Expression of RNAs Coding for Metal Transporters in Blood of Patients with Huntington's Disease.
ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated elevated levels of iron (Fe) in brains of patients with Huntington's disease (HD). Striatal cells carrying mutated Huntingtin presented increased sensitivity to cadmium (Cd) toxicity, decreased sensitivity to manganese (Mn) toxicity and deficits in Mn uptake. The hypothesis arose that the observed alterations result from the altered expression and/or activity of proteins engaged in the transport of these metals, that is: transferrin (TF), transferrin receptor (TFR), divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and ZIP8 protein. Here we examined the expression levels of genes encoding these proteins in blood of HD patients and control subjects. A decreasing tendency in the level of TF transcript and increasing tendency of SLC11A2 mRNA encoding DMT1 was observed in the blood of HD patients compared to the control subjects, but neither attained statistical significance. No changes were found in the levels of TFRC coding for TFR and SLC39A8 coding for ZIP8 between HD patients and controls. The results indicate that HD-associated changes in metal homeostasis occur are not related to mechanisms other than the expression level of the here analyzed metal transporters.
Project description:Confocal microscopy was used to investigate the effects of manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) exposure on the subcellular distribution of metal transporting proteins, i.e., divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), metal transporter protein 1 (MTP1), and transferrin receptor (TfR), in the rat intact choroid plexus which comprises the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In control tissue, DMT1 was concentrated below the apical epithelial membrane, MTP1 was diffuse within the cytosol, and TfR was distributed in vesicles around nuclei. Following Mn or Fe treatment (1 and 10 microM), the distribution of DMT1 was not affected. However, MTP1 and TfR moved markedly toward the apical pole of the cells. These shifts were abolished when microtubules were disrupted. Quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed a significant increase in mRNA and protein levels of TfR but not DMT1 and MTP1 after Mn exposure. These results suggest that early events in the tissue response to Mn or Fe exposure involve microtubule-dependent, intracellular trafficking of MTP1 and TfR. The intracellular trafficking of metal transporters in the choroid plexus following Mn exposure may partially contribute to Mn-induced disruption in Fe homeostasis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following Mn exposure.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Manganese (Mn) is widely used in industries including the manufacture of Mn-iron (Fe) alloy. Occupational Mn overexposure causes manganism. Mn is known to affect Fe metabolism; this study was designed to test the hypothesis that workers exposed to Mn may have an altered expression of mRNAs encoding proteins in Fe metabolism. METHODS:Workers occupationally exposed to Mn (n = 71) from a Mn-Fe alloy factory and control workers without Mn-exposure (n = 48) from a pig-iron plant from Zunyi, China, were recruited for this study. Blood samples were collected into Trizol-containing tubes. Total RNA was isolated, purified, and subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis. Metal concentrations were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. RESULTS:Working environment and genetic background of both groups were similar except for marked differences in airborne Mn concentrations (0.18 mg/m(3) in Mn-Fe alloy factory vs. 0.0022 mg/m(3) in pig-Fe plant), and in blood Mn levels (34.3 µg/L vs. 10.4 µg/L). Mn exposure caused a significant decrease in the expression of divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1), transferrin (Tf) and hepcidin by 58.2%, 68.5% and 61.5%, respectively, as compared to controls, while the expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) was unaltered. Linear regression analysis revealed that expressions of DMT1, Tf and hepcidin were inversely correlated with the accumulative Mn exposure; the correlation coefficients (r) are -0.47, -0.54, and -0.49, respectively (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION:The data suggest that occupational Mn exposure causes decreased expressions of DMT1, Tf and hepcidin in blood cells; the finding will help understand the mechanism underlying Mn exposure-associated alteration in Fe homeostasis among workers.
Project description:DMT1 (divalent metal transporter; also known as SLC11A2, DCT1 or Nramp2) is responsible for ferrous iron uptake in the duodenum, iron exit from endosomes during the transferrin cycle and some transferrin-independent iron uptake in many cells. Four protein isoforms differ by starting in exon 1A or 2 and ending with alternative peptides encoded by mRNA that contains or lacks an IRE (iron responsive element; +/-IRE). We have compared 1A/+IRE and 2/-IRE DMT1 during regulated ectopic expression. HEK-293-F (human embryonic kidney-293-fast growing variant) cells were stably transfected with each construct expressed from a tetracycline-regulated CMV promoter. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis showed that construct expression responded to doxycycline. Immunofluorescence staining of cells, using antibodies specific for DMT1 isoforms, confirmed an increase in expression in the plasma membrane and cytosolic vesicles after doxycycline treatment, but with isoform specific distributions. Immunoblotting also revealed stimulation of expression. Nevertheless, both DMT1 isoforms performed similarly in assays for functional properties based on 54Mn2+ and 59Fe2+ uptake. Mn incorporation after doxycycline treatment was approximately 10-fold greater than that of untreated cells, while expression in the untreated cells was approximately 5-fold greater than in the untransfected cells. Uptake of Mn depended on addition of doxycycline, with half maximal response at approximately 1 nM doxycycline. Doxycycline-stimulated Mn and Fe uptake was linear with time for 10 min but not over longer periods. Transport exhibited a pH optimum at approximately 5.5 and dependence on incubation temperature and Mn or Fe concentration. The new cell lines should prove useful for research on metal homoeostasis, toxicological studies and efforts to identify distinctive properties of the isoforms.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms of iron trafficking in neurons have not been elucidated. In this study, we characterized the expression and localization of ferrous iron transporters Zip8, Zip14 and divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), and ferrireductases Steap2 and stromal cell-derived receptor 2 in primary rat hippocampal neurons. Steap2 and Zip8 partially co-localize, indicating these two proteins may function in Fe(3+) reduction prior to Fe(2+) permeation. Zip8, DMT1, and Steap2 co-localize with the transferrin receptor/transferrin complex, suggesting they may be involved in transferrin receptor/transferrin-mediated iron assimilation. In brain interstitial fluid, transferring-bound iron (TBI) and non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) exist as potential iron sources. Primary hippocampal neurons exhibit significant iron uptake from TBI (Transferrin-(59) Fe(3+)) and NTBI, whether presented as (59) Fe(2+) -citrate or (59) Fe(3+) -citrate; reductase-independent (59) Fe(2+) uptake was the most efficient uptake pathway of the three. Kinetic analysis of Zn(2+) inhibition of Fe(2+) uptake indicated that DMT1 plays only a minor role in the uptake of NTBI. In contrast, localization and knockdown data indicate that Zip8 makes a major contribution. Data suggest also that cell accumulation of (59) Fe from TBI relies at least in part on an endocytosis-independent pathway. These data suggest that Zip8 and Steap2 play a major role in iron accumulation from NTBI and TBI by hippocampal neurons. Analysis of the expression and localization of known iron uptake transporters demonstrated that Zip8 makes a major contribution to iron accumulation in primary cultures of rat embryonic hippocampal neurons. These cells exhibit uptake pathways for ferrous and ferric iron (non-transferrin-bound iron, NTBI in figure) and for transferrin-bound iron; the ferrireductases Steap2 and SDR2 support the uptake of ferric iron substrates. Zip8 and Steap2 are strongly expressed in the plasma membrane of both soma and processes, implying a crucial role in iron accumulation from NTBI and transferrin-bound iron (TBI) by hippocampal neurons.
Project description:Microglia are immune cells of the central nervous system and are implicated in brain inflammation. However, how brain microglia modulate transport and metabolism of the essential metal iron in response to pro- and anti-inflammatory environmental cues is unclear. Here, we characterized uptake of transferrin (Tf)-bound iron (TBI) and non-Tf-bound iron (NTBI) by immortalized microglial (IMG) cells. We found that these cells preferentially take up NTBI in response to the proinflammatory stimulus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or β-amyloid (Aβ). In contrast, the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 4 (IL-4) promoted TBI uptake. Concordant with these functional data, levels of the Tf receptor (TfR) in IMG cells were up-regulated in response to IL-4, whereas divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) and ferritin levels increased in response to LPS or Aβ. Similar changes in expression were confirmed in isolated primary adult mouse microglia treated with pro- or anti-inflammatory inducers. LPS-induced changes in IMG cell iron metabolism were accompanied by notable metabolic changes, including increased glycolysis and decreased oxidative respiration. Under these conditions, the extracellular acidification rate was increased, compatible with changes in the cellular microenvironment that would support the pH-dependent function of DMT1. Moreover, LPS increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) expression in IMG cells, and iron released because of HO1 activity increased the intracellular labile free-iron pool. Together, this evidence indicates that brain microglia preferentially acquire iron from Tf or from non-Tf sources, depending on their polarization state; that NTBI uptake is enhanced by the proinflammatory response; and that under these conditions microglia sequester both extra- and intracellular iron.
Project description:The primary route of iron acquisition in vertebrates is the transferrin receptor (TfR) mediated endocytotic pathway, which provides cellular entry to the metal transporter serum transferrin (Tf). Despite extensive research efforts, complete understanding of Tf-TfR interaction mechanism is still lacking owing to the complexity of this system. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) is used in this study to monitor the protein/receptor interaction and demonstrate the ability of metal-free Tf to associate with TfR at neutral pH. A set of Tf variants is used in a series of competition and displacement experiments to bracket TfR affinity of apo-Tf at neutral pH (0.2-0.6 microM). Consistent with current models of endosomal iron release from Tf, acidification of the protein solution results in a dramatic change of binding preferences, with apo-Tf becoming a preferred receptor binder. Contrary to the current models implying that the apo-Tf/TfR complex dissociates almost immediately upon exposure to the neutral environment at the cell surface, our data indicate that this complex remains intact. Iron-loaded Tf displaces apo-Tf from TfR, making it available for the next cycle of iron binding, transport and delivery to tissues. However, apo-Tf may still interfere with the cellular uptake of engineered Tf molecules whose TfR affinity is affected by various modifications (e.g., conjugation to cytotoxic molecules). This work also highlights the great potential of ESI MS as a tool capable of providing precise details of complex protein-receptor interactions under conditions that closely mimic the environment in which these encounters occur in physiological systems.
Project description:Following an internal contamination event, the transport of actinide (An) and lanthanide (Ln) metal ions through the body is facilitated by endogenous ligands such as the human iron-transport protein transferrin (Tf). The recognition of resulting metallo-transferrin complexes (M2Tf) by the cognate transferrin receptor (TfR) is therefore a critical step for cellular uptake of these metal ions. A high performance liquid chromatography-based method has been used to probe the binding of M2Tf with TfR, yielding a direct measurement of the successive thermodynamic constants that correspond to the dissociation of TfR(M2Tf)2 and TfR(M2Tf) complexes for Fe(3+), Ga(3+), La(3+), Nd(3+), Gd(3+), Yb(3+), Lu(3+), (232)Th(4+), (238)UO2(2+), and (242)Pu(4+). Important features of this method are (i) its ability to distinguish both 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 complexes formed between the receptor and the metal-bound transferrin, and (ii) the requirement for very small amounts of each binding partner (<1 nmol of protein per assay). Consistent with previous reports, the strongest receptor affinity is found for Fe2Tf (Kd1 = 5 nM and Kd2 = 20 nM), while the lowest affinity was measured for Pu2Tf (Kd1 = 0.28 ?M and Kd2 = 1.8 ?M) binding to the TfR. Other toxic metal ions such as Th(IV) and U(VI), when bound to Tf, are well recognized by the TfR. Under the described experimental conditions, the relative stabilities of TfR:(MxTf)y adducts follow the order Fe(3+) >> Th(4+) ~ UO2(2+) ~ Cm(3+) > Ln(3+) ~ Ga(3+) >>> Yb(3+) ~ Pu(4+). This study substantiates a role for Tf in binding lanthanide fission products and actinides, and transporting them into cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis.
Project description:Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a common autosomal recessive disorder characterized by tissue iron deposition secondary to excessive dietary iron absorption. We recently reported that HFE, the protein defective in HH, was physically associated with the transferrin receptor (TfR) in duodenal crypt cells and proposed that mutations in HFE attenuate the uptake of transferrin-bound iron from plasma by duodenal crypt cells, leading to up-regulation of transporters for dietary iron. Here, we tested the hypothesis that HFE-/- mice have increased duodenal expression of the divalent metal transporter (DMT1). By 4 weeks of age, the HFE-/- mice demonstrated iron loading when compared with HFE+/+ littermates, with elevated transferrin saturations (68.4% vs. 49.8%) and elevated liver iron concentrations (985 micrograms vs. 381 micrograms). By using Northern blot analyses, we quantitated duodenal expression of both classes of DMT1 transcripts: one containing an iron responsive element (IRE), called DMT1(IRE), and one containing no IRE, called DMT1(non-IRE). The positive control for DMT1 up-regulation was a murine model of dietary iron deficiency that demonstrated greatly increased levels of duodenal DMT1(IRE) mRNA. HFE-/- mice also demonstrated an increase in duodenal DMT1(IRE) mRNA (average 7.7-fold), despite their elevated transferrin saturation and hepatic iron content. Duodenal expression of DMT1(non-IRE) was not increased, nor was hepatic expression of DMT1 increased. These data support the model for HH in which HFE mutations lead to inappropriately low crypt cell iron, with resultant stabilization of DMT1(IRE) mRNA, up-regulation of DMT1, and increased absorption of dietary iron.
Project description:Ring sideroblasts are a hallmark of sideroblastic anemia, although little is known about their characteristics. Here, we first generated mutant mice by disrupting the GATA-1 binding motif at the intron 1 enhancer of the ALAS2 gene, a gene responsible for X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA). Although heterozygous female mice showed an anemic phenotype, ring sideroblasts were not observed in their bone marrow. We next established human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived proerythroblast clones harboring the same ALAS2 gene mutation. Through coculture with sodium ferrous citrate, mutant clones differentiated into mature erythroblasts and became ring sideroblasts with upregulation of metal transporters (MFRN1, ZIP8, and DMT1), suggesting a key role for ferrous iron in erythroid differentiation. Interestingly, holo-transferrin (holo-Tf) did not induce erythroid differentiation as well as ring sideroblast formation, and mutant cells underwent apoptosis. Despite massive iron granule content, ring sideroblasts were less apoptotic than holo-Tf-treated undifferentiated cells. Microarray analysis revealed upregulation of antiapoptotic genes in ring sideroblasts, a profile partly shared with erythroblasts from a patient with XLSA. These results suggest that ring sideroblasts exert a reaction to avoid cell death by activating antiapoptotic programs. Our model may become an important tool to clarify the pathophysiology of sideroblastic anemia.
Project description:PURPOSE:Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PCPG) are usually benign neuroendocrine tumors. However, PCPGs with mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase B subunit (SDHB) have a poor prognosis and frequently develop metastatic lesions. SDHB-mutated PCPGs exhibit dysregulation in oxygen metabolic pathways, including pseudohypoxia and formation of reactive oxygen species, suggesting that targeting the redox balance pathway could be a potential therapeutic approach. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We studied the genetic alterations of cluster I PCPGs compared with cluster II PCPGs, which usually present as benign tumors. By targeting the signature molecular pathway, we investigated the therapeutic effect of ascorbic acid on PCPGs using in vitro and in vivo models. RESULTS:By investigating PCPG cells with low SDHB levels, we show that pseudohypoxia resulted in elevated expression of iron transport proteins, including transferrin (TF), transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2), and the divalent metal transporter 1 (SLC11A2; DMT1), leading to iron accumulation. This iron overload contributed to elevated oxidative stress. Ascorbic acid at pharmacologic concentrations disrupted redox homeostasis, inducing DNA oxidative damage and cell apoptosis in PCPG cells with low SDHB levels. Moreover, through a preclinical animal model with PCPG allografts, we demonstrated that pharmacologic ascorbic acid suppressed SDHB-low metastatic lesions and prolonged overall survival. CONCLUSIONS:The data here demonstrate that targeting redox homeostasis as a cancer vulnerability with pharmacologic ascorbic acid is a promising therapeutic strategy for SDHB-mutated PCPGs.