Gelam honey potentiates ex vivo corneal keratocytes proliferation with desirable phenotype expression.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Gelam honey on corneal keratocytes proliferative capacity and phenotypic characterization via MTT assay, gene expression and immunocytochemistry.Corneal keratocytes from New Zealand white rabbits were cultured in basal medium (BM) and serum enriched medium (BMS). Serial dilutions of Gelam honey (GH) were added to both media and cells were cultured until passage 1. MTT assay was performed on corneal keratocytes in both media to ascertain the optimal dose of GH that produced maximum proliferation.Gelam honey at the concentration of 0.0015% in both media showed the highest proliferative capacity with no morphological changes compared to their respective controls. The gene expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), a marker for quiescent keratocytes and vimentin, a marker for fibroblast, were higher in the GH enriched groups. The alpha smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression, marker for myofibroblast, was lower in GH treated groups compared to the controls. Immunocytochemistry results were in accordance to the gene expression analyses.Gelam honey at a concentration of 0.0015% promotes ex vivo corneal keratocytes proliferation while retaining desirable phenotype expression. The results serve as a basis for the development of Gelam honey as a potential natural product in promoting corneal wound healing.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Acacia honey is a natural product which has proven to have therapeutic effects on skin wound healing, but its potential healing effects in corneal wound healing have not been studied. This study aimed to explore the effects of Acacia honey (AH) on corneal keratocytes morphology, proliferative capacity, cell cycle, gene and protein analyses. Keratocytes from the corneal stroma of six New Zealand white rabbits were isolated and cultured until passage 1. The optimal dose of AH in the basal medium (FD) and medium containing serum (FDS) for keratocytes proliferation was identified using MTT assay. The morphological changes, gene and protein expressions of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), marker for quiescent keratocytes and vimentin, marker for fibroblasts were detected using q-RTPCR and immunocytochemistry respectively. Flowcytometry was performed to evaluate the cell cycle analysis of corneal keratocytes. RESULTS: Cultured keratocytes supplemented with AH showed no morphological changes compared to control. Keratocytes cultured in FD and FDS media supplemented with 0.025% AH showed optimal proliferative potential compared with FD and FDS media, respectively. Gene expressions of ADLH and vimentin were increased in keratocytes cultured with AH enriched media. All proteins were expressed in keratocytes cultured in all media in accordance to the gene expression findings. No chromosomal changes were detected in keratocytes in AH enriched media. CONCLUSION: Corneal keratocytes cultured in media supplemented with 0.025% AH showed an increase in proliferative capacity while retaining their morphology, gene and protein expressions with normal cell cycle. The results of the present study show promising role of AH role in accelerating the initial stage of corneal wound healing.
Project description:BACKGROUND: There has been no effective treatment or agent that is available for corneal injury in promoting corneal wound healing. Previous studies on edible bird's nest extract (EBN) had reported the presence of hormone-like substance; avian epidermal growth factor that could stimulate cell division and enhance regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes proliferative capacity and phenotypical changes. METHODS: Corneal keratocytes from six New Zealand White Rabbits were isolated and cultured until Passage 1. The proliferative effects of EBN on corneal keratocytes were determined by MTT assay in serum-containing medium (FDS) and serum-free medium (FD). Keratocytes phenotypical changes were morphologically assessed and gene expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), collagen type 1 and lumican were determined through RT-PCR. RESULTS: The highest cell proliferation was observed when both media were supplemented with 0.05% and 0.1% EBN. Cell proliferation was also consistently higher in FDS compared to FD. Both phase contrast micrographs and gene expression analysis confirmed the corneal keratocytes retained their phenotypes with the addition of EBN. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that low concentration of EBN could synergistically induce cell proliferation, especially in serum-containing medium. This could be a novel breakthrough as both cell proliferation and functional maintenance are important during corneal wound healing. The in vitro test is considered as a crucial first step for nutri-pharmaceutical formation of EBN-based eye drops before in vivo application.
Project description:Background:Human corneal stromal keratocytes propagated in culture media supplemented with human amnion extract (AME) can correct early corneal haze in an animal model. Clinical application of cultivated keratocytes is limited by infectious disease screening before amnion products can be used in humans. It remains unclear if AME from cryopreserved versus fresh human amnion can support human keratocyte propagation, and which components of the extract promote keratocyte growth. Methods:Three placentas were collected for the preparation of fresh and cryopreserved amnion tissues followed by homogenization and protein extraction. AME protein profiles were studied using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics. Enriched gene ontology (GO) terms and functional classes were identified. Primary human keratocytes from 4 donor corneas were cultured in media supplemented with fresh AME (F-AME) or cryopreserved AME (C-AME). Cell viability, proliferation and keratocyte marker expression were examined by confocal immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Results:AME proteomics revealed 1385 proteins with similar expression levels (between 0.5- and 2-fold) between F- and C-AME, while 286 proteins were reduced (less than 0.5-fold) in C-AME. Enriched GO term and biological pathway analysis showed that those proteins with comparable expression between F-AME and C-AME were involved in cell metabolism, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, focal adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix interaction, cell stress regulation and complement cascades. Human corneal stromal keratocytes cultured with F-AME or C-AME showed similar morphology and viability, while cell proliferation was mildly suppressed with C-AME (P?>?0.05). Expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) and CD34 was similar in both cultures. Conclusion:AME from cryopreserved amnion had limited influence on keratocyte culture. It is feasible to use protein extract from cryopreserved amnion to propagate human keratocytes for potential translational applications.
Project description:We sought to identify the anti-angiogenic molecule expressed in corneal keratocytes that is responsible for maintaining the avascularity of the cornea.Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured with either human dermal fibroblasts or with human corneal keratocytes under serum-free conditions. The areas that exhibited blood vessel formation were estimated by immunostaining the cultures with an antitibody against CD31, a blood vessel marker. We also performed microarray gene-expression analysis and selected one molecule, angiopoietin-like 7 (ANGPTL7) for further functional studies conducted with the keratocytes and in vivo in mice.Areas showing blood vessel formation in normal serum-free medium were conditions were markedly smaller when HUVECs were co-cultured with corneal keratocytes than when they were co-cultured with the dermal fibroblasts under the same conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that ANGPTL7 expression was higher in keratocytes than in dermal fibroblasts. In vitro, inhibiting ANGPTL7 expression by using a specific siRNA led to greater tube formation than did the transfection of cells with a control siRNA, and this increase in tube formation was abolished when recombinant ANGPTL7 protein was added to the cultures. In vivo, intrastromal injections of an ANGPTL7 PshRNA into the avascular corneal stroma of mice resulted in the growth of blood vessels.ANGPTL7, which is abundantly expressed in keratocytes, plays a major role in maintaining corneal avascularity and transparency.
Project description:Porcine to rat corneal xenotransplantation resulted in severe inflammation and rejection of the corneal stroma, whereas an allograft showed mainly endothelial cell-associated rejection. We, therefore, investigated and compared the gene expression between porcine keratocytes and corneal endothelial cells. RNA was isolated from primary cultured porcine or human keratocytes and porcine corneal endothelial cells. Gene expression was comparatively analyzed after normalization with microarray method using Platinum pig 13 K oligo chip (GenoCheck Co., Ltd., Ansan, Korea). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for C1R, CCL2, CXCL6, and HLA-A in porcine keratocytes and corneal endothelial cells. As a result, upregulated expression more than 2 folds was observed in 1,162 genes of porcine keratocytes versus porcine endothelial cells. Among the immune-regulatory genes, SEMA3C, CCL2, CXCL6, F3, HLA-A, CD97, IFI30, C1R, and G1P3 were highly expressed in porcine keratocytes, compared to porcine corneal endothelial cells or human keratocytes. When measured by real-time PCR, the expression of C1R, CCL2, and HLA-A was higher in porcine keratocytes compared to that in porcine corneal endothelial cells. In conclusion, the increased expression of C1R, CCL2, and HLA-A genes in porcine keratocytes might be responsible for the stromal rejection observed in a porcine to rat corneal xenotransplantation.
Project description:To determine whether changes in the expression of type IV alpha1, alpha2, or alpha3 collagen isoforms are stringently associated with corneal stromal cell activation.Keratocytes isolated from rabbit corneal stroma by collagenase digestion were plated in serum-free or insulin-, bFGF/heparin sulfate (HS)-, TGF-beta1-, or fetal bovine serum (FBS)-supplemented DMEM/F12 medium. Expression of type IV collagen isoforms and keratan sulfate proteoglycans (KSPGs) was evaluated by immunocytochemical analysis, Western blot analysis, or both. Concentrations of mRNAs were estimated by quantitative RT-PCR using SYBR Green RT-PCR reagents.Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that type IV alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 collagens were expressed in normal rabbit corneal stroma and in keratocytes cultured in serum-free and insulin-supplemented media. However, alpha3(IV) collagen was not detectable in the regenerating stroma after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in rabbit or in corneal stromal cells cultured in media supplemented with FBS, bFGF/HS, or TGF-beta1. alpha3(IV) collagen mRNA levels were also diminished in the stromal cells cultured in these growth factor-supplemented media. KSPGs (lumican and keratocan) were expressed and secreted in serum-free medium. Although the expression of KSPGs was promoted by insulin, the expression and intracellular levels of lumican and keratocan mRNAs were downregulated by TGF-beta1 and FBS. bFGF/HS promoted the downregulation of intracellular keratocan but not lumican mRNA levels.The loss in the expression of alpha3(IV) collagen is a stringent phenotypic change associated with activation of keratocytes in vivo and in vitro. This phenotypic change in activated corneal stromal cells is induced by bFGF/HS and by TGF-beta1, and it accompanies the downregulation of keratocan expression.
Project description:To investigate the potential of human corneal stromal stem cells to assume a keratocyte phenotype and to organize extracellular matrix (ECM) in vitro similar to corneal stromal tissue.Human corneal stromal stem cells (hCSSC) were isolated as side population cells by flow cytometry. Cloned hCSSC were cultured as free-floating pellets in serum-free media for 3 weeks. Gene expression was examined using gene array, quantitative RT-PCR, immunostaining, and immunoblotting. Transmission electron microscopy showed collagen fibril size and alignment.Pellet cultures of hCSSC in serum-free media upregulated the expression of keratocyte-specific genes and secreted substantial ECM containing characteristic stromal components: keratocan, keratan sulfate, collagen I, collagen V, and collagen VI. Abundant connexin 43 and cadherin 11 in pellets demonstrated cell-cell junctions typical of keratocytes in vivo. Electron microscopy of the pellet cultures revealed abundant fibrillar collagen, some of which was aligned in parallel arrays similar to those of stromal lamellae. Gene array identified expression in pellets of several genes highly expressed by keratocytes. Transcripts for these keratocyte genes -- FLJ30046, KERA, ALDH3A1, CXADR, PTGDS, PDK4, MTAC2D1, F13A1 -- were increased by as much as 100-fold in pellets compared with hCSSC. Simultaneously, expression of stem cell genes BMI1, KIT, NOTCH1, SIX2, PAX6, ABCG2, SPAG10, and OSIL was reduced by a similar factor in pellets compared with hCSSC.Scaffolding-free pellet culture of hCSSC induces keratocyte gene expression patterns in these cells and secretion of an organized stroma-like ECM. These cells offer a novel potential for corneal bioengineering.
Project description:Cell-based therapies to replace corneal endothelium depend on culture methods to optimize human corneal endothelial cell (HCEC) function and minimize endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EnMT). Here we explore contribution of low-mitogenic media on stabilization of phenotypes in vitro that mimic those of HCECs in vivo.HCECs were isolated from cadaveric donor corneas and expanded in vitro, comparing continuous presence of exogenous growth factors ("proliferative media") to media without those factors ("stabilizing media"). Identity based on canonical morphology and expression of surface marker CD56, and function based on formation of tight junction barriers measured by trans-endothelial electrical resistance assays (TEER) were assessed.Primary HCECs cultured in proliferative media underwent EnMT after three to four passages, becoming increasingly fibroblastic. Stabilizing the cells before each passage by switching them to a media low in mitogenic growth factors and serum preserved canonical morphology and yielded a higher number of cells. HCECs cultured in stabilizing media increased both expression of the identity marker CD56 and also tight junction monolayer integrity compared to cells cultured without stabilization.HCECs isolated from donor corneas and expanded in vitro with a low-mitogenic media stabilizing step before each passage demonstrate more canonical structural and functional features and defer EnMT, increasing the number of passages and total canonical cell yield. This approach may facilitate development of HCEC-based cell therapies.
Project description:All-trans retinoic acid (RA) supplementation was investigated as a method of enhancing the differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) to corneal keratocytes in vitro, in combination with a chemically defined serum-free medium.Adipose-derived stem cells were cultured in monolayer and supplemented with 0.1, 1, or 10 ?M RA for 14 days. The effects of RA on cell proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation were evaluated. In addition, the expression of phenotypic keratocyte markers was examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunocytochemistry, and Western blotting.Adipose-derived stem cells cultured with RA showed improved cell proliferation and ECM production. In addition, RA enhanced the expression of keratocyte-specific markers, keratocan, aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1, lumican, and decorin, when compared to serum-free media alone. Furthermore, the presence of RA increased the amount of collagen type I while reducing the expression of fibrotic marker, ?-smooth muscle actin.These findings indicate that RA is a useful supplement for promoting a keratocyte phenotype in ASC.This study is particularly important for the generation of biological corneal substitutes and next generation cell based therapies for corneal conditions.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to determine whether myofibroblast differentiation altered keratocyte crystallin protein concentration and increased cellular light scattering.Serum-free cultured rabbit corneal keratocytes and TGF? (5 ng/mL) induced myofibroblasts were harvested and counted and protein/RNA extracted. Expression of myofibroblast and keratocyte markers was determined by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. The cell volume of calcein AM-loaded keratocytes and myofibroblasts was determined by using nonlinear optical microscopy. Cellular light scattering of transformed myofibroblasts expressing human keratocyte crystallins was measured by reflectance confocal microscopy.Differentiated myofibroblasts showed a significant decrease in RNA levels for the keratocyte markers ALDH1A1, lumican, and keratocan and a significant increase in the myofibroblast marker ?-smooth muscle actin. Volumetric and protein measurements showed that myofibroblast differentiation significantly increased cytoplasmic volume (293%; P < 0.001) and water-soluble and -insoluble protein content per cell (respectively, 442% and 431%; P < 0.002) compared to keratocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the level of ALDH1A1 protein per cell was similar between myofibroblasts and keratocytes, but was substantially reduced as a percentage of total water-soluble protein. Light scattering measurements showed that induced expression of corneal crystallins significantly decreased light scattering.These data suggest that myofibroblast differentiation leads to a marked increase in cell volume and dilution of corneal crystallins associated with an increase in cellular light scattering.