Xp22.33p22.12 Duplication in a Patient with Intellectual Disability and Dysmorphic Facial Features.
ABSTRACT: A novel 19.98-Mb duplication in chromosome Xp22.33p22.12 was detected by array CGH in a 30-year-old man affected by intellectual disability, congenital hypotonia and dysmorphic features. The duplication encompasses more than 100 known genes. Many of these genes (such as neuroligin 4, cyclin-dependent kinase like 5, and others) have already correlated with X-linked intellectual disability and/or neurodevelopmental disorders. Due to the high number of potentially pathogenic genes involved in the reported duplication, we cannot correlate the clinical phenotype to a single gene. Indeed, we suggest that the resulting clinical phenotype may have arisen from the overexpression and consequent perturbation of fine gene dosage.
Project description:We present a clinical report of an 11-year-old male patient with an interstitial duplication of 19p13.3 (829?kb in size) at genomic coordinates 3,804,495-4,033,722?bp (hg19) identified by chromosomal microarray analysis and review the literature from nine published reports adding knowledge regarding this chromosomal anomaly and clinical outcomes. The size of the duplication ranged from 0.83 to 8.9 Mb in the nine individuals. The young boy in our report was dysmorphic with microcephaly, abnormal craniofacial features, intellectual disability, aggression, and a heart murmur. All patients were found to have a psychomotor developmental delay and/or intellectual disability with the majority having microcephaly, intrauterine growth retardation, and hypotonia. Common craniofacial findings included a tall, prominent forehead, an elongated face, epicanthal folds, hypertelorism, prominent low-set ears, philtrum anomaly, and a small mouth. Other less common features included abnormal digits, sparse hair, and cardiac defects. Clinical features, chromosome duplication sizes, locations, and the number of genes will be summarized in a tabular form.
Project description:We describe a boy presenting with intellectual disability and dysmorphic features in whom a cryptic microdeletion in chromosome band 2q12.1 was identified with array CGH. The deletion results in a loss of the POU3F3 and MRPS9 genes. In this paper, we discuss the possible role of POU3F3 haploinsufficiency in relation to the boy's phenotype.
Project description:Using whole-exome sequencing, we have identified novel de novo heterozygous pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP) variants that are predicted to be deleterious, including a frameshift deletion, in two unrelated patients with common clinical features of developmental delay, intellectual disability, anxiety, hypotonia, poor balance, obesity, and dysmorphic features. A nonsense mutation in PHIP has previously been associated with similar clinical features. Patients with microdeletions of 6q14.1, including PHIP, have a similar phenotype of developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, and obesity, suggesting that the phenotype of our patients is a result of loss-of-function mutations. PHIP produces multiple protein products, such as PHIP1 (also known as DCAF14), PHIP, and NDRP. PHIP1 is one of the multiple substrate receptors of the proteolytic CUL4-DDB1 ubiquitin ligase complex. CUL4B deficiency has been associated with intellectual disability, central obesity, muscle wasting, and dysmorphic features. The overlapping phenotype associated with CUL4B deficiency suggests that PHIP mutations cause disease through disruption of the ubiquitin ligase pathway.
Project description:Duplication of the short arm of chromosome 12 is a rare chromosomal abnormality that may arise de novo or result from malsegregation of a balanced parental translocation. This study comprises the clinical description, cytogenetic and cytogenomic analyses and genotype-phenotype correlation in a patient with facial dysmorphism, developmental delay and intellectual impairment caused by non-mosaic partial duplication and a paracentric inversion 12p. The patient's GTG-banded karyotype was 46,XX,invdup(12)(pter ? p13.32::p11.1 ? p13.31::p13.31 ? qter). A genetic gain of approximately 28 Mb was detected in the chromosomal region arr[GRCh37]12p13.31-p11.1(6914072_34756209)x3. The chromosomal alteration seen in our patient is described as "pure" partial duplication 12p. In most cases, duplication 12p phenotype is characterized by dysmorphic features, multiple congenital anomalies and intellectual disability. A small number of cases in literature have described genes associated with neurodevelopmental disease, such as ING4, CHD4, MFAP5, GRIN2B, SOX5, SCN8A and PIANP. In our patient the duplication 12p was de novo. This study should contribute to the genotype-phenotype correlation in partial duplication 12p cases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:1q21 microdeletion syndrome is a rare contiguous gene deletion disorder with de novo or autosomal dominant inheritance patterns and its phenotypic features include intellectual disability, distinctive facial dysmorphism, microcephaly, cardiac abnormalities, and cataracts. MECP2 duplication syndrome is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, global developmental delay, and other neurological complications including late-onset seizures. Previously, these two different genetic syndromes have not been reported segregating independently in a same family. CASE PRESENTATION:Here we describe two siblings carrying either a chromosome 1q21 microdeletion or a chromosome Xq28 duplication. Using a comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array, we identified a 1.24 Mb heterozygous deletion at 1q21 resulting in the loss of 9 genes in a girl with learning disability, hypothyroidism, short stature, sensory integration disorder, and soft dysmorphic features including cupped ears and a unilateral ear pit. We also characterized a 508 kb Xq28 duplication encompassing MECP2 in her younger brother with hypotonia, poor speech, cognitive and motor impairment. The parental CGH and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses revealed that the 1q21 deletion in the elder sister is de novo, but the Xq28 duplication in the younger brother was originally inherited from the maternal grandmother through the mother, both of whom are asymptomatic carriers. RT-qPCR assays revealed that the affected brother has almost double the amount of MECP2 mRNA expression compared to other family members of both genders including maternal grandmother and mother who have the same Xq28 duplication with no phenotype. This suggests the X chromosome with an Xq28 duplication in the carrier females is preferentially silenced. CONCLUSION:From our understanding, this would be the first report showing the independent segregation of two genetically unrelated syndromes, 1q21 microdeletion and Xq28 duplication, in a same family, especially in siblings. Although these two chromosomal abnormalities share some similar phenotypes such as intellectual disability, mild dysmorphic features, and cardiac abnormalities, the presence of two unrelated and rare syndromes in siblings is very unusual. Therefore, further comprehensive investigations in similar cases are required for future studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neurodevelopmental disorders are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous encompassing developmental delay (DD), intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), structural brain abnormalities, and neurological manifestations with variants in a large number of genes (hundreds) associated. To date, a few de novo mutations potentially disrupting TCF20 function in patients with ID, ASD, and hypotonia have been reported. TCF20 encodes a transcriptional co-regulator structurally related to RAI1, the dosage-sensitive gene responsible for Smith-Magenis syndrome (deletion/haploinsufficiency) and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (duplication/triplosensitivity). METHODS:Genome-wide analyses by exome sequencing (ES) and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) identified individuals with heterozygous, likely damaging, loss-of-function alleles in TCF20. We implemented further molecular and clinical analyses to determine the inheritance of the pathogenic variant alleles and studied the spectrum of phenotypes. RESULTS:We report 25 unique inactivating single nucleotide variants/indels (1 missense, 1 canonical splice-site variant, 18 frameshift, and 5 nonsense) and 4 deletions of TCF20. The pathogenic variants were detected in 32 patients and 4 affected parents from 31 unrelated families. Among cases with available parental samples, the variants were de novo in 20 instances and inherited from 4 symptomatic parents in 5, including in one set of monozygotic twins. Two pathogenic loss-of-function variants were recurrent in unrelated families. Patients presented with a phenotype characterized by developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, variable dysmorphic features, movement disorders, and sleep disturbances. CONCLUSIONS:TCF20 pathogenic variants are associated with a novel syndrome manifesting clinical characteristics similar to those observed in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Together with previously described cases, the clinical entity of TCF20-associated neurodevelopmental disorders (TAND) emerges from a genotype-driven perspective.
Project description:We describe the case of a seven-year-old female patient who presented in our service with severe developmental delay, intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, and femur fracture, observed in the context of very low bone mineral density. Array-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array) analysis identified a 113 kb duplication involving the morbid OMIM genes: ANKRD11 (exon1), RPL13, and PGN genes. ANKRD11 deletions are frequently described in association with KBG syndrome, the duplications being less frequent (one case described before). The exome sequencing was negative for pathogenic variants or of uncertain significance in genes possibly associated with this phenotype. The patient presented subtle signs of KBG syndrome. It is known that the phenotype of KBG syndrome has a wide clinical spectrum, this syndrome being often underdiagnosed due to overlapping features with other conditions, also characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and intellectual disability. The particularity of this case is represented by the very low bone mineral density in a patient with 16q24.3 duplication. ANKRD11 haploinsufficiency is known to be associated with skeletal involvement, such as short stature, or delayed bone age. An effect on bone density has been observed only in experimental studies on mice with induced missense mutations in the ANKRD11 gene. This CNV also involved the duplication of the very conserved RPL13 gene, which could have a role for the skeletal phenotype of this patient, knowing the high level of gene expression in bone tissue and also the association with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia Isidor Toutain type, in case of splicing mutations.
Project description:Trisomy 16 is the most common type of autosomal trisomy associated with spontaneous abortion and is incompatible with life. Upon examining previously reported cases of partial chromosome 16q duplication, it was noted that the majority of cases had complex chromosomal abnormalities due to parental balanced chromosomal translocation carriage. The clinical presentation of very rare pure partial trisomy 16q cases was associated with congenital anomalies, facial dysmorphic findings and intellectual disability. In this study, we evaluated the physical characteristics and genetic data of an 8-month-old girl with developmental delay and facial dysmorphic features. Dysmorphic features including prominent metopic suture, synophrys, asymmetric head shape, triangular and asymmetric face, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, down-slanting palpebral fissures, microphthalmia of the left eye, anteverted nares, smooth and tented philtrum, microretrognathia, low-set posteriorly rotated ears, auricular pits, high-arched palate, thin upper lip and hypotonia were recorded. Her karyotype was 46,XX,add(16)(q24). To identify the extension of the duplicated section, array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis was performed, which showed a de novo 29.8 Mb duplication [arr[hgl9] 16q12.1q23.3(52459169-82285105) x 3], interpreted to be pathogenic. We present this case report to clarify the clinical findings of a rare chromosomal anomaly, discuss the genes that may be related to the phenotype and advance the literature in terms of knowledge regarding genotypephenotype correlation.
Project description:Copy number variants of the X-chromosome are a common cause of X-linked intellectual disability in males. Duplication of the Xq28 band has been known for over a decade to be the cause of the Lubs X-linked Mental Retardation Syndrome (OMIM 300620) in males and this duplication has been narrowed to a critical region containing only the genes MECP2 and IRAK1. In 2009, four families with a distal duplication of Xq28 not including MECP2 and mediated by low-copy repeats (LCRs) designated "K" and "L" were reported with intellectual disability and epilepsy. Duplication of a second more distal region has been described as the cause of the Int22h-1/Int22h-2 Mediated Xq28 Duplication Syndrome, characterized by intellectual disability, psychiatric problems, and recurrent infections. We report two additional families possessing the K/L-mediated Xq28 duplication with affected males having intellectual disability and epilepsy similar to the previously reported phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the second cohort of individuals to be reported with this duplication and therefore supports K/L-mediated Xq28 duplications as a distinct syndrome.
Project description:Biallelic mutations in the ovarian tumor domain-containing 6B (OTUD6B) gene, coding for a deubiquitinating enzyme, were recently described to cause an intellectual disability syndrome characterized by seizures and dysmorphic features in six families worldwide. We here report on a 6-year-old Italian girl, presenting mild intellectual disability, speech and motor delay, and recurrent seizures, who came to our attention after being screened for genes responsible for Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, Kabuki syndrome, and epilepsy. We hence submitted the proband's DNA to whole-exome sequencing, disclosing two candidate heterozygous splicing mutations in the OTUD6B gene: c.324+1G>C and c.405+1G>A. Both variants are reported in the GnomAD database with a frequency lower than the 10-5 and affect the donor splicing site, of exons 2 and 3, respectively. Sanger sequencing confirmed the segregation of the variants in the family, showing that both parents are carriers of one mutation. RT-PCR experiments demonstrated that both variants affect OTUD6B splicing and lead to the production of aberrant transcripts, the major ones being, in both cases, the skipping of the upstream exon. Quantitative analysis performed by competitive-fluorescent RT-PCR on the patient RNA showed that the proband presents less than 1% of wild-type transcripts, further strengthening the causative role of these variants. This represents the first replication of the involvement of the OTUD6B gene in this syndrome and points to the appropriateness of screening OTUD6B in suspected Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome patients with negative results after the screening of the major genes.