Bacterial cellulose synthesis mechanism of facultative anaerobe Enterobacter sp. FY-07.
ABSTRACT: Enterobacter sp. FY-07 can produce bacterial cellulose (BC) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Three potential BC synthesis gene clusters (bcsI, bcsII and bcsIII) of Enterobacter sp. FY-07 have been predicted using genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis, in which bcsIII was confirmed as the main contributor to BC synthesis by gene knockout and functional reconstitution methods. Protein homology, gene arrangement and gene constitution analysis indicated that bcsIII had high identity to the bcsI operon of Enterobacter sp. 638; however, its arrangement and composition were same as those of BC synthesizing operon of G. xylinum ATCC53582 except for the flanking sequences. According to the BC biosynthesizing process, oxygen is not directly involved in the reactions of BC synthesis, however, energy is required to activate intermediate metabolites and synthesize the activator, c-di-GMP. Comparative transcriptome and metabolite quantitative analysis demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions genes involved in the TCA cycle were downregulated, however, genes in the nitrate reduction and gluconeogenesis pathways were upregulated, especially, genes in three pyruvate metabolism pathways. These results suggested that Enterobacter sp. FY-07 could produce energy efficiently under anaerobic conditions to meet the requirement of BC biosynthesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Heterogeneity of oil-bearing formations is one of major contributors to low oil recovery efficiency globally. Long-term water flooding will aggravate this heterogeneity by resulting in many large channels during the exploitation process. Thus, injected water quickly flows through these large channels rather than oil-bearing areas, which ultimately leads to low oil recovery. This problem can be solved by profile control using polymer plugging. However, non-deep profile control caused by premature plugging is the main challenge. Here, a conditional bacterial cellulose-producing strain, namely Enterobacter sp. FY-0701, was constructed for deep profile control to solve the problem of premature plugging. Its deep profile control and oil displacement capabilities were subsequently identified and assessed. RESULTS:The conditional bacterial cellulose-producing strain Enterobacter sp. FY-0701 was constructed by knocking out a copy of fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (FBP) encoding gene in Enterobacter sp. FY-07. Scanning electron microscope observation showed this strain produced bacterial cellulose using glucose rather than glycerol as the sole carbon source. Bacterial concentration and cellulose production at different locations in core experiments indicated that the plugging position of FY-0701 was deeper than that of FY-07. Moreover, enhanced oil recovery by FY-0701 was 12.09%, being 3.86% higher than that by FY-07 in the subsequent water flooding process. CONCLUSIONS:To our knowledge, this is the first report of conditional biopolymer-producing strains used in microbial enhance oil recovery (MEOR). Our results demonstrated that the conditional bacterial cellulose-producing strain can in situ produce biopolymer far from injection wells and plugs large channels, which increased the sweep volume of injection water and enhance oil recovery. The construction of this strain provides an alternative strategy for using biopolymers in MEOR.
Project description:Plasmodium vivax (Pv) is a major cause of human malaria and is increasing in public health importance compared with falciparum malaria. Pv is unique among human malarias in that invasion of erythrocytes is almost solely dependent on the red cell's surface receptor, known as the Duffy blood-group antigen (Fy). Fy is an important minor blood-group antigen that has two immunologically distinct alleles, referred to as Fy(a) or Fy(b), resulting from a single-point mutation. This mutation occurs within the binding domain of the parasite's red cell invasion ligand. Whether this polymorphism affects susceptibility to clinical vivax malaria is unknown. Here we show that Fy(a), compared with Fy(b), significantly diminishes binding of Pv Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) at the erythrocyte surface, and is associated with a reduced risk of clinical Pv in humans. Erythrocytes expressing Fy(a) had 41-50% lower binding compared with Fy(b) cells and showed an increased ability of naturally occurring or artificially induced antibodies to block binding of PvDBP to their surface. Individuals with the Fy(a+b-) phenotype demonstrated a 30-80% reduced risk of clinical vivax, but not falciparum malaria in a prospective cohort study in the Brazilian Amazon. The Fy(a+b-) phenotype, predominant in Southeast Asian and many American populations, would confer a selective advantage against vivax malaria. Our results also suggest that efficacy of a PvDBP-based vaccine may differ among populations with different Fy phenotypes.
Project description:Colicin FY is a plasmid encoded toxin that recognizes a yersinia-specific outer membrane protein (YiuR) as a receptor molecule. We have previously shown that the activity spectrum of colicin FY comprises strains of the genus Yersinia. In this study, we analyzed the activity of colicin FY against 110 Yersinia enterocolitica isolates differing in geographical origin and source. All isolates were characterized through analysis of 16S rRNA genes, serotyping, biotyping, restriction profiling of genomic DNA, detection of virulence markers and susceptibility to antibiotics. This confirmed the broad variability of the collection, in which all 110 Y. enterocolitica isolates, representing 77 various strains, were inhibited by colicin FY. Although isolates showed variable levels of susceptibility to colicin FY, it was not associated with any strain characteristic. The universal susceptibility of Y. enterocolitica strains to colicin FY together with the absence of activity towards strains outside the Yersinia genus suggests potential therapeutic applications for colicin FY.
Project description:Yersiniosis belongs to the common foodborne diseases around the world, and frequently manifests as diarrhea that can be treated with probiotics. Colicin FY is an antibacterial agent produced by bacteria and it is capable of specific growth inhibition of Yersinia enterocolitica, the causative agent of gastrointestinal yersiniosis. In this study, recombinant E. coli producing colicin FY were constructed, using both known probiotic strains EcH22 and EcColinfant, and the newly isolated murine strains Ec1127 and Ec1145. All E. coli strains producing colicin FY inhibited growth of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica during co-cultivation in vitro. In dysbiotic mice treated with streptomycin, E. coli strains producing colicin FY inhibited progression of Y. enterocolitica infections. This growth inhibition was not observed in mice with normal gut microflora, likely due to insufficient colonization capacity of E. coli strains and/or due to spatial differences in intestinal niches. Isogenic Y. enterocolitica producing colicin FY was constructed and shown to inhibit pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in mice with normal microflora. Evidence of in vivo antimicrobial activity of colicin FY may have utility in the treatment of Y. enterocolitica infections.
Project description:Arabidopsis FY, a homologue of the yeast RNA 3' processing factor Pfs2p, regulates the autonomous floral transition pathway through its interaction with FCA, an RNA binding protein. It is demonstrated here that FY also influences seed dormancy. Freshly-harvested seed of the Arabidopsis fy-1 mutant germinated readily in the absence of stratification or after-ripening. Furthermore, the fy-1 mutant showed less ABA sensitivity compared with the wild type, Ler, under identical conditions. Freshly-harvested seed of fy-1 had significantly higher ABA levels than Ler, even though Ler was dormant and fy-1 germinated readily. The PPLPP domains of FY, which are required for flowering control, were not essential for the ABA-influenced repression of germination. FLC expression analysis in seeds of different genotypes suggested that the effect of FY on dormancy may not be elicited through FLC. No significant differences in CYP707A1, CYP707A2, NCED9, ABI3, and ABI4 were observed between freshly-harvested Ler and fy-1 imbibed for 48 h. GA3ox1 and GA3ox2 rapidly increased over the 48 h imbibition period for fy-1, with no significant increases in these transcripts for Ler. ABI5 levels were significantly lower in fy-1 over the 48 h imbibition period. The results suggest that FY is involved in the development of dormancy and ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis seed.
Project description:The Duffy (Fy) antigens act as receptors for chemokines as well as for Plasmodium vivax to invade human RBCs. A recent study has correlated the occurrence of the FY*A allele of Duffy gene with decreased susceptibility to vivax malaria, but no epidemiological correlation between the distribution of FY*A allele and incidences of vivax malaria has been established so far. Furthermore, if such correlations exist, whether natural selection has mediated the association, is an important question. Since India is highly endemic to P. vivax malaria with variable eco-climatic and varying vivax malaria epidemiology across different regions, such a question could well be answered in Indians. For this, we have genotyped the FY gene at the -33(rd) and the 125(th) nucleotide positions in 250 Indians sampled from six different zonal plus one tribal population covering the whole of India and studied possible correlations with eco-climatic and vivax malaria incidences. No FY*O allele was found, however, both the FY*A and FY*B alleles forming FY*A/FY*A, FY*A/FY*B and FY*B/FY*B genotypes were widely distributed among Indians. Five out of seven population samples significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectation, and two alleles (FY*A and FY*B) and the homozygote genotype, FY*B/FY*B were clinically distributed over the population coordinates. Furthermore, vivax malaria incidences over the past five years were significantly negatively and positively associated with the frequencies of the FY*A and FY*B alleles, respectively. The Northern Indians were highly differentiated from the other zonal population samples at the FY gene, as evidenced from the reconstructed Neighbor-Joining phylogenetic tree. The results specify the role of natural selection in the distribution of FY gene polymorphism in India. Furthermore, the hypotheses on the part of the FY*A allele in conferring protection to vivax malaria could be validated following population genetic studies in a vivax malaria epidemiological setting, such as India.
Project description:In Papua New Guinea (PNG), numerous blood group polymorphisms and hemoglobinopathies characterize the human population. Human genetic polymorphisms of this nature are common in malarious regions, and all four human malaria parasites are holoendemic below 1500 meters in PNG. At this elevation, a prominent condition characterizing Melanesians is alpha(+)-thalassemia. Interestingly, recent epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that alpha(+)-thalassemia is associated with increased susceptibility to uncomplicated malaria among young children. It is further proposed that alpha(+)-thalassemia may facilitate so-called "benign" Plasmodium vivax infection to act later in life as a "natural vaccine" against severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Here, in a P. vivax-endemic region of PNG where the resident Abelam-speaking population is characterized by a frequency of alpha(+)-thalassemia >/=0.98, we have discovered the mutation responsible for erythrocyte Duffy antigen-negativity (Fy[a-b-]) on the FY*A allele. In this study population there were 23 heterozygous and no homozygous individuals bearing this new allele (allele frequency, 23/1062 = 0.022). Flow cytometric analysis illustrated a 2-fold difference in erythroid-specific Fy-antigen expression between heterozygous (FY*A/FY*A(null)) and homozygous (FY*A/FY*A) individuals, suggesting a gene-dosage effect. In further comparisons, we observed a higher prevalence of P. vivax infection in FY*A/FY*A (83/508 = 0.163) compared with FY*A/FY*A(null) (2/23 = 0.087) individuals (odds ratio = 2.05, 95% confidence interval = 0.47-8.91). Emergence of FY*A(null) in this population suggests that P. vivax is involved in selection of this erythroid polymorphism. This mutation would ultimately compromise alpha(+)-thalassemia/P. vivax-mediated protection against severe P. falciparum malaria.
Project description:The role of RNA metabolism in chromatin silencing is now widely recognized. We have studied the Arabidopsis RNA-binding protein FCA that down-regulates an endogenous floral repressor gene through a chromatin mechanism involving histone demethylase activity. This mechanism needs FCA to interact with an RNA 3' processing/polyadenylation factor (FY/Pfs2p), but the subsequent events leading to chromatin changes are unknown. Here, we show that this FCA-FY interaction is required for general chromatin silencing roles where hairpin transgenes induce DNA methylation of an endogenous gene. We also show 2 conserved RNA processing factors, AtCPSF100 and AtCPSF160, but not FCA, are stably associated with FY in vivo and form a range of different-sized complexes. A hypomorphic fy allele producing a shorter protein, able to provide some FY functions but unable to interact with FCA, reduces abundance of some of the larger MW complexes. Suppressor mutants, which specifically disrupt the FY motif through which FCA interacts, also lacked these larger complexes. Our data support a model whereby FCA, perhaps after recognition of a specific RNA feature, transiently interacts with FY, an integral component of the canonical RNA 3' processing machinery, changing the interactions of the different RNA processing components. These altered interactions would appear to be a necessary step in this RNA-mediated chromatin silencing.