Strong vacuum squeezing from bichromatically driven Kerrlike cavities: from optomechanics to superconducting circuits.
ABSTRACT: Squeezed light, displaying less fluctuation than vacuum in some observable, is key in the flourishing field of quantum technologies. Optical or microwave cavities containing a Kerr nonlinearity are known to potentially yield large levels of squeezing, which have been recently observed in optomechanics and nonlinear superconducting circuit platforms. Such Kerr-cavity squeezing however suffers from two fundamental drawbacks. First, optimal squeezing requires working close to turning points of a bistable cycle, which are highly unstable against noise thus rendering optimal squeezing inaccessible. Second, the light field has a macroscopic coherent component corresponding to the pump, making it less versatile than the so-called squeezed vacuum, characterised by a null mean field. Here we prove analytically and numerically that the bichromatic pumping of optomechanical and superconducting circuit cavities removes both limitations. This finding should boost the development of a new generation of robust vacuum squeezers in the microwave and optical domains with current technology.
Project description:A measurable quadrature of a squeezed quantum state manifests a small uncertainty below the Heisenberg limit. This phenomenon has the potential to enable several extraordinary applications in quantum information, metrology and sensing, and other fields. Several techniques have been implemented to realize squeezed electromagnetic states, including microwave fields and optical fields. However, hybrid squeezed modes (that incorporate both microwave and optical fields) have not yet been proposed despite their vital functionality to combine the two worlds of quantum superconducting systems and photonics systems. In this work, for the first time, we propose a novel approach to achieve two-mode squeezing of microwave and optical fields using graphene based structure. The proposed scheme includes a graphene layered structure that is driven by a quantum microwave voltage and subjected to two optical fields of distinct frequencies. By setting the optical frequency spacing equal to the microwave frequency, an interaction occurs between the optical and microwave fields through electrical modulation of the graphene conductivity. We show that significant hybrid two-mode squeezing, that includes one microwave field and one optical field, can be achieved. Furthermore, the microwave frequency can be tuned over a vast range by modifying the operation parameters.
Project description:The use of a Kerr nonlinearity to generate squeezed light is a well-known way to surpass the quantum noise limit along a given field quadrature. Nevertheless, in the most common regime of weak nonlinearity, a single Kerr resonator is unable to provide the proper interrelation between the field amplitude and squeezing required to induce a sizable deviation from Poissonian statistics. We demonstrate experimentally that weakly coupled bosonic modes allow exploration of the interplay between squeezing and displacement, which can give rise to strong deviations from the Poissonian statistics. In particular, we report on the periodic bunching in a Josephson junction formed by two coupled exciton-polariton modes. Quantum modeling traces the bunching back to the presence of quadrature squeezing. Our results, linking the light statistics to squeezing, are a precursor to the study of nonclassical features in semiconductor microcavities and other weakly nonlinear bosonic systems.
Project description:We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit state through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a microwave photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states transfers a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mode. In order to facilitate the implementation of such complex protocols we propose a design for reducing the self-Kerr nonlinearity in the cavity. The teleporation scheme enables quantum information processing operations with circuit-QED based on entangled coherent states. These include state verification and single-qubit operations with entangled coherent states. These are shown to be experimentally feasible with the state of the art superconducting circuits.
Project description:Among the most exciting recent advances in the field of superconducting quantum circuits is the ability to coherently couple microwave photons in low-loss cavities to quantum electronic conductors. These hybrid quantum systems hold great promise for quantum information-processing applications; even more strikingly, they enable exploration of new physical regimes. Here we study theoretically the new physics emerging when a quantum electronic conductor is exposed to nonclassical microwaves (for example, squeezed states, Fock states). We study this interplay in the experimentally relevant situation where a superconducting microwave cavity is coupled to a conductor in the tunnelling regime. We find that the conductor acts as a nontrivial probe of the microwave state: the emission and absorption of photons by the conductor is characterized by a nonpositive definite quasi-probability distribution, which is related to the Glauber-Sudarshan P-function of quantum optics. These negative quasi-probabilities have a direct influence on the conductance of the conductor.
Project description:The existence of vacuum fluctuations is one of the most important predictions of modern quantum field theory. In the vacuum state, fluctuations occurring at different frequencies are uncorrelated. However, if a parameter in the Lagrangian of the field is modulated by an external pump, vacuum fluctuations stimulate spontaneous downconversion processes, creating squeezing between modes symmetric with respect to half of the frequency of the pump. Here we show that by double parametric pumping of a superconducting microwave cavity, it is possible to generate another type of correlation, namely coherence between photons in separate frequency modes. The coherence correlations are tunable by the phases of the pumps and are established by a quantum fluctuation that stimulates the simultaneous creation of two photon pairs. Our analysis indicates that the origin of this vacuum-induced coherence is the absence of which-way information in the frequency space.
Project description:Quantum communication protocols based on nonclassical correlations can be more efficient than known classical methods and offer intrinsic security over direct state transfer. In particular, remote state preparation aims at the creation of a desired and known quantum state at a remote location using classical communication and quantum entanglement. We present an experimental realization of deterministic continuous-variable remote state preparation in the microwave regime over a distance of 35?cm. By employing propagating two-mode squeezed microwave states and feedforward, we achieve the remote preparation of squeezed states with up to 1.6?dB of squeezing below the vacuum level. Finally, security of remote state preparation is investigated by using the concept of the one-time pad and measuring the von Neumann entropies. We find nearly identical values for the entropy of the remotely prepared state and the respective conditional entropy given the classically communicated information and, thus, demonstrate close-to-perfect security.
Project description:Nonreciprocal microwave devices are ubiquitous in radar and radio communication and indispensable in the readout chains of superconducting quantum circuits. Since they commonly rely on ferrite materials requiring large magnetic fields that make them bulky and lossy, there has been significant interest in magnetic-field-free on-chip alternatives, such as those recently implemented using the Josephson nonlinearity. Here, we realize reconfigurable nonreciprocal transmission between two microwave modes using purely optomechanical interactions in a superconducting electromechanical circuit. The scheme relies on the interference in two mechanical modes that mediate coupling between the microwave cavities and requires no magnetic field. We analyse the isolation, transmission and the noise properties of this nonreciprocal circuit. Finally, we show how quantum-limited circulators can be realized with the same principle. All-optomechanically mediated nonreciprocity demonstrated here can also be extended to directional amplifiers, and it forms the basis towards realizing topological states of light and sound.Nonreciprocal optical devices traditionally rely on magnetic fields and magnetic-free approaches are rather recent. Here, Bernier et al. propose and demonstrate a purely optomechanical circulator with reconfigurable transmission without the need for direct coupling between input and output modes.
Project description:We investigate the electromechanical coupling between a nanomechanical resonator and two parametrically coupled superconducting coplanar waveguide cavities that are driven by a two-mode squeezed microwave source. We show that, with the selective coupling of the resonator to the cavity Bogoliubov modes, the radiation-pressure type coupling can be greatly enhanced by several orders of magnitude, enabling the single photon strong coupling to be reached. This allows the investigation of a number of interesting phenomena such as photon blockade effects and the generation of nonclassical quantum states with electromechanical systems.
Project description:We report demonstrations of both quadrature-squeezed vacuum and photon number difference squeezing generated in an integrated nanophotonic device. Squeezed light is generated via strongly driven spontaneous four-wave mixing below threshold in silicon nitride microring resonators. The generated light is characterized with both homodyne detection and direct measurements of photon statistics using photon number-resolving transition-edge sensors. We measure 1.0(1) decibels of broadband quadrature squeezing (~4 decibels inferred on-chip) and 1.5(3) decibels of photon number difference squeezing (~7 decibels inferred on-chip). Nearly single temporal mode operation is achieved, with measured raw unheralded second-order correlations g (2) as high as 1.95(1). Multiphoton events of over 10 photons are directly detected with rates exceeding any previous quantum optical demonstration using integrated nanophotonics. These results will have an enabling impact on scaling continuous variable quantum technology.
Project description:Vibrational environments are commonly considered to be detrimental to the optical emission properties of solid-state and molecular systems, limiting their performance within quantum information protocols. Given that such environments arise naturally it is important to ask whether they can instead be turned to our advantage. Here we show that vibrational interactions can be harnessed within resonance fluorescence to generate optical states with a higher degree of quadrature squeezing than in isolated atomic systems. Considering the example of a driven quantum dot coupled to phonons, we demonstrate that it is feasible to surpass the maximum level of squeezing theoretically obtainable in an isolated atomic system and indeed come close to saturating the fundamental upper bound on squeezing from a two-level emitter. We analyse the performance of these vibrationally-enhanced squeezed states in a phase estimation protocol, finding that for the same photon flux, they can outperform the single mode squeezed vacuum state.