Dietary risk factors for colorectal cancer in Brazil: a case control study.
ABSTRACT: High meat intake and low consumption of vegetables, fruits and whole grains have been associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer in some relevant cohort studies conducted in distinct ethnic populations. The role of the dietary pattern on the risk of sporadic colorectal adenocarcinoma (SCA) in Brazil is unknown; therefore, it was the aim of the present study.The dietary patterns of 169 patients with SCA and 101 controls were analysed by food frequency recall. Crude odds ratios were calculated and given within 95 % confidence intervals.Patients reported higher average intakes of beef (32.0 ± 1.8 versus 23.7 ± 1.6, P = 0.0069), chicken (18.1 ± 0.9 versus 12.2 ± 0.8, P = 0.0002), and pork (8.9 ± 0.9 versus 3.4 ± 0.5, P < 0.0001). These individuals had a 1.025, 1.069, and 1.121-fold increased risk of SCA. Similar consumption of fish, vegetables, fruits and whole grains was reported by patients and controls.Meat consumption is greater in patients with SCA in the Brazilian population. Considering the study population - characterized by ethnic heterogeneity -, the environmental factor related to food habits may be associated with higher incidence of this disease in Brazil.
Project description:Dietary patterns might influence the pathogenesis of asthma in Puerto Ricans, the ethnic group most affected by this disease in the United States.To examine the association among diet, T-helper cell type 17 cytokines, and asthma in Puerto Rican children.As part of a case-control study of 678 Puerto Rican children 6 to 14 years old in San Juan, participants completed a 75-item questionnaire on the child's food consumption in the prior week. Foods were aggregated into 7 groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, protein foods, dairy, fats, and sweets. Logistic regression was used to evaluate consumption frequency of each group, plasma T-helper cell type 17 cytokine levels, and asthma. Based on this analysis, a food score (range -2 [unhealthy diet: high consumption of dairy products and sweets, low consumption of vegetables and grains] to +2 [healthy diet: high consumption of grains and vegetables, low consumption of dairy and sweets]) was created to identify dietary patterns.High consumption of grains was associated with lower odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33-0.82), whereas frequent consumption of dairy products (aOR 1.93, 95% CI 1.32-2.84) or sweets (aOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.08-2.72) was associated with higher odds of asthma. A healthier diet (each 1-point increment in food score) was associated with lower levels of interleukin-17F (? = -1.48 pg/mL, 95% CI -1.78 to -1.20) and with 36% decreased odds of asthma (aOR 0.64, 95% CI 0.53-0.77).A healthy diet, with frequent consumption of vegetables and grains and low consumption of dairy products and sweets, was associated with lower levels of interleulin-17F and decreased odds of childhood asthma in Puerto Ricans.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Latin American (LA) region is still facing an ongoing epidemiological transition and shows a complex public health scenario regarding non-communicable diseases (NCDs). A healthy diet and consumption of specific food groups may decrease the risk of NCDs, however there is a lack of dietary intake data in LA countries. OBJECTIVE:Provide updated data on the dietary intake of key science-based selected food groups related to NCDs risk in LA countries. DESIGN:ELANS (Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health) is a multicenter cross-sectional study assessing food consumption from an urban sample between15 to 65 years old from 8 LA countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela). Two 24-HR were obtained from 9,218 individuals. The daily intake of 10 food groups related to NCDs risk (fruits; vegetables; legumes/beans; nuts and seeds; whole grains products; fish and seafood; yogurt; red meat; processed meats; sugar-sweetened beverages (ready-to-drink and homemade)) were assessed and compared to global recommendations. RESULTS:Only 7.2% of the overall sample reached WHO's recommendation for fruits and vegetables consumption (400 grams per day). Regarding the dietary patterns related to a reduced risk of NCDs, among the overall sample legumes and fruits were the food groups with closer intake to the recommendation, although much lower than expected (13.1% and 11.5%, respectively). Less than 3.5% of the sample met the optimal consumption level of vegetables, nuts, whole grains, fish and yogurt. Largest country-dependent differences in average daily consumption were found for legumes, nuts, fish, and yogurt. Mean consumption of SSB showed large differences between countries. CONCLUSION:Diet intake quality is deficient for nutrient-dense food groups, suggesting a higher risk for NCDs in the urban LA region in upcoming decades. These data provide relevant and up-to-date information to take urgent public health actions to improve consumption of critically foods in order to prevent NCDs.
Project description:The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to synthesize the knowledge about the relation between intake of 12 major food groups and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, Embase, Medline (Ovid), Cochrane Central, and Google Scholar for prospective studies investigating the association between whole grains, refined grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, eggs, dairy, fish, red meat, processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) on risk of T2D. Summary relative risks were estimated using a random effects model by contrasting categories, and for linear and non-linear dose-response relationships. Six out of the 12 food-groups showed a significant relation with risk of T2D, three of them a decrease of risk with increasing consumption (whole grains, fruits, and dairy), and three an increase of risk with increasing consumption (red meat, processed meat, and SSB) in the linear dose-response meta-analysis. There was evidence of a non-linear relationship between fruits, vegetables, processed meat, whole grains, and SSB and T2D risk. Optimal consumption of risk-decreasing foods resulted in a 42% reduction, and consumption of risk-increasing foods was associated with a threefold T2D risk, compared to non-consumption. The meta-evidence was graded "low" for legumes and nuts; "moderate" for refined grains, vegetables, fruit, eggs, dairy, and fish; and "high" for processed meat, red meat, whole grains, and SSB. Among the investigated food groups, selecting specific optimal intakes can lead to a considerable change in risk of T2D.
Project description:Children are encouraged to eat a specific amount of fruits and vegetables to optimize health. The purpose of this study was to assess whether consumption of a variety of fruits and vegetables, respectively, was associated with a greater diet quality among preschool-aged children. Analyses were performed using a cross-sectional, nationally representative sample of US children. Dietary intakes from 24-h dietary recalls of two-five year old children (n = 2595) in 2005-2010 NHANES were examined. Diet quality was evaluated using MyPlate equivalents and the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010). Variety categories were determined based on children's fruit, fruit juice, and vegetable consumption on the recalled day. Differences in diet quality were examined using t-tests. Variety of fruits and vegetables was linked to higher overall diet quality. Children who consumed whole fruit had better diet quality scores for total fruit, whole fruit, whole grains, dairy, seafood, refined grains, sodium, and empty calories (P ? 0.018). Significantly higher HEI-2010 scores for total fruit, whole fruit, fatty acids, sodium, and empty calories, but a lower dairy HEI-2010 score, were identified in children who drank fruit juice (P ? 0.038). Vegetable consumption was significantly associated with higher total vegetables, greens/beans, and empty calories, but a lower sodium score (P ? 0.027). Children who consumed whole fruit, fruit juice and non-starchy vegetables (P ? 0.017), but not white potatoes, had significantly higher total HEI-2010 scores. Reinforcing fruit and 100% fruit juice consumption may indirectly support healthier diets among children. However, underlying associations between fruit and vegetable intakes and overall diet quality should be examined further.
Project description:The associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and pancreatic cancer risk are inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to investigate the associations. The search was conducted systemically using the PubMed and EMBASE databases up to March 2017. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest consumption and dose-response analyses were assessed. Subtype and subgroup analyses were performed. Twelve studies were eligible. The summary relative risks of the highest versus lowest consumption were 0.95 (0.80-1.12) for total fruits and vegetables without heterogeneity (I2 = 0%, P = 0.44), 0.96 (0.82-1.12) for fruits without low heterogeneity (I2 = 37%, P = 0.12) and 0.94 (0.84-1.06) for vegetables with low heterogeneity (I2 = 9%, P= 0.36). Dose-response analyses also showed no significantly inverse associations for each 100 g/day increase; the summary relative risks were 1.00 (0.98-1.02) for total fruits and vegetables, 1.01 (0.97-1.05) for fruits and 1.00 (0.97-1.03) for vegetables. The results of subtype analyses were consistent with the fruit and vegetable analyses; the relative risks were 0.97 (0.80-1.17) for citrus fruit without low heterogeneity (I2 = 39%, P = 0.15) and 0.89 (0.76-1.05) for cruciferous vegetables without low heterogeneity (I2 = 14%, P= 0.32). In conclusion, this meta-analysis does not support significant associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and pancreatic cancer risk.
Project description:Changes in dietary patterns may partly explain the epidemic of asthma in industrialized countries. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between dietary patterns and lung function and asthma exacerbations in Puerto Rican children. This is a case-control study of 678 Puerto Rican children (ages 6-14 years) in San Juan (Puerto Rico). All participants completed a respiratory health questionnaire and a 75-item food frequency questionnaire. Food items were aggregated into 7 groups: fruits, vegetables, grains, protein, dairy, fats, and sweets. Logistic regression was used to evaluate consumption frequency of each group and asthma. Based on the results, a dietary score was created [range from -2 (unhealthy diet: high consumption of dairy and sweets, low consumption of vegetables and grains) to 2 (healthy diet: high consumption of vegetables and grains and low consumption of dairy and sweet)]. Multivariable linear or logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between dietary score and lung function or asthma exacerbations. After adjustment for covariates, a healthier diet (each 1-point increment in dietary score) was associated with significantly higher %predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and %predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) in control subjects. Dietary pattern alone was not associated with asthma exacerbations, but children with an unhealthy diet and vitamin D insufficiency (plasma 25(OH)D <30?ng/mL) had higher odds of ?1 severe asthma exacerbation [odds ratio (OR)?=?3.4, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.5-7.5] or ?1 hospitalization due to asthma (OR?=?3.9, 95% CI?=?1.6-9.8, OR?=?3.4, 95% CI?=?1.5-7.5) than children who ate a healthy diet and were vitamin D sufficient. A healthy diet, with frequent consumption of vegetables and grains and low consumption of dairy products and sweets, was associated with higher lung function (as measured by FEV1 and FVC). Vitamin D insufficiency, together with an unhealthy diet, may have detrimental effects on asthma exacerbations in children.
Project description:Dietary habits in children may not only impact current health status but could also shape future, lifelong dietary choices. Dietary intake data in Singaporean children are limited. The current study aimed to define the overall diet quality of Singaporean children using an existing cross-sectional dataset and to consider how demographic factors (i.e., body mass index (BMI) status, ethnicity, age, and sex) were associated with these scores. Existing, cross-sectional dietary data (n = 561 children aged 6-12 years, collected in 2014-2015) from duplicate 24-h recalls were assessed for diet quality using an index based on the Singaporean Health Promotion Board dietary guidelines. Total diet quality scores were calculated from ten different components (frequencies of rice and alternatives, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, meat and alternatives, dairy and alternatives, total fat, saturated fat, sodium intake, and added sugars). Association with demographic factors and BMI category was evaluated by one-way multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) tests, with Bonferroni post hoc analyses. Median (interquartile range) total diet quality scores were 65.4 (57.1-73.0). Median scores for whole grains (0.0, 0.0-33.4), fruits (24.1, 0.0-65.3), vegetables (36.5, 10.4-89.8), and sodium (58.4, 0.0-100.0) intake were frequently sub-optimal. Children of Malay ethnic origin had statistically lower total diet quality scores ((55.3, 47.5-60.3) vs. other ethnic groups (combined median 65.4 (57.1, 73.0); p < 0.001). These findings highlight the need for continuing efforts to improve dietary intake in young Singaporeans and for longitudinal dietary monitoring in this group.
Project description:Few studies have investigated the relationship between living arrangements and dietary intake among evacuees after disasters.To examine the relationship between living arrangements and dietary intake using the data of a large-scale cohort survey of evacuees after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011.73,433 residents in evacuation zones responded to the Fukushima Health Management Survey questionnaire. Subjects were excluded if they did not report their living conditions or were missing more than three pieces of information about dietary intake. The data of 52,314 subjects (23,149 men and 29,165 women ?15 years old) were used for the analyses. Evacuees' living arrangements were characterized into three categories: evacuation shelters or temporary housing, rental houses or apartments, or a relative's home or their own home. Dietary intake was characterized in terms of grains, fruits and vegetables, meat, soybean products, dairy products, and fish. Daily consumption of the third quartile (Q3) or higher for each food group was defined as 'high consumption'. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using modified Poisson regression analyses.Modified Poisson regression analyses showed that, compared with respondents living in a relative's home or their own home, the PRs and 95% CIs for the people living in rental apartments of high consumption of fruits and vegetables (non-juice), meat, soybean products, and dairy products were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.61-0.77), 0.82 (95% CI, 0.73-0.91), 0.89 (95% CI, 0.83-0.94), and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74-0.93) respectively. The corresponding PRs and 95% CIs for people living in evacuation shelters or temporary housing were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.78-0.88), 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86-0.95), 0.94 (95% CI, 0.91-0.97), and 0.91 (95% CI, 0.86-0.96) for high consumption of fruits and vegetables (non-juice), meat, soybean products, and dairy products, respectively.The present study suggests that, after the earthquake, living in non-home conditions was associated with poor dietary intake of fruits and vegetables (non-juice), meat, soybean products, and dairy products, suggesting the need for early improvements in the provision of balanced meals among evacuees living in non-home conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite available information on trends in behavioral factors for Brazil and Argentina, little is known about the association of these trends with mortality. Understanding this association is important to avoid early deaths. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate temporal trends in behavioral risk and protective factors in Brazil and Argentina, and to assess their association with overall and cause-specific mortality rates. METHODS:Ecological study with data from two population surveys from Brazil and Argentina. Weighted prevalence of tobacco smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity for the 27 Brazilian state capitals and for the 23 Argentinean provinces were used as behavioral factors. Information on overall mortality as well as cardiovascular diseases and cancer mortality for the year 2015 was collected from national mortality banks of both countries. Estimated prevalence rates were used to describe trends in behavioral factors from 2006 to 2014 in Brazil, and from 2005 to 2013 in Argentina, while Pearson's correlation and linear regression models were used to assess their association with overall and cause-specific mortality rates. RESULTS:Brazil presented improvements in behavioral risk and protective factors: sharp decrease in tobacco smoking prevalence (from 15 to 9%), increase in regular fruit and vegetable consumption (from 28 to 36%), and increase in physical activity (45 to 51%). In Argentina, results were more disappointing: small reduction in tobacco smoking (from 55 to 50%) and decrease in physical activity (from 55 to 45%). In both countries, excessive alcohol consumption remained stable, with increase only among women. The association between behavioral factors and mortality showed that in those Brazilian capitals with higher prevalence of regular consumption of fruits and vegetables, there were lower overall mortality rates. Stratification by gender revealed that significant results were only found among women. CONCLUSION:Prevalence of regular consumption of fruits and vegetables increased in Brazilian capitals and was associated with lower overall mortality rate, suggesting a positive impact of Brazilian policies to improve dietary intake patterns on its population's mortality. Approaches focusing on behavioral factors are especially needed in Argentina to reach similar results of those seen in Brazil.
Project description:The duration and pattern of breastfeeding can influence the consumption of fruits and vegetables in later childhood.To investigate the association between pattern and duration of breastfeeding and consumption of fruits and vegetables in children aged between 4 and 7 years.We conducted a secondary analysis using data from a former randomized clinical trial with 323 adolescent mothers, their children, and maternal grandmothers, when they cohabited. Information on infant feeding was collected monthly during the first 6 months of life, every two months until the child was 1 year old over and when children were between 4 and 7 years old. The associations between duration of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding and consumption of fruits and vegetables were tested by a logistic regression model.Approximately 60% and 45% of children consumed fruits and vegetables, respectively, five or more times a week. Consumption of vegetables among 4-7-year-old children was higher in children who were breastfed for 12 months or longer (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.49-4.93); however, exclusive breastfeeding duration did not have a significant association with consumption of vegetables (OR 1.5; 95%CI 0.70-3.04). There was no association between weekly consumption of fruits and duration of breastfeeding (OR 1.3; 95%CI 0.71-2.30) or exclusive breastfeeding (OR 0.7; 95%CI 0.34-1.44).Longer duration of breastfeeding was positively associated with consumption of vegetables in children aged 4-7 years; however, there was no association with consumption of fruits. Exclusive breastfeeding duration did not have influence on consumption of fruits or vegetables.