Unilateral nephrectomy elongates primary cilia in the remaining kidney via reactive oxygen species.
ABSTRACT: The length of primary cilia is associated with normal cell and organ function. In the kidney, the change of functional cilia length/mass is associated with various diseases such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, polycystic kidney disease, and congenital solitary kidney. Here, we investigate whether renal mass reduction affects primary cilia length and function. To induce renal mass reduction, mice were subjected to unilateral nephrectomy (UNx). UNx increased kidney weight and superoxide formation in the remaining kidney. Primary cilia were elongated in proximal tubule cells, collecting duct cells and parietal cells of the remaining kidney. Mn(III) Tetrakis (1-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphyrin (MnTMPyP), an antioxidant, reduced superoxide formation in UNx-mice and prevented the elongation of primary cilia. UNx increased the expression of phosphorylated ERK, p21, and exocyst complex members Sec8 and Sec10, in the remaining kidney, and these increases were prevented by MnTMPyP. In MDCK, a kidney tubular epithelial cell line, cells, low concentrations of H2O2 treatment elongated primary cilia. This H2O2-induced elongation of primary cilia was also prevented by MnTMPyP treatment. Taken together, these data demonstrate that kidney compensation, induced by a reduction of renal mass, results in primary cilia elongation, and this elongation is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Project description:Uninephrectomy (UNX) is performed for various reasons, including kidney cancer or donation. Kidneys being the main site of l-arginine production in the body, we tested whether UNX mediated kidney mass reduction impacts l-arginine metabolism and thereby nitric oxide production and blood pressure regulation in mice.In a first series of experiments, we observed a significant increase in arterial blood pressure 8 days post-UNX in female and not in male mice. Further experimental series were performed in female mice, and the blood pressure increase was confirmed by telemetry. l-citrulline, that is used in the kidney to produce l-arginine, was elevated post-UNX as was also asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase that competes with l-arginine and is a marker for renal failure. Interestingly, the UNX-induced blood pressure increase was prevented by supplementation of the diet with 5% of the l-arginine precursor, l-citrulline. Because l-arginine is metabolized in the kidney and other peripheral tissues by arginase-2, we tested whether the lack of this metabolic pathway also compensates for decreased l-arginine production in the kidney and/or for local nitric oxide synthase inhibition and consecutive blood pressure increase. Indeed, upon uninephrectomy, arginase-2 knockout mice (Arg-2-/-) neither displayed an increase in asymmetric dimethylarginine and l-citrulline plasma levels nor a significant increase in blood pressure.UNX leads to a small increase in blood pressure that is prevented by l-citrulline supplementation or arginase deficiency, 2 measures that appear to compensate for the impact of kidney mass reduction on l-arginine metabolism.
Project description:Transcriptome analysis was done after warm renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in a rat model. Earlier studies have shown a protective effect of prior unilateral nephrectomy (UNx) against IRI in the remaining, contralateral kidney compared to a non-neprectomized control group. We aimed at identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms. We used the Affymetrix Clariom D array (formerly known as RTA 1.0 st.) Array data was processed in the Affymetrix Console Software. Overall design: We analysed kidney tissue (left) from male Wistar rats. Number of animals from each group, n = 3. Wistar rats were randomized to either UNx or sham UNx immediately prior to 37 minutes of unilateral renal artery clamping or sham operation under sevoflurane anesthesia. Groups: sham (2 normal kidneys), UNx (1 remaining kidney), IR (1 ischemic kidney, 1 normal kidney), IR+UNx (1 ischemic kidney). MRI was performed 24 hours after reperfusion. Blood and renal tissue were harvested. RNA was isolated for microarray analysis.
Project description:While unilateral nephrectomy (UNx) is suggested to protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in the remaining kidney, the mechanisms underlying this protection remain to be elucidated. In this study, functional MRI was employed in a renal IRI rat model to reveal global and regional changes in renal filtration, perfusion, oxygenation and sodium handling, and microarray and pathway analyses were conducted to identify protective molecular mechanisms. Wistar rats were randomized to either UNx or sham UNx immediately prior to 37 minutes of unilateral renal artery clamping or sham operation under sevoflurane anesthesia. MRI was performed 24 hours after reperfusion. Blood and renal tissue were harvested. RNA was isolated for microarray analysis and QPCR validation of gene expression results. The perfusion (T1 value) was significantly enhanced in the medulla of the post-ischemic kidney following UNx. UNx decreased the expression of fibrogenic genes, i.a. Col1a1, Fn1 and Tgfb1 in the post-ischemic kidney. This was associated with a marked decrease in markers of activated myofibroblasts (Acta2/?-Sma and Cdh11) and macrophages (Ccr2). This was most likely facilitated by down-regulation of Pdgfra, thus inhibiting pericyte-myofibroblast differentiation, chemokine production (Ccl2/Mcp1) and macrophage infiltration. UNx reduced ischemic histopathologic injury. UNx may exert renoprotective effects against IRI through increased perfusion in the renal medulla and alleviation of the acute pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses possibly through decreased myofibroblast activation. The identified pathways involved may serve as potential therapeutic targets and should be taken into account in experimental models of IRI.
Project description:Nephron loss stimulates residual functioning nephrons to undergo compensatory growth. Excessive nephron growth may be a maladaptive response that sets the stage for progressive nephron damage, leading to kidney failure. To date, however, the mechanism of nephron growth remains incompletely understood. Our previous study revealed that class III phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (Pik3c3) is activated in the remaining kidney after unilateral nephrectomy (UNX)-induced nephron loss, but previous studies failed to generate a Pik3c3 gene knockout animal model. Global Pik3c3 deletion results in embryonic lethality. Given that renal proximal tubule cells make up the bulk of the kidney and undergo the most prominent hypertrophic growth after UNX, in this study we used Cre-loxP-based approaches to demonstrate for the first time that tamoxifen-inducible SLC34a1 promoter-driven CreER<sup>T2</sup> recombinase-mediated downregulation of Pik3c3 expression in renal proximal tubule cells alone is sufficient to inhibit UNX- or amino acid-induced hypertrophic nephron growth. Furthermore, our mechanistic studies unveiled that the SLC34a1-CreER<sup>T2</sup> recombinase-mediated Pik3c3 downregulation inhibited UNX- or amino acid-stimulated lysosomal localization and signaling activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in the renal proximal tubules. Moreover, our additional cell culture experiments using RNAi confirmed that knocking down Pik3c3 expression inhibited amino acid-stimulated mTORC1 signaling and blunted cellular growth in primary cultures of renal proximal tubule cells. Together, both our in vivo and in vitro experimental results indicate that Pik3c3 is a major mechanistic mediator responsible for sensing amino acid availability and initiating hypertrophic growth of renal proximal tubule cells by activation of the mTORC1-S6K1-rpS6 signaling pathway.
Project description:Oxidative stress is considered a central pathophysiological event in cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Early age reduction in renal mass is associated with hypertension and oxidative stress in later life, which is aggravated by increased salt intake. The aim of the present study was to examine if renal sympathetic denervation can exert blood pressure lowering effects in uninephrectomized (UNX) rats (3-week old) fed with high salt (HS, 4%; w/w) diet for 4 weeks. Moreover, we investigated if renal denervation is associated with changes in NADPH and xanthine oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species. Rats with UNX + HS had reduced renal function, elevated systolic and diastolic arterial pressures, which was accompanied by increased heart weight, and cardiac superoxide production compared to sham operated Controls. UNX + HS was also associated with higher expression and activity of NADPH and xanthine oxidase in the kidney. Renal denervation in rats with UNX + HS attenuated the development of hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy, but also improved glomerular filtration rate and reduced proteinuria. Mechanistically, renal denervation was associated with lower expression and activity of both NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase in the kidney, but also reduced superoxide production in the heart. In conclusion, our study shows for the first time that renal denervation has anti-hypertensive, cardio- and reno-protective effects in the UNX + HS model, which can be associated with decreased NADPH oxidase- and xanthine oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (i.e., superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) in the kidney.
Project description:Chronic hypoxia is a major contributor to Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) after Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). However, the temporal relation between the acute insult and maladaptive renal response to hypoxia remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the time-course of renal hemodynamics, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as epigenetic modifications, with focus on HIF1α/VEGF signaling, in the AKI to CKD transition. Sham-operated, right nephrectomy (UNx), and UNx plus renal ischemia (IR + UNx) groups of rats were included and studied at 1, 2, 3, or 4 months. The IR + UNx group developed CKD characterized by progressive proteinuria, renal dysfunction, tubular proliferation, and fibrosis. At first month post-ischemia, there was a twofold significant increase in oxidative stress and reduction in global DNA methylation that was maintained throughout the study. Hif1α and Vegfa expression were depressed in the first and second-months post-ischemia, and then Hif1α but not Vegfa expression was recovered. Interestingly, hypermethylation of the Vegfa promoter gene at the HIF1α binding site was found, since early stages of the CKD progression. Our findings suggest that renal hypoperfusion, inefficient hypoxic response, increased oxidative stress, DNA hypomethylation, and, Vegfa promoter gene hypermethylation at HIF1α binding site, are early determinants of AKI-to-CKD transition.
Project description:Primary cilia are singular, sensory organelles that extend from the plasma membrane of most quiescent mammalian cells. These slender, microtubule-based organelles receive and transduce extracellular cues and regulate signaling pathways. Primary cilia are critical to the development and function of many tissue types, and mutation of ciliary genes causes multi-system disorders, termed ciliopathies. Notably, renal cystic disease is one of the most common clinical features of ciliopathies, highlighting a central role for primary cilia in the kidney. Additionally, acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease are associated with altered primary cilia lengths on renal epithelial cells, suggesting ciliary dynamics and renal physiology are linked. Here we describe methods to examine primary cilia in kidney tissue and in cultured renal cells. We include immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy to determine ciliary localization of proteins and cilia structure. Further, we detail cellular assays to measure cilia assembly and disassembly, which regulate cilia length.
Project description:Compensatory renal hypertrophy following unilateral nephrectomy (UNX) occurs in the remaining kidney. However, the long-term cardiac adaptive process to UNX remains poorly defined in humans. Our goal was to characterize myocardial structure and function in living kidney donors (LKDs), approximately 12 years after UNX.Cardiac function and structure in 15 Italian LKDs, at least 5 years after UNX (median time from donation = 8.4 years) was investigated and compared to those of age and sex matched U.S. citizens healthy controls (n = 15). Standard and speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) was performed in both LKDs and controls. Plasma angiotensin II, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), N terminus pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), cyclic guanylyl monophosphate (cGMP), and amino-terminal peptide of procollagen III (PIIINP) were also collected. Median follow-up was 11.9 years. In LKDs, LV geometry and function by STE were similar to controls, wall thickness and volumes were within normal limits also by CMR. In LKDs, CMR was negative for myocardial fibrosis, but apical rotation and LV torsion obtained by STE were impaired as compared to controls (21.4 ± 7.8 vs 32.7 ± 8.9 degrees, p = 0.04). Serum creatinine and PIIINP levels were increased [1.1 (0.9-1.3) mg/dL, and 5.8 (5.4-7.6)] ?g/L, respectively), while urinary cGMP was reduced [270 (250-355) vs 581 (437-698) pmol/mL] in LKDs. No LKD developed cardiovascular or renal events during follow-up.Long-term kidney donors have no apparent structural myocardial abnormalities as assessed by contrast enhanced CMR. However, myocardial deformation of the apical segments, as well as apical rotation, and LV torsion are reduced. The concomitant increase in circulating PIIINP level is suggestive of fibrosis. Further studies, focused on US and EU patients are warranted to evaluate whether these early functional modifications will progress to a more compromised cardiac function and structure at a later time.
Project description:Large-scale clinical outcome studies demonstrated the efficacy of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type II diabetes. Besides their therapeutic efficacy in diabetes, significant renoprotection was observed in non-diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), suggesting the existence of glucose-independent beneficial effects of SGLT2 inhibitors. However, the relevant mechanisms by which SGLT2 inhibition delays the progression of renal injury are still largely unknown and speculative. Previous studies showed that SGLT2 inhibitors reduce diabetic hyperfiltration, which is likely a key element in renoprotection. In line with this hypothesis, this study aimed to investigate the nephroprotective effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin (EMPA) in different mouse models with non-diabetic hyperfiltration and progressing CKD to identify the underlying diabetes-independent cellular mechanisms. Non-diabetic hyperfiltration was induced by unilateral nephrectomy (UNx). Since UNx alone does not result in renal damage, renal disease models with varying degrees of glomerular damage and albuminuria were generated by combining UNx with high NaCl diets ± deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) in different mouse strains with and without genetic predisposition for glomerular injury. Renal parameters (GFR, albuminuria, urine volume) were monitored for 4-6 weeks. Application of EMPA via the drinking water resulted in sufficient EMPA plasma concentration and caused glucosuria, diuresis and in some models renal hypertrophy. EMPA had no effect on GFR in untreated wildtype animals, but significantly reduced hyperfiltration after UNx by 36%. In contrast, EMPA did not reduce UNx induced hyperfiltration in any of our kidney disease models, regardless of their degree of glomerular damage caused by DOCA/salt treatment. Consistent with the lack of reduction in glomerular hyperfiltration, EMPA-treated animals developed albuminuria and renal fibrosis to a similar extent as H<sub>2</sub>O control animals. Taken together, the data clearly indicate that blockade of SGLT2 has the potential to reduce non-diabetic hyperfiltration in otherwise untreated mice. However, no effects on hyperfiltration or progression of renal injury were observed in hypervolemic kidney disease models, suggesting that high salt intake and extracellular volume might attenuate the protective effects of SGLT2 blockers.
Project description:<b>Background</b>: Obesity, hyperglycemia and hypertension are critical risk factors for development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Emerging evidence suggests that glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists improve cardiovascular and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes patients. Here, we characterized the effect of the long-acting GLP-1R agonist semaglutide alone and in combination with an ACE inhibitor (lisinopril) in a model of hypertension-accelerated, advanced DKD facilitated by adeno-associated virus-mediated renin overexpression (ReninAAV) in uninephrectomized (UNx) female diabetic <i>db</i>/<i>db</i> mice. <b>Methods</b>: Female <i>db</i>/<i>db</i> mice received a single intravenous injection of ReninAAV 1 week prior to UNx. Six weeks post-nephrectomy, <i>db</i>/<i>db</i> UNx-ReninAAV mice were administered (q.d.) vehicle, semaglutide (30 nmol/kg, s.c.) or semaglutide (30 nmol/kg, s.c.) + lisinopril (30 mg/kg, p.o.) for 11 weeks. Endpoints included blood pressure, plasma/urine biochemistry, kidney histopathology and RNA sequencing. <b>Results</b>: Vehicle-dosed <i>db</i>/<i>db</i> UNx-ReninAAV mice developed hallmarks of DKD characterized by severe albuminuria and advanced glomerulosclerosis. Semaglutide robustly reduced hyperglycemia, hypertension and albuminuria concurrent with notable improvements in glomerulosclerosis severity, podocyte filtration slit density, urine/renal kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) levels and gene expression markers of inflammation and fibrogenesis in <i>db</i>/<i>db</i> UNx-ReninAAV mice. Co-administration of lisinopril further ameliorated hypertension and glomerulosclerosis. <b>Conclusions</b>: Semaglutide improves disease hallmarks in the <i>db</i>/<i>db</i> UNx-ReninAAV mouse model of advanced DKD. Further benefits on renal outcomes were obtained by adjunctive antihypertensive standard of care. Collectively, our study supports the development of semaglutide for management of DKD.