Draft genomic sequence of Nereida ignava CECT 5292(T), a marine bacterium of the family Rhodobacteraceae.
ABSTRACT: Nereida ignava strain 2SM4(T) (= CECT 5292(T)?=?DSM 16309(T)?=?CIP 108404(T)?=?CCUG 49433(T)) is a marine bacterium belonging to the Roseobacter group of the family Rhodobacteraceae within the class Alphaproteobacteria. The strain was isolated from sea water surrounding cultivated oysters 2-3 miles off the Mediterranean coast near Valencia (Spain) and was phylogenetically related to uncultured clones of gall symbiont bacteria of some species of Prionitis alga. Here we describe the genome sequence and annotation of this organism, the type strain of the single species of this genus. The genome comprised 2,888,349 bp, 2,872 protein-coding genes and 52 RNA genes. The annotation revealed the capacity to produce bacteriocins, vitamins and auxins. Besides, it contained sulfur cycling related genes.
Project description:Quorum sensing (QS) is a density-dependent mechanism allowing bacteria to synchronize their physiological activities, mediated by a wide range of signaling molecules including N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs). Production of AHL has been identified in various marine strains of Proteobacteria. However, the chemical diversity of these molecules still needs to be further explored. In this study, we examined the diversity of AHLs produced by strain MOLA 401, a marine Alphaproteobacterium that belongs to the ubiquitous Rhodobacteraceae family. We combined an original biosensors-based guided screening of extract microfractions with liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (MS), High Resolution MS/MS and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. This approach revealed the unsuspected capacity of a single Rhodobacteraceae strain to synthesize 20 different compounds, which are most likely AHLs. Also, some of these AHLs possessed original features that have never been previously observed, including long (up to 19 carbons) and poly-hydroxylated acyl side chains, revealing new molecular adaptations of QS to planktonic life and a larger molecular diversity than expected of molecules involved in cell-cell signaling within a single strain.
Project description:Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) compounds such as methylamines (MAs) and glycine betaine (GBT) occur at detectable concentrations in marine habitats and are also produced and released by microalgae. For many marine bacteria, these DON compounds can serve as carbon, energy, and nitrogen sources, but microalgae usually cannot metabolize them. Interestingly though, it was previously shown that Donghicola sp. strain KarMa-a member of the marine Rhodobacteraceae-can cross-feed ammonium such that the ammonium it produces upon degrading monomethylamine (MMA) then serves as nitrogen source for the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum; thus, these organisms form a mutual metabolic interaction under photoautotrophic conditions. In the present study, we investigated whether this interaction plays a broader role in bacteria-diatom interactions in general. Results showed that cross-feeding between strain KarMa and P. tricornutum was also possible with di- and trimethylamine as well as with GBT. Further, cross-feeding of strain KarMa was also observed in cocultures with the diatoms Amphora coffeaeformis and Thalassiosira pseudonana with MMA as the sole nitrogen source. Regarding cross-feeding involving other Rhodobacteraceae strains, the in silico analysis of MA and GBT degradation pathways indicated that algae-associated Rhodobacteraceae-type strains likely interact with P. tricornutum in a similar manner as the strain KarMa does. For these types of strains (such as Celeribacter halophilus, Roseobacter denitrificans, Roseovarius indicus, Ruegeria pomeroyi, and Sulfitobacter noctilucicola), ammonium cross-feeding after methylamine degradation showed species-specific patterns, whereas bacterial GBT degradation always led to diatom growth. Overall, the degradation of DON compounds by the Rhodobacteraceae family and the subsequent cross-feeding of ammonium may represent a widespread, organism-specific, and regulated metabolic interaction for establishing and stabilizing associations with photoautotrophic diatoms in the oceans.
Project description:Marine Rhodobacteraceae (Alphaproteobacteria) are key players of biogeochemical cycling, comprise up to 30% of bacterial communities in pelagic environments and are often mutualists of eukaryotes. As 'Roseobacter clade', these 'roseobacters' are assumed to be monophyletic, but non-marine Rhodobacteraceae have not yet been included in phylogenomic analyses. Therefore, we analysed 106 genome sequences, particularly emphasizing gene sampling and its effect on phylogenetic stability, and investigated relationships between marine versus non-marine habitat, evolutionary origin and genomic adaptations. Our analyses, providing no unequivocal evidence for the monophyly of roseobacters, indicate several shifts between marine and non-marine habitats that occurred independently and were accompanied by characteristic changes in genomic content of orthologs, enzymes and metabolic pathways. Non-marine Rhodobacteraceae gained high-affinity transporters to cope with much lower sulphate concentrations and lost genes related to the reduced sodium chloride and organohalogen concentrations in their habitats. Marine Rhodobacteraceae gained genes required for fucoidan desulphonation and synthesis of the plant hormone indole 3-acetic acid and the compatible solutes ectoin and carnitin. However, neither plasmid composition, even though typical for the family, nor the degree of oligotrophy shows a systematic difference between marine and non-marine Rhodobacteraceae. We suggest the operational term 'Roseobacter group' for the marine Rhodobacteraceae strains.
Project description:In Bacteria, chromosome replication starts at a single origin of replication and proceeds on both replichores. Due to its asymmetric nature, replication influences chromosome structure and gene organization, mutation rate, and expression. To date, little is known about the distribution of highly conserved genes over the bacterial chromosome. Here, we used a set of 101 fully sequenced Rhodobacteraceae representatives to analyze the relationship between conservation of genes within this family and their distance from the origin of replication. Twenty-two of the analyzed species had core genes clustered significantly closer to the origin of replication with representatives of the genus Celeribacter being the most apparent example. Interestingly, there were also eight species with the opposite organization. In particular, Rhodobaca barguzinensis and Loktanella vestfoldensis showed a significant increase of core genes with distance from the origin of replication. The uneven distribution of low-conserved regions is in particular pronounced for genomes in which the halves of one replichore differ in their conserved gene content. Phage integration and horizontal gene transfer partially explain the scattered nature of Rhodobacteraceae genomes. Our findings lay the foundation for a better understanding of bacterial genome evolution and the role of replication therein.
Project description:General studies on benthic microbial communities focus on fundamental biogeochemical processes or the most abundant constituents. Thereby, minor fractions such as the Rhodobacteraceae are frequently neglected. Even though this family belongs to the most widely distributed bacteria in the marine environment, their proportion on benthic microbial communities is usually within or below the single digit range. Thus, knowledge on these community members is limited, even though their absolute numbers might exceed those from the pelagic zone by orders of magnitudes. To unravel the distribution and diversity of benthic, metabolically active Rhodobacteraceae, we have now analyzed an already existing library of bacterial 16S rRNA transcripts. The dataset originated from 154 individual sediment samples comprising seven oceanic regions and a broad variety of environmental conditions. Across all samples, a total of 0.7% of all 16S rRNA transcripts was annotated as Rhodobacteraceae. Among those, Sulfitobacter, Paracoccus, and Phaeomarinomonas were the most abundant cultured representatives, but the majority (78%) was affiliated to uncultured family members. To define them, the 45 most abundant Rhodobacteraceae-OTUs assigned as "uncultured" were phylogenetically assembled in new clusters. Their next relatives particularly belonged to different subgroups other than the Roseobacter group, reflecting a large part of the hidden diversity within the benthic Rhodobacteraceae with unknown functions. The general composition of active Rhodobacteraceae communities was found to be specific for the geographical location, exhibiting a decreasing richness with sediment depth. One-third of the Rhodobacteraceae-OTUs significantly responded to the prevailing redox regime, suggesting an adaption to anoxic conditions. A possible approach to predict their physiological properties is to identify the metabolic capabilities of their nearest relatives. Those need to be proven by physiological experiments, as soon an isolate is available. Because many uncultured members of these subgroups likely thrive under anoxic conditions, in future research, a molecular-guided cultivation strategy can be pursued to isolate novel Rhodobacteraceae from sediments.
Project description:The capacity for anoxygenic photosynthesis is scattered throughout the phylogeny of the Proteobacteria. Their photosynthesis genes are typically located in a so-called photosynthesis gene cluster (PGC). It is unclear (i) whether phototrophy is an ancestral trait that was frequently lost or (ii) whether it was acquired later by horizontal gene transfer. We investigated the evolution of phototrophy in 105 genome-sequenced Rhodobacteraceae and provide the first unequivocal evidence for the horizontal transfer of the PGC. The 33 concatenated core genes of the PGC formed a robust phylogenetic tree and the comparison with single-gene trees demonstrated the dominance of joint evolution. The PGC tree is, however, largely incongruent with the species tree and at least seven transfers of the PGC are required to reconcile both phylogenies. The origin of a derived branch containing the PGC of the model organism Rhodobacter capsulatus correlates with a diagnostic gene replacement of pufC by pufX. The PGC is located on plasmids in six of the analyzed genomes and its DnaA-like replication module was discovered at a conserved central position of the PGC. A scenario of plasmid-borne horizontal transfer of the PGC and its reintegration into the chromosome could explain the current distribution of phototrophy in Rhodobacteraceae.
Project description:Bacteriophages are widely considered to influence bacterial communities, however most phages are still unknown or not studied well enough to understand their ecological roles. We have isolated two phages infecting Lentibacter sp. SH36, affiliated with the marine Roseobacter group, and retrieved similar phage genomes from publicly available metagenomics databases. Phylogenetic analysis placed the new phages within the Cobavirus group, in the here newly proposed genus Siovirus and subfamily Riovirinae of the Podoviridae. Gene composition and presence of direct terminal repeats in cultivated cobaviruses point toward a genome replication and packaging strategy similar to the T7 phage. Investigation of the genomes suggests that viral lysis of the cell proceeds via the canonical holin-endolysin pathway. Cobaviral hosts include members of the genera Lentibacter, Sulfitobacter and Celeribacter of the Roseobacter group within the family Rhodobacteraceae (Alphaproteobacteria). Screening more than 5,000 marine metagenomes, we found cobaviruses worldwide from temperate to tropical waters, in the euphotic zone, mainly in bays and estuaries, but also in the open ocean. The presence of cobaviruses in protist metagenomes as well as the phylogenetic neighborhood of cobaviruses in glutaredoxin and ribonucleotide reductase trees suggest that cobaviruses could infect bacteria associated with phototrophic or grazing protists. With this study, we expand the understanding of the phylogeny, classification, genomic organization, biogeography and ecology of this phage group infecting marine Rhodobacteraceae.
Project description:A multipartite genome organization with a chromosome and many extrachromosomal replicons (ECRs) is characteristic for Alphaproteobacteria. The best investigated ECRs of terrestrial rhizobia are the symbiotic plasmids for legume root nodulation and the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. RepABC plasmids represent the most abundant alphaproteobacterial replicon type. The currently known homologous replication modules of rhizobia and Rhodobacteraceae are phylogenetically distinct. In this study, we surveyed type-strain genomes from the One Thousand Microbial Genomes (KMG-I) project and identified a roseobacter-specific RepABC-type operon in the draft genome of the marine rhizobium Martelella mediterranea DSM 17316T. PacBio genome sequencing demonstrated the presence of three circular ECRs with sizes of 593, 259, and 170-kb. The rhodobacteral RepABC module is located together with a rhizobial equivalent on the intermediate sized plasmid pMM259, which likely originated in the fusion of a pre-existing rhizobial ECR with a conjugated roseobacter plasmid. Further evidence for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is given by the presence of a roseobacter-specific type IV secretion system on the 259-kb plasmid and the rhodobacteracean origin of 62% of the genes on this plasmid. Functionality tests documented that the genuine rhizobial RepABC module from the Martelella 259-kb plasmid is only maintained in A. tumefaciens C58 (Rhizobiaceae) but not in Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395 (Rhodobacteraceae). Unexpectedly, the roseobacter-like replication system is functional and stably maintained in both host strains, thus providing evidence for a broader host range than previously proposed. In conclusion, pMM259 is the first example of a natural plasmid that likely mediates genetic exchange between roseobacters and rhizobia.