Paracetamol (acetaminophen) protein adduct concentrations during therapeutic dosing.
ABSTRACT: Paracetamol protein adducts (PPA) are a biomarker of paracetamol exposure. PPA are quantified as paracetamol-cysteine (APAP-CYS), and concentrations above 1.1 μmol l(-1) have been suggested as a marker of paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. However, there is little information on the range of concentrations observed during prolonged therapeutic dosing.The aim of the present study was to describe the concentration of PPA in the serum of subjects taking therapeutic doses of paracetamol for at least 16 days.Preplanned secondary aim of a prospective randomized controlled (placebo vs. 4g day(-1) paracetamol) trial. We measured subjects' serum PPA concentrations every 3 days for a minimum of 16 days. We also measured concentrations on study days 1-3 and 16-25 in subsets of patients. PPA were quantified as APAP-CYS after gel filtration and protein digestion using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.Ninety per cent of subjects had detectable PPA after five doses. Median APAP-CYS concentrations in paracetamol-treated subjects increased to a plateau of 0.1 μmol l(-1) on day 7, where they remained. The highest concentration measured was 1.1 μmol l(-1) and two subjects never had detectable PPA levels. PPA were detected in the serum of 78% of subjects 9 days after their final dose.PPA are detectable in the vast majority of subjects taking therapeutic doses of paracetamol. While most have concentrations well below the threshold associated with hepatotoxicity, concentrations may approach 1.1 μmol l(-1) in rare cases. Adducts are detectable after a few doses and can persist for over a week after dosing is stopped.
Project description:Paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) overdose is a leading cause of acute drug-induced liver failure. APAP hepatotoxicity is mediated by the reactive metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI). NAPQI is inactivated by conjugation with glutathione (GSH) to APAP-GSH, which is further converted into its cysteine derivative APAP-CYS. Before necrosis of hepatocytes occurs, APAP-CYS is measurable in plasma of the affected patient and it has been proposed as an early biomarker of acetaminophen toxicity. APAP-GSH and APAP-CYS can be extruded by hepatocytes, but the transporters involved are unknown. In this study we examined whether ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play a role in the cellular efflux of APAP, APAP-GSH, and APAP-CYS. The ABC transport proteins P-gp/ABCB1, BSEP/ABCB11, BCRP/ABCG2, and MRP/ABCC1-5 were overexpressed in HEK293 cells and membrane vesicles were produced. Whereas P-gp, BSEP, MRP3, MRP5, and BCRP did not transport any of the compounds, uptake of APAP-GSH was found for MRP1, MRP2 and MRP4. APAP-CYS appeared to be a substrate of MRP4 and none of the ABC proteins transported APAP. The results suggest that the NAPQI metabolite APAP-CYS can be excreted into plasma by MRP4, where it could be a useful biomarker for APAP exposure and toxicity. Characterization of the cellular efflux of APAP-CYS is important for its development as a biomarker, because plasma concentrations might be influenced by drug-transporter interactions and upregulation of MRP4.
Project description:AIM:No randomized study has been conducted to investigate the use of intravenous paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) for the management of fever due to infection. The present study evaluated a new ready-made infusion of paracetamol. METHODS:Eighty patients with a body temperature onset ?38.5°C in the previous 24 h due to infection were randomized to a single administration of placebo (n = 39) or 1 g paracetamol (n = 41), and their temperature was recorded at standard intervals. Rescue medication with 1 g paracetamol was allowed. Serum samples were collected for the measurement of APAP and its metabolites. The primary endpoint was defervescence, defined as a core temperature ?37.1°C. RESULTS:During the first 6 h, defervescence was achieved in 15 (38.5%) patients treated with placebo compared with 33 (80.5%) patients treated with paracetamol 1 g (P < 0.0001). The median time to defervescence with paracetamol 1 g was 3 h. Rescue medication was given to 15 (38.5%) and five (12.2%) patients allocated to placebo and paracetamol, respectively (P = 0.007); nine (60.0%) and two (40.0%) of these patients, respectively, experienced defervescence. No further antipyretic medication was needed for patients becoming afebrile with rescue medication. Serum glucuronide-APAP concentrations were significantly greater in the serum of patients who did not experience defervescence with paracetamol. The efficacy of paracetamol was not affected by serum creatinine. No drug-related adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS:The 1 g paracetamol formulation has a rapid and sustainable antipyretic effect on fever due to infection. Its efficacy is dependent on hepatic metabolism.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Excessive exposure to acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol) can cause liver injury through formation of a reactive metabolite that depletes hepatic glutathione and causes hepatocellular oxidative stress and damage. Generation of this metabolite is mediated by Cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoforms, mainly CYP2E1. A number of naturally occurring flavonoids can mitigate APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animal models. Our objective was to determine the mechanism of these protective effects and to evaluate possible human applicability. METHODS:Two flavonoids, luteolin and quercetin, were evaluated as potential inhibitors of eight human CYP isoforms, of six UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms and of APAP glucuronidation and sulfation. The experimental model was based on in-vitro metabolism by human liver microsomes, using isoform-specific substrates. KEY FINDINGS:Luteolin and quercetin inhibited human CYP isoforms to varying degrees, with greatest potency towards CYP1A2 and CYP2C8. However, 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values) were generally in the micromolar range. UGT isoforms were minimally inhibited. Both luteolin and quercetin inhibited APAP sulfation but not glucuronidation. CONCLUSIONS:Inhibition of human CYP activity by luteolin and quercetin occurred with IC50 values exceeding customary in-vivo human exposure with tolerable supplemental doses of these compounds. The findings indicate that luteolin and quercetin are not likely to be of clinical value for preventing or treating APAP-induced hepatotoxicity.
Project description:The metabolic fate, toxicity, and effects on endogenous metabolism of paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) in 22 female Landrace cross large white pigs were evaluated in a model of acute liver failure (ALF). Anesthetized pigs were initially dosed at 250?mg/kg via an oroduodenal tube with APAP serum concentrations maintained above 300?mg/l using maintenance doses of 0.5-4?g/h until ALF. Studies were undertaken to determine both the metabolic fate of APAP and its effects on the endogenous metabolic phenotype of ALF in using 1H NMR spectroscopy. Increased concentrations of citrate combined with pre-ALF increases in circulating lactate, pyruvate, and alanine in plasma suggest mitochondrial dysfunction and a switch in hepatic energy metabolism to glycolysis in response to APAP treatment. A specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay was used to quantify APAP and metabolites. The major circulating and urinary metabolite of APAP was the phenolic glucuronide (APAP-G), followed by p-aminophenol glucuronide (PAP-G) formed from N-deacetylated APAP. The PAP produced by N-deacetylation was the likely cause of the methemoglobinemia and kidney toxicity observed in this, and previous, studies in the pig. The phenolic sulfate of APAP, and the glutathione-derived metabolites of the drug were only found as minor components (with the cysteinyl conjugate detected but not the mercapturate). Given its low sulfation, combined with significant capacity for N-deacetylation the pig may represent a poor translational model for toxicology studies for compounds undergoing significant metabolism by sulfation, or which contain amide bonds which when hydrolyzed to unmask an aniline lead to toxicity. However, the pig may provide a useful model where extensive amide hydrolysis is seen for drugs or environmental chemicals in humans, but not in, eg, the rat and dog which are the preclinical species normally employed for safety assessment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite the emergence of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) as a clinical biomarker in cancer, the tissue origins of cfDNA in healthy individuals have to date been inferred only by indirect and relative measurement methods, such as tissue-specific methylation and nucleosomal profiling. METHODS:We performed the first direct, absolute measurement of the tissue origins of cfDNA, using tissue-specific knockout mouse strains, in both healthy mice and following paracetamol (APAP) overdose. We then investigated the utility of total cfDNA and the percentage of liver-specific cfDNA as clinical biomarkers in patients presenting with APAP overdose. RESULTS:Analysis of cfDNA from healthy tissue-specific knockout mice showed that cfDNA originates predominantly from white and red blood cell lineages, with minor contribution from hepatocytes, and no detectable contribution from skeletal and cardiac muscle. Following APAP overdose in mice, total plasma cfDNA and the percentage fraction originating from hepatocytes increased by ~?100 and ~?19-fold respectively. Total cfDNA increased by an average of more than 236-fold in clinical samples from APAP overdose patients with biochemical evidence of liver injury, and 18-fold in patients without biochemically apparent liver injury. Measurement of liver-specific cfDNA, using droplet digital PCR and methylation analysis, revealed that the contribution of liver to cfDNA was increased by an average of 175-fold in APAP overdose patients with biochemically apparent liver injury compared to healthy subjects, but was not increased in overdose patients with normal liver function tests. CONCLUSIONS:We present a novel method for measurement of the tissue origins of cfDNA in healthy and disease states and demonstrate the potential of cfDNA as a clinical biomarker in APAP overdose.
Project description:Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP), paracetamol) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic agent. Although considered safe at therapeutic doses, accidental or intentional overdose causes acute liver failure characterized by centrilobular hepatic necrosis with high morbidity and mortality. Although many molecular aspects of APAP-induced cell death have been described, no conclusive mechanism has been proposed. We recently identified TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and c-Jun kinase (JNK)-dependent activation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homolog Bim as an important apoptosis amplification pathway in hepatocytes. In this study, we, thus, investigated the role of TRAIL, c-JNK and Bim in APAP-induced liver damage. Our results demonstrate that TRAIL strongly synergizes with APAP in inducing cell death in hepatocyte-like cells lines and primary hepatocyte. Furthermore, we found that APAP strongly induces the expression of Bim in a c-JNK-dependent manner. Consequently, TRAIL- or Bim-deficient mice were substantially protected from APAP-induced liver damage. This study identifies the TRAIL-JNK-Bim axis as a novel target in the treatment of APAP-induced liver damage and substantiates its general role in hepatocyte death.
Project description:Objective:To assess the relationship between the analgesic efficacy of extended-release paracetamol (ER-APAP) and brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal activation in response to painful stimulation measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods:This placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover, randomized trial (N?=?25) comprised three treatment periods in which patients received four doses of an eight-hour ER-APAP caplet (2 x 665 mg), four doses of matched placebo, and no treatment. Pain intensity of the knee was measured before and after painful stimulation at the knee with osteoarthritis and before and after fMRI. Results:ER-APAP significantly reduced prestimulation osteoarthritis knee joint pain compared with baseline (P?<?0.003) and placebo (P?<?0.004). ER-APAP and placebo significantly reduced knee joint pain after stimulation (P?=?0.014 and P?=?0.032, respectively); however, pain reduction with ER-APAP was 35% greater than placebo. ER-APAP was associated with significant reductions in BOLD signal activation after stimulation compared with control in the sensory cortex (P?=?0.002) and supramarginal gyrus (P?=?0.003). Reduction in BOLD signal activation after stimulation for placebo was significantly greater than control in the subgenual prefrontal cortex (P?<?0.001), frontal cortex (P?<?0.001), insula (P?<?0.003), and sensory cortex (P?<?0.001). Conclusions:ER-APAP had a significantly greater effect than placebo and no treatment in reducing knee pain, which was associated with reduced BOLD signal activations in pain pathways, including the sensory cortex and supramarginal gyrus. BOLD observations after placebo treatment may shed light on the role of the brain regions potentially involved in placebo response in clinical trials investigating pain therapies.
Project description:Paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) is a universally used analgesic and antipyretic agent. Considered safe at therapeutic doses, overdoses cause acute liver damage characterized by centrilobular hepatic necrosis. One of the major clinical problems of paracetamol-induced liver disease is the development of hemorrhagic alterations. Although hepatocytes represent the main target of the cytotoxic effect of paracetamol overdose, perturbations within the endothelium involving morphological changes of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) have also been described in paracetamol-induced liver disease. Recently, we have shown that paracetamol-induced liver damage is synergistically enhanced by the TRAIL signaling pathway. As LSECs are constantly exposed to activated immune cells expressing death ligands, including TRAIL, we investigated the effect of TRAIL on paracetamol-induced LSEC death. We here demonstrate for the first time that TRAIL strongly enhances paracetamol-mediated LSEC death with typical features of apoptosis. Inhibition of caspases using specific inhibitors resulted in a strong reduction of cell death. TRAIL appears to enhance paracetamol-induced LSEC death via the activation of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins Bid and Bim, which initiate the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Taken together this study shows that the liver endothelial layer, mainly LSECs, represent a direct target of the cytotoxic effect of paracetamol and that activation of TRAIL receptor synergistically enhances paracetamol-induced LSEC death via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. TRAIL-mediated acceleration of paracetamol-induced cell death may thus contribute to the pathogenesis of paracetamol-induced liver damage.
Project description:Paracetamol is responsible for acute liver failure in humans and experimental animals when taken at high doses and transformed into a reactive metabolite by the liver cytochrome P450. On the other hand, nutmeg is rich with many phytochemical ingredients that are known for their ability to inhibit cytochrome P450. Hence, the present experiment was aimed at studying the hepatoprotective effect of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg), kernel extract (MFKE) in respect to paracetamol (acetaminophen; N-acetyl-p-amino-phenol (APAP))-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, focusing on its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities. Liver toxicity was induced in rats by a single oral administration of APAP (2 g/kg). To evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of MFKE against this APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, rats were pre-treated with either oral administration of MFKE at 300 mg/kg daily for seven days or silymarin at 50 mg/kg as a standard hepatoprotective agent. APAP intoxication caused a drastic elevation in liver function markers (transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin), oxidative stress indicators (lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide), inflammatory biomarkers (tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor ĸB) and the pro-apoptotic BCL2 Associated X (Bax) and caspases-3 genes. Furthermore, analyses of rat liver tissue revealed that APAP significantly depleted glutathione and inhibited the activities of antioxidant enzymes in addition to downregulating two key anti-apoptotic genes: Cellular FLICE (FADD-like IL-1β-converting enzyme)-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2). Pre-treatment with MFKE, however, attenuated APAP-induced liver toxicity by reversing all of these toxicity biomarkers. This hepatoprotective effect of MFKE was further confirmed by improvement in histopathological findings. Interestingly, the hepatoprotective effect of MFKE was comparable to that offered by the reference hepatoprotector, silymarin. In conclusion, our results revealed that MFKE had antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties, and it is suggested that this hepatoprotective effect could be linked to its ability to promote the nuclear factor erythroid 2⁻related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant responsive element (ARE) pathway.
Project description:CYP2E1 is recognized as the most important enzyme for initiation of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced toxicity. In this study, the resistance of Cyp2e1-null mice to APAP treatment was confirmed by comparing serum aminotransferase activities and blood urea nitrogen levels in wild-type and Cyp2e1-null mice. However, unexpectedly, profiling of major known APAP metabolites in urine and serum revealed that the contribution of CYP2E1 to APAP metabolism decreased with increasing APAP doses administered. Measurement of hepatic glutathione and hydrogen peroxide levels exposed the importance of oxidative stress in determining the consequence of APAP overdose. Subsequent metabolomic analysis was capable of constructing a principal components analysis (PCA) model that delineated a relationship between urinary metabolomes and the responses to APAP treatment. Urinary ions high in wild-type mice treated with 400 mg/kg APAP were elucidated as 3-methoxy-APAP glucuronide (VII) and three novel APAP metabolites, including S-(5-acetylamino-2-hydroxyphenyl)mercaptopyruvic acid (VI, formed by a Cys-APAP transamination reaction in kidney), 3,3'-biacetaminophen (VIII, an APAP dimer), and a benzothiazine compound (IX, originated from deacetylated APAP), through mass isotopomer analysis, accurate mass measurement, tandem mass spectrometry fragmentation, in vitro reactions, and chemical treatments. Dose-, time-, and genotype-dependent appearance of these minor APAP metabolites implied their association with the APAP-induced toxicity and potential biomarker application. Overall, the oxidative stress elicited by CYP2E1-mediated APAP metabolism might significantly contribute to APAP-induced toxicity. The combination of genetically modified animal models, mass isotopomer analysis, and metabolomics provides a powerful and efficient technical platform to characterize APAP-induced toxicity through identifying novel biomarkers and unraveling novel mechanisms.