Biphilic Organophosphorus Catalysis: Regioselective Reductive Transposition of Allylic Bromides via P(III)/P(V) Redox Cycling.
ABSTRACT: We report that a regioselective reductive transposition of primary allylic bromides is catalyzed by a biphilic organophosphorus (phosphetane) catalyst. Spectroscopic evidence supports the formation of a pentacoordinate (?(5)-P) hydridophosphorane as a key reactive intermediate. Kinetics experiments and computational modeling are consistent with a unimolecular decomposition of the ?(5)-P hydridophosphorane via a concerted cyclic transition structure that delivers the observed allylic transposition and completes a novel P(III)/P(V) redox catalytic cycle. These results broaden the growing repertoire of reactions catalyzed within the P(III)/P(V) redox couple and suggest additional opportunities for organophosphorus catalysis in a biphilic mode.
Project description:A small-ring phosphacycloalkane (1,2,2,3,4,4-hexamethylphosphetane, 3) catalyzes intramolecular C-N bond forming heterocyclization of o-nitrobiaryl and -styrenyl derivatives in the presence of a hydrosilane terminal reductant. The method provides scalable access to diverse carbazole and indole compounds under operationally trivial homogeneous organocatalytic conditions, as demonstrated by 17 examples conducted on 1 g scale. In situ NMR reaction monitoring studies support a mechanism involving catalytic PIII/PV?O cycling, where tricoordinate phosphorus compound 3 represents the catalytic resting state. For the catalytic conversion of o-nitrobiphenyl to carbazole, the kinetic reaction order was determined for phosphetane catalyst 3 (first order), substrate (first order), and phenylsilane (zeroth order). For differentially 5-substituted 2-nitrobiphenyls, the transformation is accelerated by electron-withdrawing substituents (Hammett factor ? = +1.5), consistent with the accrual of negative charge on the nitro substrate in the rate-determining step. DFT modeling of the turnover-limiting deoxygenation event implicates a rate-determining (3 + 1) cheletropic addition between the phosphetane catalyst 3 and 2-nitrobiphenyl substrate to form an unobserved pentacoordinate spiro-bicyclic dioxazaphosphetane, which decomposes via (2 + 2) cycloreversion giving 1 equiv of phosphetane P-oxide 3·[O] and 2-nitrosobiphenyl. Experimental and computational investigations into the C-N bond forming event suggest the involvement of an oxazaphosphirane (2 + 1) adduct between 3 and 2-nitrosobiphenyl, which evolves through loss of phosphetane P-oxide 3·[O] to give the observed carbazole product via C-H insertion in a nitrene-like fashion.
Project description:Experimental, spectroscopic, and computational studies are reported that provide an evidence-based mechanistic description of an intermolecular reductive C-N coupling of nitroarenes and arylboronic acids catalyzed by a redox-active main-group catalyst (1,2,2,3,4,4-hexamethylphosphetane P-oxide, i.e., 1·[O]). The central observations include the following: (1) catalytic reduction of 1·[O] to PIII phosphetane 1 is kinetically fast under conditions of catalysis; (2) phosphetane 1 represents the catalytic resting state as observed by 31P NMR spectroscopy; (3) there are no long-lived nitroarene partial-reduction intermediates observable by 15N NMR spectroscopy; (4) the reaction is sensitive to solvent dielectric, performing best in moderately polar solvents (viz. cyclopentylmethyl ether); and (5) the reaction is largely insensitive with respect to common hydrosilane reductants. On the basis of the foregoing studies, new modified catalytic conditions are described that expand the reaction scope and provide for mild temperatures (T ? 60 °C), low catalyst loadings (?2 mol%), and innocuous terminal reductants (polymethylhydrosiloxane). DFT calculations define a two-stage deoxygenation sequence for the reductive C-N coupling. The initial deoxygenation involves a rate-determining step that consists of a (3+1) cheletropic addition between the nitroarene substrate and phosphetane 1; energy decomposition techniques highlight the biphilic character of the phosphetane in this step. Although kinetically invisible, the second deoxygenation stage is implicated as the critical C-N product-forming event, in which a postulated oxazaphosphirane intermediate is diverted from arylnitrene dissociation toward heterolytic ring opening with the arylboronic acid; the resulting dipolar intermediate evolves by antiperiplanar 1,2-migration of the organoboron residue to nitrogen, resulting in displacement of 1·[O] and formation of the target C-N coupling product upon in situ hydrolysis. The method thus described constitutes a mechanistically well-defined and operationally robust main-group complement to the current workhorse transition-metal-based methods for catalytic intermolecular C-N coupling.
Project description:Constraining ?3 -P compounds in nontrigonal, entatic geometries has proven to be an effective strategy for promoting biphilic oxidative addition reactions more typical of transition metals. Although qualitative descriptions of the impact of structure and symmetry on ?3 -P complexes have been proposed, electronic structure variations responsible for biphilic reactivity have yet to be elucidated experimentally. Reported here are P K-edge XANES data and complementary TDDFT calculations for a series of structurally modified P(N)3 complexes that both validate and quantify electronic structure variations proposed to give rise to biphilic reactions at phosphorus. These data are presented alongside experimentally referenced electronic structure calculations that reveal nontrigonal structures predicted to further enhance biphilic reactivity in ?3 -P ligands and catalysts.
Project description:A method for the annulation of amines and carboxylic acids to form pharmaceutically relevant azaheterocycles via organophosphorus PIII/PV redox catalysis is reported. The method employs a phosphetane catalyst together with a mild bromenium oxidant and terminal hydrosilane reductant to drive successive C-N and C-C bond-forming dehydration events via the serial action of a catalytic bromophosphonium intermediate. These results demonstrate the capacity of PIII/PV redox catalysis to enable iterative redox-neutral transformations in complement to the common reductive driving force of the PIII/PV couple.
Project description:A method for electrophilic sulfenylation by organophosphorus-catalyzed deoxygenative O-atom transfer from sulfonyl chlorides is reported. This C-S bond-forming reaction is catalyzed by a readily available small-ring phosphine (phosphetane) in conjunction with a hydrosilane terminal reductant to afford a general entry to sulfenyl electrophiles, including valuable trifluoromethyl, perfluoroalkyl, and heteroaryl derivatives that are otherwise difficult to access. Mechanistic investigations indicate that the twofold deoxygenation of the sulfonyl substrate proceeds by the intervention of an off-cycle resting state thiophosphonium ion. The catalytic method represents an operationally simple protocol using a stable phosphine oxide as a precatalyst and exhibits broad functional-group tolerance.
Project description:We report a Pd-catalyzed intermolecular hydrophosphinylation of 1,3-dienes to afford chiral allylic phosphine oxides. Commodity dienes and air stable phosphine oxides couple to generate organophosphorus building blocks with high enantio- and regiocontrol. This method constitutes the first asymmetric hydrophosphinylation of dienes.
Project description:The stereochemical course of palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of an enantioenriched, alpha-substituted, allylic silanolate salt with aromatic bromides has been investigated. The allylic silanolate salt was prepared in high geometrical (Z/E, 94:6) and high enantiomeric (94:6 er) purity by a copper-catalyzed S(N)2' reaction of a resolved allylic carbamate. Eight different aromatic bromides underwent cross-coupling with excellent constitutional site-selectivity and excellent stereospecificity. Stereochemical correlation established that the transmetalation event proceeds through a syn S(E)' mechanism which is interpreted in terms of an intramolecular delivery of the arylpalladium electrophile through a key intermediate that contains a discrete Si-O-Pd linkage.
Project description:[n.3.0]Bicycles (n = 3-6) can be synthesized using palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation followed by ruthenium-catalyzed cycloisomerization. New types of triarylphosphino-1,2-diaminooxazoline ligands show the same high levels of enantioselectivity observed with Trost ligand when employed in Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation reactions. The enyne products of these allylic alkylation reactions were further elaborated using a Ru-catalyzed redox isomerization process, for which a mechanism is proposed.
Project description:A novel mode of regiochemical control over the allylic [1,3]-transposition of silyloxy groups catalyzed by Re2O7 has been developed. This strategy relies on a cis-oriented vinyl boronate, generated from the Alder-ene reaction of homoallylic silyl ethers and alkynyl boronates, to trap out the allylic hydroxyl group. The resulting cyclic boronic acids are excellent partners for cross-coupling reactions. High chirality transfer is observed for the rearrangement of enantioenriched allylic silyl ethers.
Project description:A hydroxyl group-directed, highly regio- and stereoselective transposition of allylic alcohols based on rhenium catalysis has been developed. The method is suitable for a direct isomerization of acetals into the thermodynamically preferred isomer as long as one of the hydroxyl groups is allylic. This method will expand the scope of rhenium-catalyzed alcohol transpositions for complex molecule synthesis.