MicroRNA-34a Plays a Key Role in Cardiac Repair and Regeneration Following Myocardial Infarction.
ABSTRACT: RATIONALE:In response to injury, the rodent heart is capable of virtually full regeneration via cardiomyocyte proliferation early in life. This regenerative capacity, however, is diminished as early as 1 week postnatal and remains lost in adulthood. The mechanisms that dictate postinjury cardiomyocyte proliferation early in life remain unclear. OBJECTIVE:To delineate the role of miR-34a, a regulator of age-associated physiology, in regulating cardiac regeneration secondary to myocardial infarction (MI) in neonatal and adult mouse hearts. METHODS AND RESULTS:Cardiac injury was induced in neonatal and adult hearts through experimental MI via coronary ligation. Adult hearts demonstrated overt cardiac structural and functional remodeling, whereas neonatal hearts maintained full regenerative capacity and cardiomyocyte proliferation and recovered to normal levels within 1-week time. As early as 1 week postnatal, miR-34a expression was found to have increased and was maintained at high levels throughout the lifespan. Intriguingly, 7 days after MI, miR-34a levels further increased in the adult but not neonatal hearts. Delivery of a miR-34a mimic to neonatal hearts prohibited both cardiomyocyte proliferation and subsequent cardiac recovery post MI. Conversely, locked nucleic acid-based anti-miR-34a treatment diminished post-MI miR-34a upregulation in adult hearts and significantly improved post-MI remodeling. In isolated cardiomyocytes, we found that miR-34a directly regulated cell cycle activity and death via modulation of its targets, including Bcl2, Cyclin D1, and Sirt1. CONCLUSIONS:miR-34a is a critical regulator of cardiac repair and regeneration post MI in neonatal hearts. Modulation of miR-34a may be harnessed for cardiac repair in adult myocardium.
Project description:Myeloid-derived growth factor (Mydgf), a paracrine protein secreted by bone marrow-derived monocytes and macrophages, was found to protect against cardiac injury following myocardial infarction (MI) in adult mice. We speculated that Mydgf might improve heart function via myocardial regeneration, which is essential for discovering the target to reverse heart failure. Methods: Two genetic mouse lines were used: global Mydgf knockout (Mydgf-KO) and Mydgf-EGFP mice. Two models of cardiac injury, apical resection was performed in neonatal and MI was performed in adult mice. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot and flow cytometry were performed to study the protein expression. Immunofluorescence was performed to detect the proliferation of cardiomyocytes. Heart regeneration and cardiac function were evaluated by Masson's staining and echocardiography, respectively. RNA sequencing was employed to identify the key involved in Mydgf-induced cardiomyocyte proliferation. Mydgf recombinant protein injection was performed as a therapy for cardiac repair post MI in adult mice. Results: Mydgf expression could be significantly induced in neonatal mouse hearts after cardiac injury. Unexpectedly, we found that Mydgf was predominantly expressed by endothelial cells rather than macrophages in injured neonatal hearts. Mydgf deficiency impeded neonatal heart regeneration and injury-induced cardiomyocyte proliferation. Mydgf recombinant protein promoted primary mouse cardiomyocyte proliferation. Employing RNA sequencing and functional verification, we demonstrated that c-Myc/FoxM1 pathway mediated Mydgf-induced cardiomyocyte expansion. Mydgf recombinant protein improved cardiac function in adult mice after MI injury with inducing cardiomyocyte proliferation. Conclusion: Mydgf promotes cardiomyocyte proliferation by activating c-Myc/FoxM1 pathway and improves heart regeneration both in neonatal and adult mice after cardiac injury, providing a potential target to reverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure.
Project description:The adult mammalian heart has little regenerative capacity after myocardial infarction (MI) while neonatal mouse heart regenerates without scarring or dysfunction. However, the underlying pathways are poorly defined. We sought to derive insights into the pathways regulating neonatal development of the mouse heart and cardiac regeneration post-MI. Total RNA-seq of mouse heart through the first 10 days of postnatal life (referred to as P3, P5, P10) revealed a previously unobserved transition in microRNA expression between P3 and P5 associated specifically with altered expression of protein-coding genes on the focal adhesion pathway and cessation of cardiomyocyte cell division. We found profound changes in the coding and non-coding transcriptome after neonatal MI, with evidence of essentially complete healing by P10. Over two thirds of each of the mRNAs, lncRNAs and microRNAs that were differentially expressed in the post-MI heart were differentially expressed during normal postnatal development, suggesting a common regulatory pathway for normal cardiac development and post-MI cardiac regeneration. We selected exemplars of miRNAs implicated in our data set as regulators of cardiomyocyte proliferation. Several of these showed evidence of a functional influence on mouse cardiomyocyte cell division. In addition, a subset of these microRNAs, miR-144-3p, miR-195a-5p, miR-451a and miR-6240 showed evidence of functional conservation in human cardiomyocytes. The sets of mRNAs, miRNAs and lncRNAs that we report here merit further investigation as gatekeepers of cell division in the postnatal heart and as targets for extension of the period of cardiac regeneration beyond the neonatal period.
Project description:Adult mammalian hearts have a very limited regeneration capacity, due largely to a lack of cardiomyocyte (CM) proliferation. It was recently reported that epicardial, but not myocardial, follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) activates CM proliferation and cardiac regeneration after myocardial infarction (MI). Furthermore, bacterially synthesized human FSTL 1 (hFSTL1) was found to induce CM proliferation, whereas hFSTL1 synthesized in mammals did not, suggesting that post-translational modifications (e.g., glycosylation) of the hFSTL1 protein affect its regenerative activity. We used modified mRNA (modRNA) technology to investigate the possible role of specific hFSTL1 N-glycosylation sites in the induction, by hFSTL1, of CM proliferation and cardiac regeneration. We found that the mutation of a single site (N180Q) was sufficient and necessary to increase the proliferation of rat neonatal and mouse adult CMs in vitro and after MI in vivo, respectively. A single administration of the modRNA construct encoding the N180Q mutant significantly increased cardiac function, decreased scar size, and increased capillary density 28 days post-MI. Overall, our data suggest that the delivery of N180Q hFSTL1 modRNA to the myocardium can mimic the beneficial effect of epicardial hFSTL1, triggering marked CM proliferation and cardiac regeneration in a mouse MI model.
Project description:RATIONALE:Cardiomyocytes in adult mammalian hearts are terminally differentiated cells that have exited from the cell cycle and lost most of their proliferative capacity. Death of mature cardiomyocytes in pathological cardiac conditions and the lack of regeneration capacity of adult hearts are primary causes of heart failure and mortality. However, how cardiomyocyte proliferation in postnatal and adult hearts becomes suppressed remains largely unknown. The miR-17-92 cluster was initially identified as a human oncogene that promotes cell proliferation. However, its role in the heart remains unknown. OBJECTIVE:To test the hypothesis that miR-17-92 participates in the regulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation in postnatal and adult hearts. METHODS AND RESULTS:We deleted miR-17-92 cluster from embryonic and postnatal mouse hearts and demonstrated that miR-17-92 is required for cardiomyocyte proliferation in the heart. Transgenic overexpression of miR-17-92 in cardiomyocytes is sufficient to induce cardiomyocyte proliferation in embryonic, postnatal, and adult hearts. Moreover, overexpression of miR-17-92 in adult cardiomyocytes protects the heart from myocardial infarction-induced injury. Similarly, we found that members of miR-17-92 cluster, miR-19 in particular, are required for and sufficient to induce cardiomyocyte proliferation in vitro. We identified phosphatase and tensin homolog, a tumor suppressor, as an miR-17-92 target to mediate the function of miR-17-92 in cardiomyocyte proliferation. CONCLUSIONS:Our studies therefore identify miR-17-92 as a critical regulator of cardiomyocyte proliferation, and suggest this cluster of microRNAs could become therapeutic targets for cardiac repair and heart regeneration.
Project description:The present study investigated whether TLR3 is required for neonatal heart repair and regeneration following myocardial infarction (MI). TLR3 deficient neonatal mice exhibited impaired cardiac functional recovery and a larger infarct size, while wild type neonatal mice showed cardiac functional recovery and small infarct size after MI. The data suggest that TLR3 is essential for the regeneration and repair of damaged neonatal myocardium. In vitro treatment of neonatal cardiomyocytes with a TLR3 ligand, Poly (I:C), significantly enhances glycolytic metabolism, YAP1 activation and proliferation of cardiomyocytes which were prevented by a glycolysis inhibitor, 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG). Administration of 2-DG to neonatal mice abolished cardiac functional recovery and YAP activation after MI, suggesting that TLR3-mediated regeneration and repair of the damaged neonatal myocardium is through glycolytic-dependent YAP1 activation. Inhibition of YAP1 activation abolished Poly (I:C) induced proliferation of neonatal cardiomyocytes. Interestingly, activation of YAP1 increases the expression of miR-152 which represses the expression of cell cycle inhibitory proteins, P27kip1 and DNMT1, leading to cardiomyocyte proliferation. We conclude that TLR3 is required for neonatal heart regeneration and repair after MI. The mechanisms involve glycolytic-dependent YAP1 activation, resulting in miR-152 expression which targets DNMT1/p27kip1.
Project description:An innovative approach for cardiac regeneration following injury is to induce endogenous cardiomyocyte (CM) cell cycle re-entry. In the present study, CMs from adult rat hearts were isolated and transfected with cel-miR-67 (control) and rno-miR-210. A significant increase in CM proliferation and mono-nucleation were observed in miR-210 group, in addition to a reduction in CM size, multi-nucleation, and cell death. When compared to control, ?-catenin and Bcl-2 were upregulated while APC (adenomatous polyposis coli), p16, and caspase-3 were downregulated in miR-210 group. In silico analysis predicted cell cycle inhibitor, APC, as a direct target of miR-210 in rodents. Moreover, compared to control, a significant increase in CM survival and proliferation were observed with siRNA-mediated inhibition of APC. Furthermore, miR-210 overexpressing C57BL/6 mice (210-TG) were used for short-term ischemia/reperfusion study, revealing smaller cell size, increased mono-nucleation, decreased multi-nucleation, and increased CM proliferation in 210-TG hearts in contrast to wild-type (NTG). Likewise, myocardial infarction (MI) was created in adult mice, echocardiography was performed, and the hearts were harvested for immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. Compared to NTG, 210-TG hearts showed a significant increase in CM proliferation, reduced apoptosis, upregulated angiogenesis, reduced infarct size, and overall improvement in cardiac function following MI. ?-catenin, Bcl-2, and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) were upregulated while APC, p16, and caspase-3 were downregulated in 210-TG hearts. Overall, constitutive overexpression of miR-210 rescues heart function following cardiac injury in adult mice via promoting CM proliferation, cell survival, and angiogenesis. KEY MESSAGES:MiRNA-210 transfected adult rat CMs show proliferation and reduced cell death in vitro. Cell cycle inhibitor APC is a target of miR-210. MiR-210 overexpressing (210-TG) mouse hearts show CMs cell cycle re-entry and survival post myocardial injury. 210-TG mice show significant neovascularization and angiogenic potential post myocardial infarction. 210-TG hearts show reduced infarct size following ischemic injury.
Project description:We recently identified a brief time period during postnatal development when the mammalian heart retains significant regenerative potential after amputation of the ventricular apex. However, one major unresolved question is whether the neonatal mouse heart can also regenerate in response to myocardial ischemia, the most common antecedent of heart failure in humans. Here, we induced ischemic myocardial infarction (MI) in 1-d-old mice and found that this results in extensive myocardial necrosis and systolic dysfunction. Remarkably, the neonatal heart mounted a robust regenerative response, through proliferation of preexisting cardiomyocytes, resulting in full functional recovery within 21 d. Moreover, we show that the miR-15 family of microRNAs modulates neonatal heart regeneration through inhibition of postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferation. Finally, we demonstrate that inhibition of the miR-15 family from an early postnatal age until adulthood increases myocyte proliferation in the adult heart and improves left ventricular systolic function after adult MI. We conclude that the neonatal mammalian heart can regenerate after myocardial infarction through proliferation of preexisting cardiomyocytes and that the miR-15 family contributes to postnatal loss of cardiac regenerative capacity.
Project description:Cardiac maturation lays the foundation for postnatal heart development and disease, yet little is known about the contributions of the microenvironment to cardiomyocyte maturation. By integrating single-cell RNA-sequencing data of mouse hearts at multiple postnatal stages, we construct cellular interactomes and regulatory signaling networks. Here we report switching of fibroblast subtypes from a neonatal to adult state and this drives cardiomyocyte maturation. Molecular and functional maturation of neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes and human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are considerably enhanced upon co-culture with corresponding adult cardiac fibroblasts. Further, single-cell analysis of in vivo and in vitro cardiomyocyte maturation trajectories identify highly conserved signaling pathways, pharmacological targeting of which substantially delays cardiomyocyte maturation in postnatal hearts, and markedly enhances cardiomyocyte proliferation and improves cardiac function in infarcted hearts. Together, we identify cardiac fibroblasts as a key constituent in the microenvironment promoting cardiomyocyte maturation, providing insights into how the manipulation of cardiomyocyte maturity may impact on disease development and regeneration.
Project description:The primary cause of heart failure is the loss of cardiomyocytes in the diseased adult heart. Previously, we reported that the miR-17-92 cluster plays a key role in cardiomyocyte proliferation. Here, we report that expression of miR-19a/19b, members of the miR-17-92 cluster, is induced in heart failure patients. We show that intra-cardiac injection of miR-19a/19b mimics enhances cardiomyocyte proliferation and stimulates cardiac regeneration in response to myocardial infarction (MI) injury. miR-19a/19b protected the adult heart in two distinctive phases: an early phase immediately after MI and long-term protection. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis demonstrates that genes related to the immune response are repressed by miR-19a/19b. Using an adeno-associated virus approach, we validate that miR-19a/19b reduces MI-induced cardiac damage and protects cardiac function. Finally, we confirm the therapeutic potential of miR-19a/19b in protecting cardiac function by systemically delivering miR-19a/19b into mice post-MI. Our study establishes miR-19a/19b as potential therapeutic targets to treat heart failure.
Project description:Myocardial infarction (MI) leads to cardiomyocyte death, which triggers an immune response that clears debris and restores tissue integrity. In the adult heart, the immune system facilitates scar formation, which repairs the damaged myocardium but compromises cardiac function. In neonatal mice, the heart can regenerate fully without scarring following MI; however, this regenerative capacity is lost by P7. The signals that govern neonatal heart regeneration are unknown. By comparing the immune response to MI in mice at P1 and P14, we identified differences in the magnitude and kinetics of monocyte and macrophage responses to injury. Using a cell-depletion model, we determined that heart regeneration and neoangiogenesis following MI depends on neonatal macrophages. Neonates depleted of macrophages were unable to regenerate myocardia and formed fibrotic scars, resulting in reduced cardiac function and angiogenesis. Immunophenotyping and gene expression profiling of cardiac macrophages from regenerating and nonregenerating hearts indicated that regenerative macrophages have a unique polarization phenotype and secrete numerous soluble factors that may facilitate the formation of new myocardium. Our findings suggest that macrophages provide necessary signals to drive angiogenesis and regeneration of the neonatal mouse heart. Modulating inflammation may provide a key therapeutic strategy to support heart regeneration. Total RNA was isolated from CD11b+Ly6G- cells sorted from hearts 3 days following ligation of LAD. 6 samples total: Triplicates of cells from P1 mice and from P14 mice