Diagnostic Strategies for the Evaluation of Chest Pain: Clinical Implications From SCOT-HEART and PROMISE.
ABSTRACT: SCOT-HEART (Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART) and PROMISE (PROspective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of chest pain) represent the 2 largest and most comprehensive cardiovascular imaging outcome trials in patients with stable chest pain and provide significant insights into patient diagnosis, management, and outcomes. These trials are particularly timely, given the well-recognized knowledge gaps and widespread use of noninvasive imaging. The overall goal of this review is to distill the data generated from these 2 pivotal trials to better inform the practicing clinician in the selection of noninvasive testing for stable chest pain. Similarities and differences between SCOT-HEART and PROMISE are highlighted, and clinical and practical implications are discussed. Both trials show that coronary computed tomography angiography should have a greater role in the diagnostic pathway of patients with stable chest pain.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study sought to compare the performance of major guidelines for the assessment of stable chest pain including risk-based (American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and European Society of Cardiology) and symptom-focused (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) strategies. BACKGROUND:Although noninvasive testing is not recommended in low-risk individuals with stable chest pain, guidelines recommend differing approaches to defining low-risk patients. METHODS:Patient-level data were obtained from the PROMISE (Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain) and SCOT-HEART (Scottish Computed Tomography of the Heart) trials. Pre-test probability was determined and patients dichotomized into low-risk and intermediate-high-risk groups according to each guideline's definitions. The primary endpoint was obstructive coronary artery disease on coronary computed tomography angiography. Secondary endpoints were coronary revascularization at 90 days and cardiovascular death or nonfatal myocardial infarction up to 3 years. RESULTS:In total, 13,773 patients were included of whom 6,160 had coronary computed tomography angiography. The proportions of patients identified as low risk by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology, and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines, respectively, were 2.5%, 2.5%, and 10.0% within PROMISE, and 14.0%, 19.8%, and 38.4% within SCOT-HEART. All guidelines identified lower rates of obstructive coronary artery disease in low- versus intermediate-high-risk patients with a negative predictive value of ?0.90. Compared with low-risk groups, all intermediate-high-risk groups had greater risks of coronary revascularization (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2 to 24.1) and clinical outcomes (OR: 1.84 to 5.8). CONCLUSIONS:Compared with risk-based guidelines, symptom-focused assessment identifies a larger group of low-risk chest pain patients potentially deriving limited benefit from noninvasive testing. (Scottish Computed Tomography of the Heart Trial [SCOT-HEART]; NCT01149590; Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain [PROMISE]; NCT01174550).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rapid access chest pain clinics have facilitated the early diagnosis and treatment of patients with coronary heart disease and angina. Despite this important service provision, coronary heart disease continues to be under-diagnosed and many patients are left untreated and at risk. Recent advances in imaging technology have now led to the widespread use of noninvasive computed tomography, which can be used to measure coronary artery calcium scores and perform coronary angiography in one examination. However, this technology has not been robustly evaluated in its application to the clinic. METHODS/DESIGN:The SCOT-HEART study is an open parallel group prospective multicentre randomized controlled trial of 4,138 patients attending the rapid access chest pain clinic for evaluation of suspected cardiac chest pain. Following clinical consultation, participants will be approached and randomized 1:1 to receive standard care or standard care plus ?64-multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography and coronary calcium score. Randomization will be conducted using a web-based system to ensure allocation concealment and will incorporate minimization. The primary endpoint of the study will be the proportion of patients diagnosed with angina pectoris secondary to coronary heart disease at 6 weeks. Secondary endpoints will include the assessment of subsequent symptoms, diagnosis, investigation and treatment. In addition, long-term health outcomes, safety endpoints, such as radiation dose, and health economic endpoints will be assessed. Assuming a clinic rate of 27.0% for the diagnosis of angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease, we will need to recruit 2,069 patients per group to detect an absolute increase of 4.0% in the rate of diagnosis at 80% power and a two-sided P value of 0.05. The SCOT-HEART study is currently recruiting participants and expects to report in 2014. DISCUSSION:This is the first study to look at the implementation of computed tomography in the patient care pathway that is outcome focused. This study will have major implications for the management of patients with cardiovascular disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01149590.
Project description:The PROspective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of chest pain (PROMISE) minimal-risk tool was recently developed to identify patients with suspected stable angina at very low risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and clinical events. We assessed the external validity of this tool within the context of the Scottish Computed Tomography of the HEART (SCOT-HEART) multicenter randomised controlled trial of patients with suspected stable angina due to coronary disease.The minimal-risk tool was applied to 1764 patients with complete imaging and follow-up data. External validity was compared with the guideline-endorsed CAD Consortium (CADC) risk score and determined through tests of model discrimination and calibration.A total of 531 (30.1%, mean age 52.4years, female 62.0%) patients were classified as minimal-risk. Compared to the remainder of the validation cohort, this group had lower estimated pre-test probability of coronary disease according to the CADC model (30.0% vs 47.0%, p<0.001). The PROMISE minimal-risk tool improved discrimination compared with the CADC model (c-statistic 0.785 vs 0.730, p<0.001) and was improved further following re-estimation of covariate coefficients (c-statistic 0.805, p<0.001). Model calibration was initially poor (χ2 197.6, Hosmer-Lemeshow [HL] p<0.001), with significant overestimation of probability of minimal risk, but improved significantly following revision of the PROMISE minimal-risk intercept and covariate coefficients (χ2 5.6, HL p=0.692).Despite overestimating the probability of minimal-risk, the PROMISE minimal-risk tool outperforms the CADC model with regards to prognostic discrimination in patients with suspected stable angina, and may assist clinicians in decisions regarding non-invasive testing.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01149590.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Unlike most noninvasive imaging modalities, coronary computed tomography angiography can characterize subtypes of atherosclerotic plaque. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic implications of adverse coronary plaque characteristics in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. METHODS:In this SCOT-HEART (Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART Trial) post hoc analysis, the presence of adverse plaque (positive remodeling or low attenuation plaque), obstructive disease, and coronary artery calcification within 15 coronary segments was assessed on coronary computed tomography angiography of 1,769 patients who were followed-up for 5 years. RESULTS:Among study participants (mean age 58 ± 10 years; 56% male), 608 (34%) patients had 1 or more adverse plaque features. Coronary heart disease death or nonfatal myocardial infarction was 3 times more frequent in patients with adverse plaque (n = 25 of 608 [4.1%] vs. n = 16 of 1,161 [1.4%]; p < 0.001; hazard ratio [HR]: 3.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.61 to 5.63; p = 0.001) and was twice as frequent in those with obstructive disease (n = 22 of 452 [4.9%] vs. n = 16 of 671 [2.4%]; p = 0.024; HR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.05 to 3.79; p = 0.036). Patients with both obstructive disease and adverse plaque had the highest event rate, with a 10-fold increase in coronary heart disease death or nonfatal myocardial infarction compared with patients with normal coronary arteries (HR: 11.50; 95% CI: 3.39 to 39.04; p < 0.001). However, these associations were not independent of coronary artery calcium score, a surrogate measure of coronary plaque burden. CONCLUSIONS:Adverse coronary plaque characteristics and overall calcified plaque burden confer an increased risk of coronary heart disease death or nonfatal myocardial infarction. (Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART Trial [SCOT-HEART]; NCT01149590).
Project description:Succinyl CoA: 3-oxoacid CoA transferase (SCOT; E.C.220.127.116.11) mediates the rate-determining step of ketolysis in extrahepatic tissues, the esterification of acetoacetate to CoA for use in energy production. Hereditary SCOT deficiency in humans causes episodes of severe ketoacidosis. We obtained human-heart SCOT cDNA clones spanning the entire 1,560-nt coding sequence. Sequence alignment of the human SCOT peptides with other known CoA transferases revealed several conserved regions of potential functional importance. A single approximately 3.2-kb SCOT mRNA is present in human tissues (heart > leukocytes >> fibroblasts), but no signal is detectable in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. We mapped the human SCOT locus (OXCT) to the cytogenetic band 5p13 by in situ hybridization. From fibroblasts of a patient with hereditary SCOT deficiency, we amplified and cloned cDNA fragments containing the entire SCOT coding sequence. We found a homozygous C-to-G transversion at nt 848, which changes the Ser 283 codon to a stop codon. This mutation (S283X) is incompatible with normal enzyme function and represents the first documentation of a pathogenic mutation in SCOT deficiency.
Project description:Importance:Guidelines recommend noninvasive testing for patients with stable chest pain, although many subsequently have normal test results and no adverse clinical events. Objective:To describe a risk tool developed to use only pretest clinical data to identify patients with chest pain with normal coronary arteries and no clinical events during follow-up (minimal-risk cohort). Design, Setting, and Participants:This secondary analysis of a randomized, pragmatic comparative effectiveness trial (Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain [PROMISE]) includes stable, symptomatic outpatients without known coronary artery disease referred for noninvasive testing at 193 sites in North America. Interventions:Patients were randomized to receive coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) vs functional testing. Main Outcomes and Measures:A low-risk tool was developed and internally validated from July 27, 2010, to September 19, 2013, in 4631 patients receiving CCTA as their initial test, with a median follow-up of 25 months. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate pretest variables to determine factors associated with minimal risk using a two-thirds random sample for model derivation (n = 3087) and a one-third sample for testing and validation (n = 1544). The model was then applied to the CCTA and functional testing arms, and test results and event rates were ascertained. Results:A total of 1243 of 4631 patients (26.8%) were in the minimal-risk cohort. The final minimal-risk model included 10 clinical variables that together were correlated with normal CCTA results and no clinical events (C statistic = 0.725 for the derivation and validation subsets; 95% CI, 0.705-0.746): younger age; female sex; racial or ethnic minority; no history of hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia; family history of premature coronary artery disease; never smoking; symptoms unrelated to physical or mental stress; and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Across the entire PROMISE cohort, this model was associated with the lowest rates of severely abnormal test results (1.3% for CCTA; 5.6% for functional) and cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction (0.5% for a median of 25 months) among patients at the highest probability (10th decile) of minimal risk. Conclusions and Relevance:In contemporary practice, more than 25% of patients with stable chest pain referred for noninvasive testing will have normal coronary arteries and no long-term clinical events. A clinical tool using readily available pretest variables discriminates such minimal-risk patients, for whom deferred testing may be considered. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01174550.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The optimal noninvasive test (NIT) for patients with diabetes and stable symptoms of coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to assess whether a diagnostic strategy based on coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is superior to functional stress testing in reducing adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes (CV death or myocardial infarction [MI]) among symptomatic patients with diabetes. METHODS:PROMISE (Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain) was a randomized trial evaluating an initial strategy of CTA versus functional testing in stable outpatients with symptoms suggestive of CAD. The study compared CV outcomes in patients with diabetes (n = 1,908 [21%]) and without diabetes (n = 7,058 [79%]) based on their randomization to CTA or functional testing. RESULTS:Patients with diabetes (vs. without) were similar in age (median 61 years vs. 60 years) and sex (female 54% vs. 52%) but had a greater burden of CV comorbidities. Patients with diabetes who underwent CTA had a lower risk of CV death/MI compared with functional stress testing (CTA: 1.1% [10 of 936] vs. stress testing: 2.6% [25 of 972]; adjusted hazard ratio: 0.38; 95% confidence interval: 0.18 to 0.79; p = 0.01). There was no significant difference in nondiabetic patients (CTA: 1.4% [50 of 3,564] vs. stress testing: 1.3% [45 of 3,494]; adjusted hazard ratio: 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 0.69 to 1.54; p = 0.887; interaction term for diabetes p value = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS:In diabetic patients presenting with stable chest pain, a CTA strategy resulted in fewer adverse CV outcomes than a functional testing strategy. CTA may be considered as the initial diagnostic strategy in this subgroup. (PROspective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain [PROMISE]; NCT01174550).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Optimal management of patients with stable chest pain relies on the prognostic information provided by noninvasive cardiovascular testing, but there are limited data from randomized trials comparing anatomic with functional testing. METHODS:In the PROMISE trial (Prospective Multicenter Imaging Study for Evaluation of Chest Pain), patients with stable chest pain and intermediate pretest probability for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) were randomly assigned to functional testing (exercise electrocardiography, nuclear stress, or stress echocardiography) or coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). Site-based diagnostic test reports were classified as normal or mildly, moderately, or severely abnormal. The primary end point was death, myocardial infarction, or unstable angina hospitalizations over a median follow-up of 26.1 months. RESULTS:Both the prevalence of normal test results and incidence rate of events in these patients were significantly lower among 4500 patients randomly assigned to CTA in comparison with 4602 patients randomly assigned to functional testing (33.4% versus 78.0%, and 0.9% versus 2.1%, respectively; both P<0.001). In CTA, 54.0% of events (n=74/137) occurred in patients with nonobstructive CAD (1%-69% stenosis). Prevalence of obstructive CAD and myocardial ischemia was low (11.9% versus 12.7%, respectively), with both findings having similar prognostic value (hazard ratio, 3.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.60-5.39; and 3.47; 95% CI, 2.42-4.99). When test findings were stratified as mildly, moderately, or severely abnormal, hazard ratios for events in comparison with normal tests increased proportionally for CTA (2.94, 7.67, 10.13; all P<0.001) but not for corresponding functional testing categories (0.94 [P=0.87], 2.65 [P=0.001], 3.88 [P<0.001]). The discriminatory ability of CTA in predicting events was significantly better than functional testing (c-index, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.68-0.76 versus 0.64; 95% CI, 0.59-0.69; P=0.04). If 2714 patients with at least an intermediate Framingham Risk Score (>10%) who had a normal functional test were reclassified as being mildly abnormal, the discriminatory capacity improved to 0.69 (95% CI, 0.64-0.74). CONCLUSIONS:Coronary CTA, by identifying patients at risk because of nonobstructive CAD, provides better prognostic information than functional testing in contemporary patients who have stable chest pain with a low burden of obstructive CAD, myocardial ischemia, and events. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01174550.
Project description:Knowledge about genetic diversity and relationships among germplasms could be an invaluable aid in diospyros improvement strategies.This study was designed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship of local and natural varieties in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China using start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT) markers. The accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms belonging to four species Diospyros kaki Thunb, D. oleifera Cheng, D. kaki var. silverstris Mak, and D. lotus Linn were collected from different eco-climatic zones in Guangxi and were analyzed using SCoT markers.Results indicated that the accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms could be distinguished using SCoT markers, and were divided into three groups at similarity coefficient of 0.608; these germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together; of these, the degree of genetic diversity of the natural D. kaki var. silverstris Mak population was richest among the four species; the geographical distance showed that the 12 natural populations of D. kaki var. silverstris Mak were divided into two groups at similarity coefficient of 0.19. Meanwhile, in order to further verify the stable and useful of SCoT markers in diospyros germplasms, SSR markers were also used in current research to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship in the same diospyros germplasms. Once again, majority of germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together. Thus SCoT markers were stable and especially useful for analysis of the genetic diversity and relationship in diospyros germplasms.The molecular characterization and diversity assessment of diospyros were very important for conservation of diospyros germplasm resources, meanwhile for diospyros improvement.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Within the SCOT-HEART (Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART Trial) trial of patients with stable chest pain, the use of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) reduced the rate of death from coronary heart disease or nonfatal myocardial infarction (primary endpoint). OBJECTIVES:This study sought to assess the consistency and mechanisms of the 5-year reduction in this endpoint. METHODS:In this open-label trial, 4,146 participants were randomized to standard care alone or standard care plus coronary CTA. This study explored the primary endpoint by symptoms, diagnosis, coronary revascularizations, and preventative therapies. RESULTS:Event reductions were consistent across symptom and risk categories (p = NS for interactions). In patients who were not diagnosed with angina due to coronary heart disease, coronary CTA was associated with a lower primary endpoint incidence rate (0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.13 to 0.35 vs. 0.59; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.80 per 100 patient-years; p < 0.001). In those who had undergone coronary CTA, rates of coronary revascularization were higher in the first year (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.46; p = 0.042) but lower beyond 1 year (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.38 to 0.90; p = 0.015). Patients assigned to coronary CTA had higher rates of preventative therapies throughout follow-up (p < 0.001 for all), with rates highest in those with CT-defined coronary artery disease. Modeling studies demonstrated the plausibility of the observed effect size. CONCLUSIONS:The beneficial effect of coronary CTA on outcomes is consistent across subgroups with plausible underlying mechanisms. Coronary CTA improves coronary heart disease outcomes by enabling better targeting of preventative treatments to those with coronary artery disease. (Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART Trial [SCOT-HEART]; NCT01149590).