Radiographic Comparison between Cervical Spine Lateral and Whole-Spine Lateral Standing Radiographs.
ABSTRACT: Study Design Retrospective radiologic study. Objective The sagittal alignment of the cervical spine can be evaluated using either a lateral cervical radiograph or a whole-spine lateral view on which the cervical spine is included. To our knowledge, however, no report has compared the two. The purpose of this work is to identify the difference in radiographic parameters between the cervical spine lateral view and the whole-spine lateral view. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 59 adult patients suffering from neck pain with cervical spine lateral radiographs and whole-spine lateral radiographs from November 2007 to December 2011. The radiographs were measured using standard techniques to obtain the following parameters from the two different radiographs: occipital-C2 angle, C2-C7 angle, C7-sternal angle, sternal slope, T1 slope, C2 central offset distance, the distance between C2 and C7 plumb lines, C4 anteroposterior (AP) diameter, the ratio of C2 central off distance to C4 AP diameter, the ratio of plumb lines' distance to C4 AP diameter. Results We found that the occipital-C2 angle, sternal slope, and C4 AP diameter were similar, but the C2-C7 angle, C7-sternal angle, T1 slope, C2 central offset distance, distance between C2 and C7 plumb lines, ratio of C2 central off distance to C4 AP diameter, and ratio of plumb lines' distance to C4 AP diameter were different. However, the error of measurement was greater than the small angular and linear differences between the two views. Conclusions Most numerical values of the measured radiographic parameters appear to be different between the two views. However, the two views are comparable because the numerical differences were smaller than the errors of measurement.
Project description:Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Objective To compare sagittal cervical range of motion (ROM) and alignment in young versus middle-aged adults. Methods One hundred four asymptomatic adults were selected randomly out of 791 subjects who underwent lateral cervical radiographs in neutral, flexion, and extension positions. They were divided into two groups: young (age 20 to 29, 52 people) and middle-aged adults (age 50 to 59, 52 people). We determined the ROMs of upper cervical (occipital-C2 angle), midcervical (C2-C7 angle), and cervicothoracic spine (cervicosternal angle). We compared the alignment differences of the two groups by calculating the distances between C2 and C7 plumb lines, and C2 central-offset distance. Results In neutral position, there was no significant difference between young and middle-aged adults. However, in flexion, C2-C7 angle, distance between C2-C7 plumb lines, and C2 central-offset distance decreased with age. In extension, C2-C7 angle and C2 central-offset distance decreased with age. During flexion and extension, midcervical ROM and the range of C2 central-offset distance decreased in the middle-aged group. However, there was no difference between the two age groups in the ROM of the upper cervical and the cervicothoracic regions during flexion and extension. Conclusion We found that, despite of the presence of age-related cervical alignment changes, the only difference between the two groups was in the sagittal ROM of the midcervical spine during flexion and extension. Only the ROM of the midcervical spine appears to change significantly, consistent with findings that these levels are most likely to develop both symptomatic and asymptomatic degenerative changes.
Project description:Study Design Retrospective case series. Objectives The kinematics of the cervical spine has been investigated by many researchers. However, the occupancy of the disk bulges, spinal cord, ligamentum flavum, and the rest of the canal as well as the changes of these structures with motion have not yet been investigated. The goal of this study is to investigate these dynamic changes. Methods The kinetic magnetic resonance images of 248 patients (124 men and 124 women) were evaluated, and the occupancy of each structure for each cervical level at neutral, flexion, and extension were calculated. Results Whole canal anteroposterior (AP) diameters showed significant differences between neutral-extension and flexion-extension at the C4-C5 and C5-C6 levels (p < 0.05). The mean disk bulges showed significant differences between neutral-flexion and flexion-extension at the C4-C5, C5-C6, C6-C7, and C7-T1 levels (p < 0.01). The mean spinal canal AP diameter showed significant differences between flexion-extension and neutral-extension at the C3-C4, C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7 levels (p < 0.05). There were significant differences between neutral-flexion at the C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7 levels (p < 0.05). The mean thickness of the ligamentum flavum showed significant differences between flexion-extension at the C3-C4, C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7 levels (p < 0.001). There were significant differences between neutral-extension at the C3-C4 and C5-C6 levels (p < 0.05). There were significant differences between neutral-flexion at the C5-C6 and C6-C7 levels (p < 0.05). The mean thickness of the spinal cord showed significant differences between neutral-flexion at the C2-C3 and C3-C4 levels (p < 0.05). There were significant differences between flexion-extension at the C3-C4 and C4-C5 levels (p < 0.01). The rest of the canal showed significant differences between neutral-extension and flexion-extension at the C3-C4, C4-C5, C5-C6, and C6-C7 levels (p < 0.005). There were significant differences between neutral-flexion at the C5-C6 and C6-C7 levels (p < 0.01). Conclusions The occupancy of each structure in the cervical spine for each level was revealed by this study. In addition, the dynamic changes in the cervical spine with flexion and extension were seen to have different characteristics for each level.
Project description:Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Objective The objective was to measure the change of flavum ligament diameter during positional changes of the cervical spine using kinetic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to examine the correlational diameter changes of the flavum ligament, disk bulging, and the spinal canal from extension to flexion positions. Methods One hundred eight-nine patients underwent kinetic MRI in neutral, extension, and flexion positions. The diameters of cervical ligamentum flavum, disk bulging, and cervical spinal canal and the disk degeneration grade and Cobb angles were measured from C2-C3 to C7-T1. Results In all, 1,134 cervical spinal segments from 189 patients were included. There was a 0.26 ± 0.85-mm average increase in the diameter of the ligamentum flavum from flexion to extension, and 62.70% of the segments had increased ligamentum flavum diameter from flexion to extension. For all segments of the 189 patients, the cervical spinal canal diameters had an average decrease at the disk level of 0.56 ± 1.21 mm from flexion to extension. For all segments with cervical spinal canal narrowing ≥1 mm from flexion to extension view, the ligamentum flavum diameters at C3-C4 to C5-C6 had significant increases compared with patients with spinal canal narrowing < 1 mm (p < 0.05). For patients with ligamentum flavum hypertrophy of ≥1 mm from the flexion to extension view, the cervical spinal canal diameters at C2-C3, C4-C5, and C5-C6 had significant decreases compared with patients with ligamentum flavum hypertrophy of <1 mm (p < 0.05). Conclusion The "hidden" hypertrophy of ligamentum flavum was significant at C4-C5 and C5-C6 and significantly contributes to the stenosis of cervical spinal canal in the extension position.
Project description:Cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM), also known as wobbler syndrome, affects mainly large and giant-breed dogs, causing compression of the cervical spinal cord and/or nerve roots. Structural and dynamic components seem to play a role in the development of CSM; however, pathogenesis is not yet fully understood. Physiologic and pathologic movements of the cervical spine depend on the morphology and morphometry of articular processes, as well as on intervertebral discs and vertebral column ligaments. Moreover, the characteristics of the articular processes affect motion and stability of the vertebral column. The goal of this study was to investigate the angle, shape, and position of the articular surfaces within the articular processes and compare them between Doberman Pinschers and Great Danes with and without cervical spondylomyelopathy.Magnetic resonance images were obtained for 60 dogs: 15 clinically normal Dobermans (Dob-N), 15 CSM-affected Dobermans (Dob-CSM), 15 clinically normal Great Danes (GD-N), and 15 CSM-affected Great Danes (GD-CSM). Angle, shape, and position (lateral distance) of the articular surfaces from the articular processes were analyzed from C2-3 to C7-T1. Results indicate that the mean angle was different between Dob-CSM and GD-CSM at C4-5, C5-6, and C6-7, and between GD-N and GD-CSM at C6-7. There were differences between Dob-N and GD-N, and between Dob-CSM and GD-CSM for the lateral distance at most locations, except C2-3. Compared with Great Danes, Dobermans generally had a greater proportion of concave caudal surfaces at C4-5, C5-6, and C6-7. Concave articular surfaces have been associated with greater axial rotation. This may explain the high proportion of disc-associated CSM in Dobermans compared to Great Danes. The differences between breeds suggest they may have different motion patterns in the caudal cervical vertebral column.Considering that no differences in angle, shape, or position of the articular surfaces within the articular processes were found between normal and CSM-affected dogs, their relevance appears to have a secondary role in the pathogenesis of CSM.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Accurate placement of pedicle screw during Anterior Transpedicular Screw fixation (ATPS) in cervical spine depends on accurate anatomical knowledge of the vertebrae. However, little is known of the morphometric characteristics of cervical vertebrae in Chinese population. METHODS: Three-dimensional reconstructions of CT images were performed for 80 cases. The anatomic data and screw fixation parameters for ATPS fixation were measured using the Mimics software. FINDINGS: The overall mean OPW, OPH and PAL ranged from 5.81 to 7.49 mm, 7.77 to 8.69 mm, and 33.40 to 31.13 mm separately, and SPA was 93.54 to 109.36 degrees from C3 to C6, 104.99 degrees at C7, whereas, 49.00 to 32.26 degrees from C4 to C7, 46.79 degrees at C3 (TPA). Dl/rSIP had an increasing trend away from upper endplate with mean value from 1.87 to 5.83 mm. Dl/rTIP was located at the lateral portion of the anterior cortex of vertebrae for C3 to C5 and ipsilateral for C6 to C7 with mean value from -2.70 to -3.00 mm, and 0.17 to 3.18 mm. The entrance points for pedicular screw insertion for C3 to C5 and C6 to C7 were recommended -2?-3 mm and 0-4 mm from the median sagittal plane, respectively, 1-4 mm and 5-6 mm from the upper endplate, with TPA being 46.79-49.00 degrees and 40.89-32.26 degrees, respectively, and SPA being 93.54-106.69 degrees and 109.36-104.99 degrees, respectively. The pedicle screw insertion diameter was recommended 3.5 mm (C3 and C4), 4.0 mm (C5 to C7), and the pedicle axial length was 21-24 mm for C3 to C7 for both genders. However, the ATPS insertion in C3 should be individualized given its relatively small anatomical dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: The data provided a morphometric basis for the ATPS fixation technique in lower cervical fixation. It will help in preoperative planning and execution of this surgery.
Project description:Study Design Prospective cohort study. Objective To clarify long-term surgical outcomes of C3-6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Methods Twenty patients who underwent C3-6 open-door laminoplasty for CSM and who were followed for 8 to 10 years were included in this study. Myelopathic symptoms were assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. Axial neck pain was graded as severe, moderate, or mild. C2-7 angle was measured using lateral radiographs of the cervical spine before surgery and at final follow-up. Results Mean JOA score before surgery (11.7) was significantly improved to 15.2 at the time of maximum recovery (1 year after surgery), declining slightly to 14.9 by the latest follow-up. Late deterioration of JOA score developed in eight patients, but was unrelated to the cervical spine lesions in each case. No patient suffered from prolonged postoperative axial neck pain at final follow-up. The mean C2-7 angle before surgery (13.8 degrees) significantly increased to 19.2 degrees at final follow-up. Conclusions C3-6 laminoplasty preserving muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes in patients with CSM maintained satisfactory long-term neurologic improvement with significantly reduced frequencies of prolonged postoperative axial neck pain and loss of C2-7 angle after surgery.
Project description:The internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (ibSLN) may be injured during anterior approaches to the cervical spine, resulting in loss of laryngeal cough reflex, and, in turn, the risk of aspiration pneumonia. Such a risk dictates the knowledge regarding anatomical details of this nerve. In this study, 24 ibSLN of 12 formaldehyde fixed adult male cadavers were used. Linear and angular parameters were measured using a Vernier caliper, with a sensitivity of 0.1 mm, and a 1 degrees goniometer. The diameter and the length of the ibSLN were measured as 2.1+/-0.2 mm and 57.2+/-7.7 mm, respectively. The ibSLN originates from the vagus nerve at the C1 level in 5 cases (20.83%), at the C2 level in 14 cases (58.34%), and at the C2-3 intervertebral disc level in 5 cases (20.83%) of the specimens. The distance between the origin of ibSLN and the bifurcation of carotid artery was 35.2+/-12.9 mm. The distance between the ibSLN and midline was 24.2+/-3.3 mm, 20.2+/-3.6 mm, and 15.9+/-4.3 mm at the level of C2-3, C3-4, and at the C4-5 intervertebral disc level, respectively. The angles of ibSLN were mean 19.6+/-2.6 degrees medially with sagittal plane, and 23.6+/-2.6 degrees anteriorly with coronal plane. At the area between the thyroid cartilage and the hyoid bone the ibSLN is the only nerve which traverses lateral to medial. It is accompanied by the superior laryngeal artery, a branch of the superior thyroid artery. The ibSLN is under the risk of injury as a result of cutting or compression of the blades of the retractor at this level. The morphometric data regarding the ibSLN, information regarding the distances between the nerve, and the other consistent structures may help us identify this nerve, and to avoid the nerve injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The value of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is low. Functional and quantitative MRI could be more accurate. We aimed to examine the value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements of the cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord in patients with ALS. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Fourteen patients with ALS and 15 sex- and age-matched controls were examined with DTI at a 3T MRI scanner. Region-of-interest (ROI) based fractional anisotropy measurements were performed at the levels C2-C4, C5-C7 and Th1-Th3. ROIs were placed at different anatomical locations of the axial cross sections of the spinal cord. RESULTS:FA was significantly reduced in ALS patients in anterolateral ROIs and the whole cross section at the C2-C4 level and the cross section of the Th1-Th3 level. There was a trend towards a statistically significant FA reduction in the anterolateral ROIs at the C5-C7 level in ALS patients. No significant differences between patients and controls were found in posterior ROIs. CONCLUSION:FA was reduced in ROIs representing the motor tracts in ALS patients. DTI with FA measurements is a promising method in this circumstance. However, for DTI to become a valuable and established method in the diagnostic workup of ALS, larger studies and further standardisation are warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Arterial and neck vessel system characteristics of patients with multiple sclerosis have not been previously investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the frequency of neck vessels and their cross-sectional areas (in square millimeters) between patients with MS and healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this study, 193 patients with MS and 193 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent 2D TOF venography at 3T. The main arterial (carotid and vertebral), venous (internal jugular), and secondary neck vessels were examined at 4 separate cervical levels (C2/3, C4, C5/6, and C7/T1). The ANCOVA adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking status, hypertension, and heart disease was used to compare the differences between patients with MS and healthy controls. RESULTS:After controlling for all confounding factors, patients with MS had significantly lower cross-sectional areas of the carotid arteries at the C2/3 (P = .03), C5/6 (P = .026), and C7/T1 (P = .005) levels as well as of the vertebral arteries at the C2/3 (P = .02), C4 (P = .012), and C7/T1 (P = .006) levels, compared with healthy controls. A higher frequency of secondary neck vessels was found at all 4 levels in patients with MS: C2/3 (12.9 versus 10, P < .001), C4 (9.1 versus 7.5, P < .001), C5/6 (7.8 versus 6.8, P = .012), and C7/T1 (8.8 versus 6, P < .001). The total cross-sectional areas of secondary neck vessels were also significantly higher at all 4 levels (P < .03). No significant differences in the cross-sectional areas of jugular veins were found between patients with MS and healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with MS showed lower cross-sectional areas of the carotid and vertebral arteries and a higher frequency of secondary neck vessels and their cross-sectional areas compared with healthy controls.
Project description:The goals of this study is to investigate the function of E2fl-1 of Tetrahymena thermophila. Overall design: Compare the expression of genes amnong WT and e2fl-1∆ cells in C2, C3, C4, C5, C6 and C7.