Understanding HIV-Mycobacteria synergism through comparative proteomics of intra-phagosomal mycobacteria during mono- and HIV co-infection.
ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the most common co-infection in HIV patients and a serious co-epidemic. Apart from increasing the risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis (TB), HIV infection also permits opportunistic infection of environmental non-pathogenic mycobacteria. To gain insights into mycobacterial survival inside host macrophages and identify mycobacterial proteins or processes that influence HIV propagation during co-infection, we employed proteomics approach to identify differentially expressed intracellular mycobacterial proteins during mono- and HIV co-infection of human THP-1 derived macrophage cell lines. Of the 92 proteins identified, 30 proteins were upregulated during mycobacterial mono-infection and 40 proteins during HIV-mycobacteria co-infection. We observed down-regulation of toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules, up-regulation of cation transporters, Type VII (Esx) secretion systems, proteins involved in cell wall lipid or protein metabolism, glyoxalate pathway and branched chain amino-acid synthesis during co-infection. The bearings of these mycobacterial factors or processes on HIV propagation during co-infection, as inferred from the proteomics data, were validated using deletion mutants of mycobacteria. The analyses revealed mycobacterial factors that possibly via modulating the host environment, increased viral titers during co-infection. The study provides new leads for investigations towards hitherto unknown molecular mechanisms explaining HIV-mycobacteria synergism, helping address diagnostics and treatment challenges for effective co-epidemic management.
PROVIDER: S-EPMC4768096 | BioStudies |