CYP19A1 polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in the BIG 1-98 trial.
ABSTRACT: To determine whether CYP19A1 polymorphisms are associated with abnormal activity of aromatase and with musculoskeletal and bone side effects of aromatase inhibitors. DNA was isolated from tumor specimens of 4861 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer enrolled in the BIG 1-98 trial to receive tamoxifen and/or letrozole for 5 years. Tumors were genotyped for six CYP19A1 polymorphisms using PCR-based methods. Associations with breast cancer-free interval (BCFI), distant recurrence-free interval (DRFI), musculoskeletal and bone adverse events (AEs) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. All statistical tests were two-sided. No association between the CYP19A1 genotypes and BCFI or DRFI was observed overall. A reduced risk of a breast cancer event for tamoxifen-treated patients with rs700518 variants was observed (BCFI CC/TC vs. TT: HR 0.53, 95 % CI 0.34-0.82, interaction P = 0.08), but not observed for letrozole-treated patients. There was an increased risk of musculoskeletal AEs for patients with rs700518 variants CC/TC versus TT (HR 1.22, 95 % CI 1.03-1.45, P = 0.02), regardless of treatment. Tamoxifen-treated patients with rs4646 variants had a reduced risk of bone AEs (AA/CA vs. CC: HR 0.76, 95 % CI 0.59-0.98), whereas an increase of minor allele (C) of rs10046 was associated with an increased risk of bone AEs (HR 1.28, 95 % CI 1.07-1.52). rs936308 variants were associated with a reduced risk of bone AEs in letrozole-treated patients (GG/GC vs. CC: HR 0.73, 95 % CI 0.54-0.99), different from in tamoxifen-treated patients (GG/GC vs. CC: HR 1.32, 95 % CI 0.92-1.90, interaction P = 0.01). CYP19A1 rs700518 variants showed associations with BCFI, DRFI, in tamoxifen treated patients and musculoskeletal AEs regardless of treatment. SNPs rs4646, rs10046, and rs936308 were associated with bone AEs.
Project description:Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and cytochrome P450 19A1 (CYP19A1) genes have been associated with breast cancer risk, endocrine therapy response and side effects, mainly in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. This analysis aimed to assess the association of selected germline CYP19A1 and ESR1 SNPs with early-onset hot flashes, sweating and musculoskeletal symptoms in premenopausal patients enrolled in the Tamoxifen and Exemestane Trial (TEXT).Blood was collected from consenting premenopausal women with hormone-responsive early breast cancer, randomly assigned to 5-years of tamoxifen plus ovarian suppression (OFS) or exemestane plus OFS. DNA was extracted with QIAamp kits and genotyped for two CYP19A1 (rs4646 and rs10046) and three ESR1 (rs2077647, rs2234693 and rs9340799) SNPs by a real-time pyrosequencing technique. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded at baseline and 3-monthly during the first year. Associations of the genotype variants with grade ≥2 early-onset targeted AEs of hot flashes/sweating or musculoskeletal events were assessed using logistic regression models.There were 2660 premenopausal patients with breast cancer in the intention-to-treat population of TEXT, and 1967 (74 %) are included in this translational study. The CYP19A1 rs10046 variant T/T, represented in 23 % of women, was associated with a reduced incidence of grade ≥2 hot flashes/sweating (univariate odds ratio (OR) = 0.78; 95 % CI 0.63-0.97; P = 0.03), more strongly in patients assigned exemestane + OFS (TT vs CT/CC: OR = 0.65, 95 % CI = 0.48-0.89) than assigned tamoxifen + OFS (OR = 0.94, 95 % CI = 0.69-1.27, interaction P = 0.03). No association with any of the CYP19A1/ESR1 genotypes and musculoskeletal AEs was found.The CYP19A1 rs10046 variant T/T favors lower incidence of hot flashes/sweating under exemestane + OFS treatment, suggesting endocrine-mediated effects. Based on findings from others, this SNP may potentially enhance treatment adherence and treatment efficacy. We plan to evaluate the clinical impact of this polymorphism during time, pending sufficient median follow up.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00066703, registered August 6, 2003.
Project description:Polymorphisms in the CYP19A1 (aromatase) gene have been reported to influence disease-free survival and the incidence of musculoskeletal complaints in patients taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs) for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Bone loss and fractures are well-recognized complications from AI therapy. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of polymorphisms in the CYP19A1 gene on bone loss among patients taking aromatase inhibitors for ER+ breast cancer.The subjects consisted of 97 postmenopausal women with ER+ breast cancer who were initiated on third-generation AIs. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. Twenty-four hour urine N-telopeptide (NTX) was measured by Elisa and serum estradiol was measured by ultrasensitive radioimmunoassay at baseline, and at 6 months. Genotyping was done by Taqman SNP allelic discrimination assay.Women with the AA genotype for the rs700518 (G/A at Val(80)) developed significant bone loss at the lumbar spine and the total hip at 12 months relative to patients carrying the G allele (GA/GG); both p = 0.03. There was a borderline greater increase in urinary NTX in those with the AA genotype compared to patients with the G allele, p = 0.05; but no significant difference in changes in estradiol levels among the genotypes.Patients with the AA genotype for the rs700518 polymorphism in the CYP19A1 gene are at risk for AI-associated bone loss and deserve close follow-up during long-term AI therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We investigated the outcomes of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, early breast cancer with special histotypes (mucinous, tubular, or cribriform) enrolled in the monotherapy cohort of the BIG 1-98 trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS:The intention-to-treat BIG 1-98 monotherapy cohort (5 years of therapy with tamoxifen or letrozole) included 4922 women, of whom 4091 had central pathology review. Histotype groups were defined as: mucinous (N = 100), tubular/cribriform (N = 83), ductal (N = 3257), and other (N = 651). Of 183 women with either mucinous or tubular/cribriform tumors, 96 were randomly assigned to letrozole and 87 to tamoxifen. Outcomes assessed were disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), breast cancer-free interval (BCFI), and distant recurrence-free interval (DRFI). Median follow-up in the analytic cohort was 8.1 years. RESULTS:Women with tubular/cribriform breast cancer had the best outcomes for all end points compared with the other three histotypes, and had less breast cancer recurrence (97.5% 5-year BCFI) than those with mucinous (93.5%), ductal (88.9%), or other (89.9%) histotypes. Patients with mucinous or tubular/cribriform carcinoma had better DRFI (5-year rates 97.8% and 98.8%, respectively) than those with ductal (90.9%) or other (92.1%) carcinomas. Within the subgroup of women with special histotypes, we observed a nonsignificant increase in the hazard of breast cancer recurrence with letrozole [hazard (letrozole versus tamoxifen): 3.31, 95% confidence interval 0.94-11.7; P = 0.06]. CONCLUSIONS:Women with mucinous or tubular/cribriform breast cancer have better outcomes than those with other histotypes, although the observation is based on a limited number of events. In postmenopausal women with these histotypes, the magnitude of the letrozole advantage compared with tamoxifen may not be as large in patients with mucinous or tubular/cribriform disease. CLINICALTRIALSGOV:NCT00004205.
Project description:Estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and ESR2 gene polymorphisms have been associated with endocrine-mediated physiological mechanisms, and inconsistently with breast cancer risk and outcomes, bone mineral density changes, and hot flushes/night sweats. DNA was isolated and genotyped for six ESR1 and two ESR2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from tumor specimens from 3691 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer enrolled in the BIG 1-98 trial to receive tamoxifen and/or letrozole for 5 years. Associations with recurrence and adverse events (AEs) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. 3401 samples were successfully genotyped for five SNPs. ESR1 rs9340799(XbaI) (T>C) variants CC or TC were associated with reduced breast cancer risk (HR = 0.82,95% CI = 0.67-1.0), and ESR1 rs2077647 (T>C) variants CC or TC was associated with reduced distant recurrence risk (HR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.53-0.90), both regardless of the treatments. No differential treatment effects (letrozole vs. tamoxifen) were observed for the association of outcome with any of the SNPs. Letrozole-treated patients with rs2077647 (T>C) variants CC and TC had a reduced risk of bone AE (HR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.58-0.98, P interaction = 0.08), whereas patients with rs4986938 (G>A) genotype variants AA and AG had an increased risk of bone AE (HR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.01-1.84, P interaction = 0.07). We observed that (1) rare ESR1 homozygous polymorphisms were associated with lower recurrence, and (2) ESR1 and ESR2 SNPs were associated with bone AEs in letrozole-treated patients. Genes that are involved in estrogen signaling and synthesis have the potential to affect both breast cancer recurrence and side effects, suggesting that individual treatment strategies can incorporate not only oncogenic drivers but also SNPs related to estrogen activity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:As aromatase-deficient mice, which are deficient in estrogens, reportedly have reduced blood pressure, the aromatase gene (CYP19A1) is thought to be a susceptibility gene for essential hypertension (EH). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between CYP19A1 and EH by examining single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). METHODS:Five SNPs in the human CYP19A1 gene (rs1870049, rs936306, rs700518, rs10046 and rs4646) were selected, and an association study was performed in 218 Japanese EH patients and 225 age-matched normotensive (NT) individuals. RESULTS:There were significant differences between these groups in the distribution of genotypes rs700518 and rs10046 in male subjects, and genotypes rs700518, rs10046 and rs4646 in female subjects. On multiple logistic regression analysis, a significant association between rs700518 (p=0.023) and rs10046 (p=0.036) in male subjects and rs700518 in female subjects (p=0.018) was noted. Interestingly, the risk genotypes of rs700518 and rs10046 showed a sex-dependent inverse relationship. Both SBP and DBP levels were higher in total (cases and controls) male subjects with the G/G genotype with rs700518 or the T/T genotype with rs10046 than in male subjects without the G/G genotype or T/T genotype. SBP levels were lower in female subjects with the G/G genotype with rs700518 than in female subjects without G/G. The A-T haplotype constructed with rs1870049 and rs10046 was a susceptibility marker for EH. CONCLUSIONS:We confirmed that rs700518 and rs10046, as well as a haplotype constructed with rs1870049 and rs10046, in the human CYP19A1 gene can be used as genetic markers for gender-specific EH.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic and predictive value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cohort of the phase III IBCSG trial 22-00, comparing low-dose oral 'metronomic' cyclophosphamide-methotrexate maintenance chemotherapy (CM-maintenance) to no-CM-maintenance in early breast cancer. TILs were evaluated in full-face hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections of tumor samples confirmed centrally as TNBC (< 1 % of ER and PgR immunoreactivity and absence of HER2 overexpression or amplification). Mononuclear cells were evaluated in the stromal area within the borders of the invasive tumor. The primary endpoint was breast cancer-free interval (BCFI). Cox proportional hazards regression model assessed the association of BCFI and secondary endpoints with TILs score. In the 647 tumor samples, the median percentage of TILs was 18 % (IQR = 8-40 %), with 18 % having TILs ? 50 % (lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer, LPBC). At a median follow-up of 6.9 years, TILs were associated with better prognosis. For every 10 % increase of TILs, BCFI risk reduction was 13 % (HR 0.87, 95 % CI 0.79-0.95,P = 0.003). DFS, DRFI, and OS risk reductions were 11 % (P = 0.005), 16 % (P = 0.003), and 17 % (P < 0.001), respectively. Multivariable analysis confirmed the independent prognostic value of TILs. No significant TILs-by-treatment interaction was observed (P = 0.39) for associations of TILs with BCFI, although patients with LPBC receiving CM-maintenance had a greater breast cancer risk reduction (HR 0.64,95 % CI 0.23-1.78) than those with non-LPBC (TILs < 50 %) (HR 0.96, 95 % CI 0.67-1.40). TILs score is a potent prognostic factor in patients with TNBC. Low-dose chemotherapy confers a greater (not statistically significant) clinical benefit in patients with LPBC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many clinical trials have shown the efficacy of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the management of breast cancer (BC). There is growing evidence that CYP19A1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with clinical response (CR) and adverse effects (AEs) among BC patients treated with AIs. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between CYP19A1 polymorphisms and AI treatment in BC patients. METHODS:A systematic review was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS. A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the association between CYP19A1 variants and treatment response among BC patients. RESULTS:A total of 12 studies were included in the final analysis. There was significant variation among the populations studied and the SNPs and outcomes investigated. A meta-analysis was only possible for the evaluation of SNP rs4646 vs. the wild-type variant with respect to time to progression (TTP) among metastatic BC patients treated with AI. TTP was significantly increased in patients with the rs4646 variant compared with the wild-type gene (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.51 [95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.33-0.78], P = 0.002). Seven studies analyzed the association between AEs with different polymorphisms of CYP19A1. Although there was a statistically significant association with musculoskeletal adverse events (rs934635, rs60271534, rs700518rs, and haplotype M_3_5) and with vasomotor symptoms (rs934635, rs1694189, rs7176005, and haplotype M_5_3) in individual studies, similar associations were not observed in further studies. No statistically significant association between musculoskeletal AEs and SNPs rs4646, rs10046, rs727479, and rs1062033 was found. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that the presence of the rs4646 variant may be a predictive factor of the benefit of AI treatment for BC. The effects of CYP19A1 polymorphisms on clinical outcomes were most often detected in individual studies, suggesting that longer-term studies will better clarify these associations. Additional studies are needed to clarify the predictive value of other SNPs and whether CYP19A1 genotyping should be used to guide AI treatment.
Project description:Studies have shown that 48.59% of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is combined with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The mainstream view supports the correlation between MetS and BPH, but the pathogenesis of MetS-BPH is not fully understood. Four hundred and seventy-four men, aged 47 years or older, were recruited into this study by consecutive routine physical examination programs, and several parameters were obtained from each participant. Based on the diagnosis of BPH, MetS, and MetS-BPH, the participants were divided into BPH and Non-BPH groups, MetS and Non-MetS groups, as well as MetS-BPH and Non-MetS-BPH groups. The values of the obtained parameters were evaluated using Student's t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. The value of estradiol (E2) was higher in the diseased groups (BPH, MetS, and MetS-BPH groups) compared with the corresponding control groups (Non-BPH, Non-MetS, and Non-MetS-BPH groups), and the differences were statistically significant. Also, E2 had an independent association with BPH (OR = 2.286, 95% CI: 1.723-3.593, p < 0.001), MetS (OR = 1.406, 95% CI: 0.585-2.315, p < 0.001), and MetS-BPH (OR = 1.249, 95% CI: 0.795-1.962, p < 0.001). Regarding SNPs of CYP19A1 gene, both the rs4646 genotypes (CC, CA, and AA) and the rs700518 genotypes (CC, CT, and TT) were present in every group, and all genotypes had statistically significant differences between the diseased and corresponding control groups. However, only the TT genotype of rs700518 was independently associated with BPH, MetS, and MetS-BPH after adjusting for age. The TT genotype of rs700518 is an independent risk factor for the MetS-BPH populations, and the CYP19A1 gene regulation of estrogen leads to MetS-BPH.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450 (CYP)19A1 encodes aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens, and may play a role in variation in outcomes among women with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic association of rs4646 (A > C) and rs700518 (Val > Val) in the CYP19A1 gene with the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: These two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were analyzed in a primary study group of breast cancer patients and healthy control subjects. Genotypes were determined by the TaqMan SNP analysis technique. The study data were analyzed using the chi-square or t-test and logistic regression analysis by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16 software. RESULTS: rs4646 and rs700518 had no association with susceptibility to breast cancer. There was no significant association for either of these SNPs overall in breast cancer samples when compared with healthy control samples. Our data do not support a relationship between the CYP19A1 rs4646 and rs700518 SNPs and risk of breast cancer. It may be that there are ethnic differences with regard to this relationship. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that CYP19A1 rs4646 and rs700518 SNPs may not be involved in the etiology of breast cancer in the Saudi population. Confirmation of our findings in larger populations of other ethnicities could provide evidence for the role of the CYP19A1 gene in breast carcinomas.
Project description:Polymorphisms in the CYP19A1 (aromatase) gene influence disease-free survival and bone loss in patients taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs) for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers. Because AI use results in severe estrogen deficiency that may lead to changes in body composition, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of the rs700518 polymorphism in the CYP19A1 gene on the changes in body composition among postmenopausal women who were treated with AIs for ER+ breast cancer.This was a 1-year prospective study of changes in body composition in postmenopausal women who were initiated on third-generation AIs for ER+ breast cancer. Body composition was measured by dual-energy absorptiometry at 6 and 12 months, serum estradiol by radioimmunoassay, and genotyping by a TaqMan single-nucleotide polymorphism allelic discrimination assay.Eighty-two women could provide at least one follow-up body composition measurement. Women with the GG genotype for the rs700518 (G/A at Val80) developed a significant increase in truncal fat mass index (P=0.03) and a significant decrease in fat-free mass index (P=0.01) at 12 months relative to patients carrying the A allele (GA/AA). There was no significant difference in the changes in estradiol levels among the genotypes.Patients with the GG genotype for the rs700518 polymorphism in the CYP19A1 gene are at risk for significant loss of fat-free mass and increase in truncal fat with AI therapy. Whether there are associated metabolic abnormalities and whether changes would persist with long-term AI therapy need to be confirmed in a larger study with a longer duration of follow-up.