Liver Abscess Caused by Infection with Community-Acquired Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae.
ABSTRACT: We report a case of pyogenic liver abscess caused by community-acquired Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. quasipneumoniae. The infecting isolate had 2 prominent features of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains: the capsular polysaccharide synthesis region for K1 serotype and the integrative and conjugative element ICEKp1, which encodes the virulence factors yersiniabactin, salmochelin, and RmpA.
Project description:Here, we report an NDM-5-producing sequence type 35 (ST35) hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strain, isolated from the blood of a male patient. It showed a remarkable resistance to serum killing and neutrophil phagocytosis and high virulence in a mouse peritonitis infection model. Instead of carrying a pLVPK-like virulence plasmid, chromosomal integration of ICEKp1 (?76?kb) was identified in a specific asparagine-tRNA gene, harboring the iron acquisition system salmochelin genes (iroBCDN), a yersiniabactin gene, and a variant of the rmpA gene.
Project description:Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae is an emerging cause of community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess. First described in Asia, it is now increasingly recognized in Western countries, commonly afflicting those with Asian descent. This raises the question of genetic predisposition versus geospecific strain acquisition. We leveraged on the Antibiotics for Klebsiella Liver Abscess Syndrome Study (A-KLASS) clinical trial ongoing in ethnically diverse Singapore, to prospectively examine the profiles of 70 patients together with their isolates' genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. The majority of isolates belonged to capsule type K1, a genetically homogenous group corresponding to sequence-type 23. The remaining K2, K5, K16, K28, K57 and K63 isolates as well as two novel cps isolates were genetically heterogeneous. K1 isolates carried higher frequencies of virulence-associated genes including rmpA (regulator of mucoid phenotype A), kfu (Klebsiella ferric uptake transporter), iuc (aerobactin), iro (salmochelin) and irp (yersiniabactin) than non-K1 isolates. The Chinese in our patient cohort, mostly non-diabetic, had higher prevalence of K1 infection than the predominantly diabetic non-Chinese (Malays, Indian and Caucasian). This differential susceptibility to different capsule types among the various ethnic groups suggests patterns of transmission (e.g. environmental source, familial transmission) and/or genetic predisposition unique to each race despite being in the same geographical location.
Project description:Hypervirulent variants of Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKp) that cause invasive community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) have emerged globally. Little is known about the virulence determinants associated with hvKp, except for the virulence genes rmpA/A2 and siderophores (iroBCD/iucABCD) carried by the pK2044-like large virulence plasmid. Here, we collected most recent clinical isolates of hvKp from PLA samples in China, and performed clinical, molecular, and genomic sequencing analyses. We found that 90.9% (40/44) of the pathogens causing PLA were K. pneumoniae. Among the 40 LA-Kp, K1 (62.5%), and K2 (17.5%) were the dominant serotypes, and ST23 (47.5%) was the major sequence type. S1-PFGE analyses demonstrated that although 77.5% (31/40) of the LA-Kp isolates harbored a single large virulence plasmid varied in size, 5 (12.5%) isolates had no plasmid and 4 (10%) had two or three plasmids. Whole genome sequencing and comparative analysis of 3 LA-Kp and 3 non-LA-Kp identified 133 genes present only in LA-Kp. Further, large scale screening of the 133 genes in 45 LA-Kp and 103 non-LA-Kp genome sequences from public databases identified 30 genes that were highly associated with LA-Kp, including iroBCD, iucABCD and rmpA/A2 and 21 new genes. Then, these 21 new genes were analyzed in 40 LA-Kp and 86 non-LA-Kp clinical isolates collected in this study by PCR, showing that new genes were present 80-100% among LA-Kp isolates while 2-11% in K. pneumoniae isolates from sputum and urine. Several of the 21 genes have been proposed as virulence factors in other bacteria, such as the gene encoding SAM-dependent methyltransferase and pagO which protects bacteria from phagocytosis. Taken together, these genes are likely new virulence factors contributing to the hypervirulence phenotype of hvKp, and may deepen our understanding of virulence mechanism of hvKp.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Highly invasive, community-acquired Klebsiella pneumoniae infections have recently emerged, resulting in pyogenic liver abscesses. These infections are caused by hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKP) isolates primarily of capsule serotype K1 or K2. Hypervirulent K1 isolates belong to clonal complex 23 (CC23), indicating that this clonal lineage has a specific genetic background conferring hypervirulence. Here, we apply whole-genome sequencing to a collection of K. pneumoniae isolates to characterize the phylogenetic background of hvKP isolates with an emphasis on CC23. Most of the hvKP isolates belonged to CC23 and grouped into a distinct monophyletic clade, revealing that CC23 is a unique clonal lineage, clearly distinct from nonhypervirulent strains. Separate phylogenetic analyses of the CC23 isolates indicated that the CC23 lineage evolved recently by clonal expansion from a single common ancestor. Limited grouping according to geographical origin was observed, suggesting that CC23 has spread globally through multiple international transmissions. Conversely, hypervirulent K2 strains clustered in genetically unrelated groups. Strikingly, homologues of a large virulence plasmid were detected in all hvKP clonal lineages, indicating a key role in K. pneumoniae hypervirulence. The plasmid encodes two siderophores, aerobactin and salmochelin, and RmpA (regulator of the mucoid phenotype); all these factors were found to be restricted to hvKP isolates. Genomic comparisons revealed additional factors specifically associated with CC23. These included a distinct variant of a genomic island encoding yersiniabactin, colibactin, and microcin E492. Furthermore, additional novel genomic regions unique to CC23 were revealed which may also be involved in the increased virulence of this important clonal lineage. IMPORTANCE:During the last 3 decades, hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) isolates have emerged, causing severe community-acquired infections primarily in the form of pyogenic liver abscesses. This syndrome has so far primarily been found in Southeast Asia, but increasing numbers of cases are being reported worldwide, indicating that the syndrome is turning into a globally emerging disease. We applied whole-genome sequencing to a collection of K. pneumoniae clinical isolates to reveal the phylogenetic background of hvKP and to identify genetic factors associated with the increased virulence. The hvKP isolates primarily belonged to clonal complex 23 (CC23), and this clonal lineage was revealed to be clearly distinct from nonhypervirulent strains. A specific virulence plasmid was found to be associated with hypervirulence, and novel genetic determinants uniquely associated with CC23 were identified. Our findings extend the understanding of the genetic background of the emergence of hvKP clones.
Project description:Klebsiella quasipneumoniae is a recently described species, formerly identified as K. pneumoniae phylogroup KpII. Information on pathogenic and virulence potential of this species are lacking. We sequenced the genome of a hypermucoviscous K. quasipneumoniae clinical isolate showing a virulence genes content (allABCDRS, kfuABC, and mrkABCDFHIJ) peculiar to hypervirulent K. pneumoniae strains.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Klebsiella pneumoniae is a recognised agent of multidrug-resistant (MDR) healthcare-associated infections; however, individual strains vary in their virulence potential due to the presence of mobile accessory genes. In particular, gene clusters encoding the biosynthesis of siderophores aerobactin (iuc) and salmochelin (iro) are associated with invasive disease and are common amongst hypervirulent K. pneumoniae clones that cause severe community-associated infections such as liver abscess and pneumonia. Concerningly, iuc has also been reported in MDR strains in the hospital setting, where it was associated with increased mortality, highlighting the need to understand, detect and track the mobility of these virulence loci in the K. pneumoniae population. METHODS:Here, we examined the genetic diversity, distribution and mobilisation of iuc and iro loci amongst 2503 K. pneumoniae genomes using comparative genomics approaches and developed tools for tracking them via genomic surveillance. RESULTS:Iro and iuc were detected at low prevalence (<?10%). Considerable genetic diversity was observed, resolving into five iro and six iuc lineages that show distinct patterns of mobilisation and dissemination in the K. pneumoniae population. The major burden of iuc and iro amongst the genomes analysed was due to two linked lineages (iuc1/iro1 74% and iuc2/iro2 14%), each carried by a distinct non-self-transmissible IncFIBK virulence plasmid type that we designate KpVP-1 and KpVP-2. These dominant types also carry hypermucoidy (rmpA) determinants and include all previously described virulence plasmids of K. pneumoniae. The other iuc and iro lineages were associated with diverse plasmids, including some carrying IncFII conjugative transfer regions and some imported from Escherichia coli; the exceptions were iro3 (mobilised by ICEKp1) and iuc4 (fixed in the chromosome of K. pneumoniae subspecies rhinoscleromatis). Iro/iuc mobile genetic elements (MGEs) appear to be stably maintained at high frequency within known hypervirulent strains (ST23, ST86, etc.) but were also detected at low prevalence in others such as MDR strain ST258. CONCLUSIONS:Iuc and iro are mobilised in K. pneumoniae via a limited number of MGEs. This study provides a framework for identifying and tracking these important virulence loci, which will be important for genomic surveillance efforts including monitoring for the emergence of hypervirulent MDR K. pneumoniae strains.
Project description:Severe liver abscess infections caused by hypervirulent clonal-group CG23 Klebsiella pneumoniae have been increasingly reported since the mid-1980s. Strains typically possess several virulence factors including an integrative, conjugative element ICEKp encoding the siderophore yersiniabactin and genotoxin colibactin. Here we investigate CG23's evolutionary history, showing several deep-branching sublineages associated with distinct ICEKp acquisitions. Over 80% of liver abscess isolates belong to sublineage CG23-I, which emerged in ~1928 following acquisition of ICEKp10 (encoding yersiniabactin and colibactin), and then disseminated globally within the human population. CG23-I's distinguishing feature is the colibactin synthesis locus, which reportedly promotes gut colonisation and metastatic infection in murine models. These data show circulation of CG23 K. pneumoniae decades before the liver abscess epidemic was first recognised, and provide a framework for future epidemiological and experimental studies of hypervirulent K. pneumoniae. To support such studies we present an open access, completely sequenced CG23-I human liver abscess isolate, SGH10.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Commensurate with the advances in diagnostic and therapeutic radiology in the past two decades, percutaneous needle aspiration and catheter drainage have replaced open operation as the first choice of treatment for both single and multiple pyogenic liver abscesses. There has been little written on the place of surgical resection in the treatment of pyogenic liver abscess due to underlying hepatobiliary pathology or after failure of non-operative management. METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent resection for pyogenic liver abscess over a 15-year period were retrospectively reviewed. The demographics, time from onset of symptoms to medical treatment and operation, site of abscess, organisms cultured, aetiology, reason for operation, type of resection and outcome were analysed. There were 49 patients in whom the abscesses were either single (19), single but multiloculated (11) or multiple (19). The median time from onset of symptoms to medical treatment was 21 days and from treatment to operation was 12 days. The indications for operation were underlying hepatobiliary pathology in 20% and failed non-operative treatment in 76%. Two patients presented with peritonitis from a ruptured abscess. RESULTS: The resections performed were anatomic (44) and non-anatomic (5). No patient suffered a recurrent abscess or required surgical or radiological intervention for any abdominal collection. Antibiotics were ceased within 5 days of operation in all but one patient. The median postoperative stay was 10 days. There were two deaths (4%), both following rupture of the abscess. DISCUSSION: Except for an initial presentation with intraperitoneal rupture and, possibly, cases of hepatobiliary pathology causing multiple abscesses above an obstructed duct system that cannot be negotiated non-operatively, primary surgical treatment of pyogenic liver abscess is not indicated. Non-operative management with antibiotics and percutaneous aspiration/drainage will be successful in most patients. If non-operative treatment fails, different physical characteristics of the abscesses are likely to be present and partial hepatectomy of the involved portion of liver is good treatment when performed by an experienced surgeon.
Project description:Little is known about the risk of pyogenic liver abscess in patients with splenectomy. We explored the relationship between splenectomy and pyogenic liver abscess in Taiwan.We conducted a nationwide cohort analysis using the hospitalization dataset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. We included 17,779 subjects aged 20-84 years who underwent splenectomy in 1998 to 2010 (splenectomy group) and 70,855 randomly selected subjects without splenectomy (non-splenectomy group). Both groups were matched by sex, age, other comorbidities, and hospitalization year of receiving splenectomy. The incidence of pyogenic liver abscess at the end of 2011 was measured. The multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for pyogenic liver abscess associated with splenectomy and other comorbidities.The overall incidence rate was 3.75-fold higher in the splenectomy group than that in the non-splenectomy group (2.15 vs 0.57 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval, 3.57-3.94). After controlling for potential confounding factors, the adjusted hazard ratio of pyogenic liver abscess was 3.89 in subjects with splenectomy (95% confidence interval, 3.20-4.72) when compared with subjects without splenectomy. In further analysis, the hazard ratio markedly increased to 14.34 for those with splenectomy and having any of the assessed comorbidities, including alcoholism, biliary stone, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver diseases, and diabetes mellitus (95% confidence interval, 10.61-19.39).Patients with splenectomy are at an increased risk of developing pyogenic liver abscess, particularly when they have comorbid conditions.
Project description:Genomic heterogeneity has been shown to be associated with Klebsiella pneumoniae strains causing pyogenic liver abscesses (PLA) and metastatic infections. In order to explore the mechanism responsible for genomic heterogeneity in K. pneumoniae, we compared the complete genomic sequences of strains NTUH-K2044 and MGH78578. An approximately 76-kbp DNA fragment located adjacent to an asparagine (asn) tRNA gene was present in NTUH-K2044 but not in MGH78578. This fragment could be divided into three regions with different functions, and structurally it resembled a functional integrative and conjugative element (ICE), ICEEc1, in Escherichia coli. The 5' region of this fragment contained genes similar to a high-pathogenicity island (HPI) of Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The middle region was similar to part of a large plasmid in K. pneumoniae, and the 3' region contained genes responsible for DNA conjugative transfer. Therefore, this DNA fragment was designated ICEKp1. Precise excision and extrachromosomal circularization of ICEKp1 were detected in K. pneumoniae wild-type strain NTUH-K2044. ICEKp1 could integrate into the asn tRNA loci of the chromosome of another K. pneumoniae isolate. The prevalence of ICEKp1 was higher in PLA strains (38 of 42 strains) than in non-tissue-invasive strains (5 of 32 strains). Therefore, ICEKp1 may contribute to the transmission of the HPI and result in K. pneumoniae PLA infection-associated genomic heterogeneity.