(TVCV) and SYTA directly interacted caged within ER membrane. SYTA also accumulated in plasmodesmata active in MP(TVCV) transport. Our findings show that SYTA is essential to form ER-PM contact sites and suggest that MPs interact with SYTA to recruit these sites to alter plasmodesmata for virus cell-to-cell movement.
Project description:?-Synuclein is a presynaptic protein that binds to phospholipid membranes and is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this paper, we describe the effects of adding wild-type ?-synuclein (WT) and three familial PD mutants (A53T, A30P, and E46K) to membranes containing 15-35 mol % anionic lipid. Tubules were observed to form in the membranes to an extent that depended on the ?-synuclein variant, the anionic lipid content, and the protein concentration. For all four variants, tubule formation decreased with increasing anionic lipid content. Tubules were more readily observed with A30P and E46K than with WT or A53T. The results are consistent with a model wherein the helical content of ?-synuclein increases with increasing anionic lipid content, and ?-synuclein conformers with low helical content have a high propensity to induce tubule formation. This work, combined with previous work from our laboratory (Pandey et al. Biophys. J. 2009, 96, 540), shows that WT adsorption of the protein has deleterious effects on the membrane when the anionic lipid concentration is less than 30 mol % (tubule formation) or greater than 40 mol % (reorganization of the bilayer, clustering of protein).