Attenuated Leishmania induce pro-inflammatory mediators and influence leishmanicidal activity by p38 MAPK dependent phagosome maturation in Leishmania donovani co-infected macrophages.
ABSTRACT: Promastigote form of Leishmania, an intracellular pathogen, delays phagosome maturation and resides inside macrophages. But till date limited study has been done to manipulate the phagosomal machinery of macrophages to restrict Leishmania growth. Attenuated Leishmania strain exposed RAW 264.7 cells showed a respiratory burst and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The augmentation of pro-inflammatory activity is mostly attributed to p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK. In our study, these activated macrophages are found to induce phagosome maturation when infected with pathogenic Leishmania donovani. Increased co-localization of carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester labeled pathogenic L. donovani with Lysosome was found. Moreover, increased co-localization was observed between pathogenic L. donovani and late phagosomal markers viz. Rab7, Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 1, Cathepsin D, Rab9, and V-ATPase which indicate phagosome maturation. It was also observed that inhibition of V-type ATPase caused significant hindrance in attenuated Leishmania induced phagosome maturation. Finally, it was confirmed that p38 MAPK is the key player in acidification and maturation of phagosome in attenuated Leishmania strain pre-exposed macrophages. To our knowledge, this study for the first time reported an approach to induce phagosome maturation in L. donovani infected macrophages which could potentiate short-term prophylactic response in future.
Project description:Leishmania are intracellular parasites adapted to surviving in macrophages, whose primary function is elimination of invading pathogens. Leishmania entry into host cells is receptor-mediated. These parasites are able to engage multiple host cell-surface receptors, including MR, TLRs, CR3, and Fc?Rs. Here, we investigated the role of CR3 and Fc?R engagement on the maturation of Leishmania-containing phagosomes using CD11b-/- and Fc?R-/- macrophages, and assessing EEA1 and lysosome-associated proteins is necessary for the phagosome maturation delay, characteristic of Leishmania infection. Leishmania-containing phagosomes do not fuse with lyosomes until 5 h postinfection in WT mice. Phagolysosome fusion occurs by 1 h in CD11b and Fc?R common chain KO macrophages, although receptor deficiency does not influence Leishmania entry or viability. We also investigated the influence of serum components and their effects on phagosome maturation progression. Opsonization with normal mouse serum, complement-deficient serum, or serum from Leishmania-infected mice all influenced phagosome maturation progression. Our results indicate that opsonophagocytosis influences phagosomal trafficking of Leishmania without altering the intracellular fate.
Project description:We recently showed that the exocytosis regulator Synaptotagmin (Syt) V is recruited to the nascent phagosome and remains associated throughout the maturation process. In this study, we investigated the possibility that Syt V plays a role in regulating interactions between the phagosome and the endocytic organelles. Silencing of Syt V by RNA interference revealed that Syt V contributes to phagolysosome biogenesis by regulating the acquisition of cathepsin D and the vesicular proton-ATPase. In contrast, recruitment of cathepsin B, the early endosomal marker EEA1 and the lysosomal marker LAMP1 to phagosomes was normal in the absence of Syt V. As Leishmania donovani promastigotes inhibit phagosome maturation, we investigated their potential impact on the phagosomal association of Syt V. This inhibition of phagolysosome biogenesis is mediated by the virulence glycolipid lipophosphoglycan, a polymer of the repeating Galbeta1,4Manalpha1-PO(4) units attached to the promastigote surface via an unusual glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Our results showed that insertion of lipophosphoglycan into ganglioside GM1-containing microdomains excluded or caused dissociation of Syt V from phagosome membranes. As a consequence, L. donovani promatigotes established infection in a phagosome from which the vesicular proton-ATPase was excluded and which failed to acidify. Collectively, these results reveal a novel function for Syt V in phagolysosome biogenesis and provide novel insight into the mechanism of vesicular proton-ATPase recruitment to maturing phagosomes. We also provide novel findings into the mechanism of Leishmania pathogenesis, whereby targeting of Syt V is part of the strategy used by L. donovani promastigotes to prevent phagosome acidification.
Project description:Several intracellular pathogens arrest the phagosome maturation in the host cells to avoid transport to lysosomes. In contrast, the Leishmania containing parasitophorous vacuole (PV) is shown to recruit lysosomal markers and thus Leishmania is postulated to be residing in the phagolysosomes in macrophages. Here, we report that Leishmania donovani specifically upregulates the expression of Rab5a by degrading c-Jun via their metalloprotease gp63 to downregulate the expression of miR-494 in THP-1 differentiated human macrophages. Our results also show that miR-494 negatively regulates the expression of Rab5a in cells. Subsequently, L. donovani recruits and retains Rab5a and EEA1 on PV to reside in early endosomes and inhibits transport to lysosomes in human macrophages. Similarly, we have also observed that Leishmania PV also recruits Rab5a by upregulating its expression in human PBMC differentiated macrophages. However, the parasite modulates the endosome by recruiting Lamp1 and inactive pro-CathepsinD on PV via the overexpression of Rab5a in infected cells. Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of Rab5a or overexpression of miR-494 in human macrophages significantly inhibits the survival of the parasites. These results provide the first mechanistic insights of parasite-mediated remodeling of endo-lysosomal trafficking to reside in a specialized early endocytic compartment.
Project description:The usual agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Old World is Leishmania donovani, which typically produces systemic diseases in humans and mice. L. donovani has developed efficient strategies to infect and persist in macrophages from spleen and liver. Dendritic cells (DC) are sentinels of the immune system. Following recognition of evolutionary conserved microbial products, DC undergo a maturation process and activate antigen-specific naïve T cells. In the present report we provide new insights into how DC detect Leishmania in vivo. We demonstrate that in both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, systemic injection of L. donovani induced the migration of splenic DC from marginal zones to T-cell areas. During migration, DC upregulated the expression of major histocompatibility complex II and costimulatory receptors (such as CD40, CD80, and CD86). Leishmania-induced maturation requires live parasites and is not restricted to L. donovani, as L. braziliensis, L. major, and L. mexicana induced a similar process. Using a green fluorescent protein-expressing parasite, we demonstrate that DC undergoing maturation in vivo display no parasite internalization. We also show that L. donovani-induced DC maturation was partially abolished in MyD88-deficient mice. Taken together, our data suggest that Leishmania-induced DC maturation results from direct recognition of Leishmania by DC, and not from DC infection, and that MyD88-dependent receptors are implicated in this process.
Project description:The protozoan Leishmania parasitizes macrophages and evades the microbicidal consequences of phagocytosis through the inhibition of phagolysosome biogenesis. In this study, we investigated the impact of this parasite on LC3-associated phagocytosis, a non-canonical autophagic process that enhances phagosome maturation and functions. We show that whereas internalization of L. major promastigotes by macrophages promoted LC3 lipidation, recruitment of LC3 to phagosomes was inhibited through the action of the parasite surface metalloprotease GP63. Reactive oxygen species generated by the NOX2 NADPH oxidase are necessary for LC3-associated phagocytosis. We found that L. major promastigotes prevented, in a GP63-dependent manner, the recruitment of NOX2 to phagosomes through a mechanism that does not involve NOX2 cleavage. Moreover, we found that the SNARE protein VAMP8, which regulates phagosomal assembly of the NADPH oxidase NOX2, was down-modulated by GP63. In the absence of VAMP8, recruitment of LC3 to phagosomes containing GP63-deficient parasites was inhibited, indicating that VAMP8 is involved in the phagosomal recruitment of LC3. These findings reveal a role for VAMP8 in LC3-associated phagocytosis and highlight a novel mechanism exploited by L. major promastigotes to interfere with the host antimicrobial machinery.
Project description:Leishmania parasites use polymorphonuclear neutrophils as intermediate hosts before their ultimate delivery to macrophages following engulfment of parasite-infected neutrophils. This leads to a silent and unrecognized entry of Leishmania into the macrophage host cell. Neutrophil function depends on its cytoplasmic granules, but their mobilization and role in how Leishmania parasites evade intracellular killing in neutrophils remain undetermined. Here, we have found by ultrastructural approaches that neutrophils ingested Leishmania major promastigotes, and azurophilic granules fused in a preferential way with parasite-containing phagosomes, without promoting parasite killing. Azurophilic granules, identified by the granule marker myeloperoxidase, also fused with Leishmania donovani-engulfed vacuoles in human neutrophils. In addition, the azurophilic membrane marker CD63 was also detected in the vacuole surrounding the parasite, and in the fusion of azurophilic granules with the parasite-engulfed phagosome. Tertiary and specific granules, involved in vacuole acidification and superoxide anion generation, hardly fused with Leishmania-containing phagosomes. L. major interaction with neutrophils did not elicit production of reactive oxygen species or mobilization of tertiary and specific granules. By using immunogold electron microscopy approaches in the engulfment of L. major and L. donovani by human neutrophils, we did not find a significant contribution of endoplasmic reticulum to the formation of Leishmania-containing vacuoles. Live Leishmania parasites were required to be optimally internalized by neutrophils. Our data suggest that Leishmania promastigotes modulate their uptake by neutrophils, and regulate granule fusion processes in a rather selective way to favor parasite survival in human neutrophils.
Project description:Phagosome-lysosome fusion in innate immune cells like macrophages and neutrophils marshal an essential role in eliminating intracellular microorganisms. In microbe-challenged macrophages, phagosome-lysosome fusion occurs 4 to 6 h after the phagocytic uptake of the microbe. However, live pathogenic mycobacteria hinder the transfer of phagosomes to lysosomes, up to 20 h post-phagocytic uptake. This period is required to evade pro-inflammatory response and upregulate the acid-stress tolerant proteins. The exact sequence of events through which mycobacteria retards phagolysosome formation remains an enigma. The macrophage coat protein Coronin1(Cor1) is recruited and retained by mycobacteria on the phagosome membrane to retard its maturation by hindering the access of phagosome maturation factors. Mycobacteria-infected macrophages exhibit an increased cAMP level, and based on receptor stimulus, Cor1 expressing cells show a higher level of cAMP than non-Cor1 expressing cells. Here we have shown that infection of bone marrow-derived macrophages with H37Rv causes a Cor1 dependent rise of intracellular cAMP levels at the vicinity of the phagosomes. This increased cAMP fuels cytoskeletal protein Cofilin1 to depolymerize F-actin around the mycobacteria-containing phagosome. Owing to reduced F-actin levels, the movement of the phagosome toward the lysosomes is hindered, thus contributing to the retarded phagosome maturation process. Additionally, Cor1 mediated upregulation of Cofilin1 also contributes to the prevention of phagosomal acidification, which further aids in the retardation of phagosome maturation. Overall, our study provides first-hand information on Cor1 mediated retardation of phagosome maturation, which can be utilized in developing novel peptidomimetics as part of host-directed therapeutics against tuberculosis.
Project description:Intracellular parasites of the genus Leishmania generate severe diseases in humans, which are associated with a failure of the infected host to induce a protective interferon gamma (IFNgamma)-mediated immune response. We tested the role of the JAK/STAT1 signaling pathway in Leishmania pathogenesis by utilizing knockout mice lacking the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1) and derived macrophages. Unexpectedly, infection of Stat1-deficient macrophages in vitro with promastigotes from Leishmania major and attenuated LPG1 knockout mutants (lpg(-)) specifically lacking lipophosphoglycan (LPG) resulted in a twofold increased intracellular growth, which was independent of IFNgamma and associated with a substantial increase in phagosomal pH. Phagosomes in Stat1-/- macrophages showed normal maturation as judged by the accumulation of the lysosomal marker protein rab7, and provided normal vATPase activity, but were defective in the anion conductive pathway required for full vesicular acidification. Our results suggest a role of acidic pH in the control of intracellular Leishmania growth early during infection and identify for the first time an unexpected role of Stat1 in natural anti-microbial resistance independent from its function as IFNgamma-induced signal transducer. This novel Stat1 function may have important implications to studies of other pathogens, as the acidic phagolysosomal pH plays an important role in antigen processing and the uncoating process of many viruses.