Effect of Saccharomyces boulardii and Mode of Delivery on the Early Development of the Gut Microbial Community in Preterm Infants.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Recent advances in culture-independent approaches have enabled insights into the diversity, complexity, and individual variability of gut microbial communities. OBJECTIVES:To examine the effect of oral administration of Saccharomyces (S.) boulardii and mode of delivery on the intestinal microbial community in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN:Stool samples were collected from preterm newborns randomly divided into two groups: a probiotic-receiving group (n = 18) or a placebo group (n = 21). Samples were collected before probiotic intake (day 0), and after 2 and 6 weeks of supplementation. The composition of colonizing bacteria was assessed by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing of fecal samples using the Ion 16S Metagenomics Kit and the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine platform. RESULTS:A total of 11932257 reads were generated, and were clustered into 459, 187, and 176 operational taxonomic units at 0 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks, respectively. Of the 17 identified phyla, Firmicutes Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were universal. The microbial community differed at day 0 compared with at 2 weeks and 6 weeks. There was a tendency for increased bacterial diversity at 2 weeks and 6 weeks compared with day 0, and infants with a gestational age of 31 weeks or higher presented increased bacterial diversity prior to S. boulardii administration. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria remained stable during the observation period, whereas Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes increased in abundance, the latter particularly more sharply in vaginally delivered infants. CONCLUSION:While the mode of delivery may influence the development of a microbial community, this study had not enough power to detect statistical differences between cohorts supplemented with probiotics, and in a consequence, to speculate on S. boulardii effect on gut microbiome composition in preterm newborns.
Project description:Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most devastating intestinal disease affecting preterm infants. In addition to being associated with short term mortality and morbidity, survivors are left with significant long term sequelae. The cost of caring for these infants is high. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that use of antibiotics and type of feeding may cause an intestinal dysbiosis important in the pathogenesis of NEC, but the contribution of specific infectious agents is poorly understood. Fecal samples from preterm infants ? 32 weeks gestation were analyzed using 16S rRNA based methods at 2, 1, and 0 weeks, prior to diagnosis of NEC in 18 NEC cases and 35 controls. Environmental factors such as antibiotic usage, feeding type (human milk versus formula) and location of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were also evaluated. Microbiota composition differed between the three neonatal units where we observed differences in antibiotic usage. In NEC cases we observed a higher proportion of Proteobacteria (61%) two weeks and of Actinobacteria (3%) 1 week before diagnosis of NEC compared to controls (19% and 0.4%, respectively) and lower numbers of Bifidobacteria counts and Bacteroidetes proportions in the weeks before NEC diagnosis. In the first fecal samples obtained during week one of life we detected a novel signature sequence, distinct from but matching closest to Klebsiella pneumoniae, that was strongly associated with NEC development later in life. Infants who develop NEC exhibit a different pattern of microbial colonization compared to controls. Antibiotic usage correlated with these differences and combined with type of feeding likely plays a critical role in the development of NEC.
Project description:Objectives: In 2014 probiotic supplementation (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis; Infloran?) was introduced as standard of care to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in extremely preterm infants in Norway. We aimed to evaluate the influence of probiotics and antibiotic therapy on the developing gut microbiota and antibiotic resistome in extremely preterm infants, and to compare with very preterm infants and term infants not given probiotics. Study design: A prospective, observational multicenter study in six tertiary-care neonatal units. We enrolled 76 infants; 31 probiotic-supplemented extremely preterm infants <28 weeks gestation, 35 very preterm infants 28-31 weeks gestation not given probiotics and 10 healthy full-term control infants. Taxonomic composition and collection of antibiotic resistance genes (resistome) in fecal samples, collected at 7 and 28 days and 4 months age, were analyzed using shotgun-metagenome sequencing. Results: Median (IQR) birth weight was 835 (680-945) g and 1,290 (1,150-1,445) g in preterm infants exposed and not exposed to probiotics, respectively. Two extremely preterm infants receiving probiotic developed NEC requiring surgery. At 7 days of age we found higher median relative abundance of Bifidobacterium in probiotic supplemented infants (64.7%) compared to non-supplemented preterm infants (0.0%) and term control infants (43.9%). Lactobacillus was only detected in small amounts in all groups, but the relative abundance increased up to 4 months. Extremely preterm infants receiving probiotics had also much higher antibiotic exposure, still overall microbial diversity and resistome was not different than in more mature infants at 4 weeks and 4 months. Conclusion: Probiotic supplementation may induce colonization resistance and alleviate harmful effects of antibiotics on the gut microbiota and antibiotic resistome. Clinical Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02197468. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02197468.
Project description:Growing evidence has shown that gut microbiome is a key factor involved in liver health. Therefore, gut microbiota modulation with probiotic bacteria, such as Saccharomyces boulardii, constitutes a promising therapy for hepatosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of S. boulardii on D-Galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice. Liver function test and histopathological analysis both suggested that the liver injury can be effectively attenuated by S. boulardii administration. In the meantime, S. boulardii induced dramatic changes in the gut microbial composition. At the phylum level, we found that S. boulardii significantly increased in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, and decreased the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, which may explain the hepatic protective effects of S. boulardii. Taken together, our results demonstrated that S. boulardii administration could change the gut microbiota in mice and alleviate acute liver failure, indicating a potential protective and therapeutic role of S. boulardii.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A host defense function for Alkaline phosphatases (ALPs) is suggested by the contribution of intestinal ALP to detoxifying bacterial lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin) in animal models in vivo and the elevation of ALP activity following treatment of human cells with inflammatory stimuli in vitro. However the activity of ALP in human plasma (primarily tissue-nonspecific ALP; TNAP) on lipopolysaccharide and other microbial products has not been assessed, nor has its expression been studied in preterm newborns, a vulnerable population at high risk of sepsis. In this context, the aim of our study was to characterize the activity of TNAP on Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists and assess the concentrations of plasma ALP during late-onset sepsis in preterm newborns. METHODS:Recombinant human TNAP was incubated with microbial products and phosphate release was measured by malachite green assay. Plasma ALP activity was measured serially in a cohort of preterm (N = 129) infants at high risk of late-onset sepsis (LOS). RESULTS:TNAP dephosphorylates poly-inosine:cytosine (Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 agonist) and LPS from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella minnesota (TLR4 agonists). Plasma ALP significantly increased postnatally over the first 4 weeks of life in preterm and term newborns. Bacteremic LOS in preterm infants (gestational age ? 30 weeks) was associated with significantly elevated plasma ALP at 4 weeks postnatal age. CONCLUSIONS:TNAP, the main circulating isozyme of ALP, de-phosphorylates TLR agonists, demonstrates a post-natal age dependent increase in preterm and term plasma across the first 4 weeks of life, and is elevated in association with preterm LOS.
Project description:To compare the electromyographic activity of preterm newborns placed in the kangaroo position with the activity of newborns not placed in this position.A cohort study.A Kangaroo Unit sector and a Nursery sector in a secondary and tertiary care at a mother-child hospital in Recife, Brazil.Preterm infants of gestational age 27-34 weeks (n=38) and term infants (n=39).Surface electromyography was used to investigate muscle activity in the brachial biceps at rest. 3 groups were designed: (1) preterm newborns in the kangaroo position (PT-KAN), where the newborn remains in a vertical position, lying face down, with limbs flexed, dressed in light clothes, maintaining skin-to-skin contact with the adult's thorax. Her electromyographic activity was recorded at 0 h (immediately before starting this position), and then at 48 h after the beginning of the position (but newborns were kept in the kangaroo position for 8-12 h per day) and at term equivalent age (40±1 weeks); (2) preterm newborns not in the kangaroo position (PT-NKAN), in which measurements were made at 0 h and 48 h; and (3) term newborns (T), in which measurements were made at 24 h of chronological age.The Root Mean Square (RMS) values showed significant differences among groups (F(5,108)=56.69; p<0.001). The multiple comparisons showed that RMS was greater at 48 h compared to 0 h in the preterm group in the kangaroo position, but not in the group not submitted in the kangaroo position. The RMS in the term equivalent aged group in the kangaroo position was also greater when compared with those in the term group.The kangaroo position increases electromyographic activity in the brachial biceps of preterm newborns and those who have reached the age equivalent to term.
Project description:To investigate the impact of probiotic Bifidobacterium longum ssp. infantis on the fecal microbiota and plasma cytokines in neonates with congenital heart disease.Sixteen infants with congenital heart disease were randomly assigned to receive either B. infantis (4.2 × 10(9) colony-forming units two times daily) or placebo for 8 weeks. Stool specimens from enrolled infants and from six term infants without heart disease were analyzed for microbial composition. Plasma cytokines were analyzed weekly in the infants with heart disease.Healthy control infants had increased total bacteria, total Bacteroidetes and total bifidobacteria compared to the infants with heart disease, but there were no significant differences between the placebo and probiotic groups. Plasma interleukin (IL)10, interferon (IFN)? and IL1? levels were transiently higher in the probiotic group.Congenital heart disease in infants is associated with dysbiosis. Probiotic B. infantis did not significantly alter the fecal microbiota. Alterations in plasma cytokines were found to be inconsistent.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Some oral probiotics have been shown to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and decrease mortality effectively in preterm very low birth weight (PVLBW) infants. However, it is unclear whether a single probiotic or a mixture of probiotics is most effective for the prevention of NEC.<h4>Objective</h4>A meta-analysis was conducted by reviewing the most up to date literature to investigate whether multiple strains probiotics are more effective than a single strain in reducing NEC and death in PVLBW infants.<h4>Data sources</h4>Relevant studies were identified by searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases, from 2001 to 2016.<h4>Data extraction and synthesis</h4>The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials of any enteral probiotic supplementation that was initiated within the first 7 days and continued for at least 14 days in preterm infants (? 34 weeks' gestation) and/or those of a birth weight ?1500 g.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 25 trials (n = 7345 infants) were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis using a fixed-effects model. Multiple strains probiotics were associated with a marked reduction in the incidence of NEC, with a pooled OR of 0.36 (95% CI, 0.24-0.53; P < .00001). Single strain probiotic using Lactobacillus species had a borderline effect in reducing NEC (OR of 0.60; 95% CI 0.36-1.0; P = .05), but not mortality. Multiple strains probiotics had a greater effectiveness in reducing mortality and were associated with a pooled OR of 0.58 (95% CI, 0.43-0.79; P = .0006). Trials using single strain of Bifidobacterium species and Saccharomyces boulardii did not reveal any beneficial effects in terms of reducing NEC or mortality.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This updated report found that multiple strains probiotics appear to be the most feasible and effective strategy for the prevention of NEC and reduction of mortality in PVLBW neonates. Further clinical trials should focus on which probiotic combinations are most effective.
Project description:Dysbalance in gut microbiota has been linked to increased microbial translocation, leading to chronic inflammation in HIV-patients, even under effective HAART. Moreover, microbial translocation is associated with insufficient reconstitution of CD4+T cells, and contributes to the pathogenesis of immunologic non-response. In a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we recently showed that, compared to placebo, 12 weeks treatment with probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii significantly reduced plasma levels of bacterial translocation (Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein or LBP) and systemic inflammation (IL-6) in 44 HIV virologically suppressed patients, half of whom (n = 22) had immunologic non-response to antiretroviral therapy (<270 CD4+Tcells/?L despite long-term suppressed viral load). The aim of the present study was to investigate if this beneficial effect of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii is due to modified gut microbiome composition, with a decrease of some species associated with higher systemic levels of microbial translocation and inflammation. In this study, we used 16S rDNA gene amplification and parallel sequencing to analyze the probiotic impact on the composition of the gut microbiome (faecal samples) in these 44 patients randomized to receive oral supplementation with probiotic or placebo for 12 weeks. Compared to the placebo group, in individuals treated with probiotic we observed lower concentrations of some gut species, such as those of the Clostridiaceae family, which were correlated with systemic levels of bacterial translocation and inflammation markers. In a sub-study of these patients, we observed significantly higher parameters of microbial translocation (LBP, soluble CD14) and systemic inflammation in immunologic non-responders than in immunologic responders, which was correlated with a relative abundance of specific gut bacterial groups (Lachnospiraceae genus and Proteobacteria). Thus, in this work, we propose a new therapeutic strategy using the probiotic yeast S. boulardii to modify gut microbiome composition. Identifying pro-inflammatory species in the gut microbiome could also be a useful new marker of poor immune response and a new therapeutic target.
Project description:Growing evidence shows that gut microbes are key factors involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, metabolic inflammation, lipid metabolism, and glucose metabolism. Therefore, gut microbiota modulations caused by selectively fermented oligosaccharides or probiotic bacteria constitute an interesting target in the physiopathology of obesity. However, to date, no probiotic yeast has been investigated in this context. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the impact of the most-studied probiotic yeast (i.e., Saccharomyces boulardii Biocodex) on obesity and associated metabolic features, such as fat mass development, hepatic steatosis, and low-grade inflammation, in obese mice. S. boulardii was administered daily by oral gavage to leptin-resistant obese and type 2 diabetic mice (db/db) for 4 weeks. We found that S. boulardii-treated mice exhibited reduced body weight, fat mass, hepatic steatosis, and inflammatory tone. Interestingly, these effects of S. boulardii on host metabolism were associated with local effects in the intestine. S. boulardii increased cecum weight and cecum tissue weight but also induced dramatic changes in the gut microbial composition at the phylum, family, and genus levels. These gut microbiota changes in response to S. boulardii may also be correlated with the host metabolism response. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that S. boulardii may act as a beneficial probiotic treatment in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes.To date, no probiotic yeast have been investigated in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here we found that type 2 diabetic and obese mice (db/db) treated with Saccharomyces boulardii exhibited reduced body weight, fat mass, hepatic steatosis, and inflammatory tone. These effects on host metabolism were associated with local effects in the intestine. Importantly, by using pyrosequencing, we found that S. boulardii treatment induces changes of the gut microbiota composition at the phylum, family, and genus levels. Moreover, we found that gut microbiota changes in response to S. boulardii were correlated with several host metabolism responses.
Project description:Probiotics are becoming a prevalent supplement to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in infants born preterm. However, little is known about the ability of these live bacterial supplements to colonize the gut or how they affect endogenous bacterial strains and the overall gut community. We capitalized on a natural experiment resulting from a policy change that introduced the use of probiotics to preterm infants in a single Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. We used amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) derived from the v3 region of the 16S rRNA gene to compare the prevalence and abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the gut of preterm infants who were and were not exposed to a probiotic supplement in-hospital. Infants were followed to 5 months corrected age. In the probiotic-exposed infants, ASVs belonging to species of Bifidobacterium appeared at high relative abundance during probiotic supplementation and persisted for up to 5 months. In regression models that controlled for the confounding effects of age and antibiotic exposure, probiotic-exposed infants had a higher abundance of the suspected probiotic bifidobacteria than unexposed infants. Conversely, the relative abundance of Lactobacillus was similar between preterm groups over time. Lactobacillus abundance was inversely related to antibiotic exposure. Furthermore, the overall gut microbial community of the probiotic-exposed preterm infants at term corrected age clustered more closely to samples collected from 10-day old full-term infants than to samples from unexposed preterm infants at term age. In conclusion, routine in-hospital administration of probiotics to preterm infants resulted in the potential for colonization of the gut with probiotic organisms post-discharge and effects on the gut microbiome as a whole. Further research is needed to fully discriminate probiotic bacterial strains from endogenous strains and to explore their functional role in the gut microbiome and in infant health.