Untargeted plasma and tissue metabolomics in rats with chronic kidney disease given AST-120.
ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in the accumulation of metabolic waste products that are normally cleared by the kidney, known as uremia. Many of these waste products are from bacteria metabolites in the gut. Accumulation of uremic toxins in plasma and tissue, as well as the gut-plasma-tissue metabolic axis are important for understanding pathophysiological mechanisms of comorbidities in CKD. In this study, an untargeted metabolomics approach was used to determine uremic toxin accumulation in plasma, liver, heart and kidney tissue in rats with adenine-induced CKD. Rats with CKD were also given AST-120, a spherical carbon adsorbent, to assess metabolic changes in plasma and tissues with the removal of gut-derived uremic toxins. AST-120 decreased >55% of metabolites that were increased in plasma, liver and heart tissue of rats with CKD. CKD was primarily defined by 8 gut-derived uremic toxins, which were significantly increased in plasma and all tissues. These metabolites were derived from aromatic amino acids and soy protein including: indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, hippuric acid, phenyl sulfate, pyrocatechol sulfate, 4-ethylphenyl sulfate, p-cresol glucuronide and equol 7-glucuronide. Our results highlight the importance of diet and gut-derived metabolites in the accumulation of uremic toxins and define the gut-plasma-tissue metabolic axis in CKD.
Project description:The accumulation of uremic toxins is involved in the progression of CKD. Various uremic toxins are derived from gut microbiota, and an imbalance of gut microbiota or dysbiosis is related to renal failure. However, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the relationship between the gut microbiota and renal failure are still obscure. Using an adenine-induced renal failure mouse model, we evaluated the effects of the ClC-2 chloride channel activator lubiprostone (commonly used for the treatment of constipation) on CKD. Oral administration of lubiprostone (500 µg/kg per day) changed the fecal and intestinal properties in mice with renal failure. Additionally, lubiprostone treatment reduced the elevated BUN and protected against tubulointerstitial damage, renal fibrosis, and inflammation. Gut microbiome analysis of 16S rRNA genes in the renal failure mice showed that lubiprostone treatment altered their microbial composition, especially the recovery of the levels of the Lactobacillaceae family and Prevotella genus, which were significantly reduced in the renal failure mice. Furthermore, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolome analysis showed that lubiprostone treatment decreased the plasma level of uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate and hippurate, which are derived from gut microbiota, and a more recently discovered uremic toxin, trans-aconitate. These results suggest that lubiprostone ameliorates the progression of CKD and the accumulation of uremic toxins by improving the gut microbiota and intestinal environment.
Project description:The role of the renal organic anion transporters OAT1 (also known as SLC22A6, originally identified as NKT) and OAT3 (also known as SLC22A8) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains poorly understood. This is particularly so from the viewpoint of residual proximal tubular secretion, a key adaptive mechanism to deal with protein-bound uremic toxins in CKD. Using the subtotal nephrectomy (STN) model, plasma metabolites accumulating in STN rats treated with and without the OAT inhibitor, probenecid, were identified. Comparisons with metabolomics data from Oat1-KO and Oat3-KO mice support the centrality of the OATs in residual tubular secretion of uremic solutes, such as indoxyl sulfate, kynurenate, and anthranilate. Overlapping our data with those of published metabolomics data regarding gut microbiome-derived uremic solutes - which can have dual roles in signaling and toxicity - indicates that OATs play a critical role in determining their plasma levels in CKD. Thus, the OATs, along with other SLC and ABC drug transporters, are critical to the movement of uremic solutes across tissues and into various body fluids, consistent with the remote sensing and signaling theory. The data support a role for OATs in modulating remote interorganismal and interorgan communication (gut microbiota-blood-liver-kidney-urine). The results also have implications for understanding drug-metabolite interactions involving uremic toxins.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a renal disorder characterized by the accumulation of uremic toxins with limited strategies to reduce their concentrations. A large amount of data supports the pivotal role of intestinal microbiota in CKD complications and as a major source of uremic toxins production. Here, we explored whether fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could be attenuated in metabolic complication and uremic toxin accumulation in mice with CKD.<h4>Methods</h4>Kidney failure was chemically induced by a diet containing 0.25% (w/w) of adenine for four weeks. Mice were randomized into three groups: control, CKD and CKD + FMT groups. After four weeks, CKD mice underwent fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy mice or phosphate buffered saline as control. The gut microbiota structure, uremic toxins plasmatic concentrations, and metabolic profiles were explored three weeks after transplantation.<h4>Results</h4>Associated with the increase of alpha diversity, we observed a noticeable improvement of gut microbiota disturbance, after FMT treatment. FMT further decreased p-cresyl sulfate accumulation and improved glucose tolerance. There was no change in kidney function.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These data indicate that FMT limited the accumulation of uremic toxins issued from intestinal cresol pathway by a beneficial effect on gut microbiota diversity. Further studies are needed to investigate the FMT efficiency, the timing and feces amount for the transplantation before, to become a therapeutic option in CKD patients.
Project description:Colon cancer is the most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer mortality in humans. Using mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, the current study revealed the accumulation of four uremic toxins (cresol sulfate, cresol glucuronide, indoxyl sulfate, and phenyl sulfate) in the serum of mice harboring adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutation-induced colon cancer. These uremic toxins, likely generated from the gut microbiota, were associated with an increase in the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and a disorder of lipid metabolism. Nutmeg, which exhibits antimicrobial activity, attenuated the levels of uremic toxins and decreased intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice. Nutmeg-treated Apc(min/+) mice had decreased IL-6 levels and normalized dysregulated lipid metabolism, suggesting that uremic toxins are responsible, in part, for the metabolic disorders that occur during tumorigenesis. These studies demonstrate a potential biochemical link among gut microbial metabolism, inflammation, and metabolic disorders and suggest that modulation of gut microbiota and lipid metabolism using dietary intervention or drugs may be effective in colon cancer chemoprevention strategies.
Project description:In chronic kidney disease (CKD), accumulation of uremic toxins is associated with an increased risk of CKD progression. Some uremic toxins result from nutrient processing by gut microbiota, yielding precursors of uremic toxins or uremic toxins themselves, such as trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO), p-cresyl sulphate, indoxyl sulphate and indole-3 acetic acid. Increased intake of some nutrients may modify the gut microbiota, increasing the number of bacteria that process them to yield uremic toxins. Circulating levels of nutrient-derived uremic toxins are associated to increased risk of CKD progression. This offers the opportunity for therapeutic intervention by either modifying the diet, modifying the microbiota, decreasing uremic toxin production by microbiota, increasing toxin excretion or targeting specific uremic toxins. We now review the link between nutrients, microbiota and uremic toxin with CKD progression. Specific focus will be placed on the generation specific uremic toxins with nephrotoxic potential, the decreased availability of bacteria-derived metabolites with nephroprotective potential, such as vitamin K and butyrate and the cellular and molecular mechanisms linking these toxins and protective factors to kidney diseases. This information provides a conceptual framework that allows the development of novel therapeutic approaches.
Project description:Elevated circulating uremic toxins are associated with a variety of symptoms and organ dysfunction observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Indoxyl sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are representative uremic toxins that exert various harmful effects. We recently showed that IS induces metabolic alteration in skeletal muscle and causes sarcopenia in mice. However, whether organ-specific accumulation of IS and PCS is associated with tissue dysfunction is still unclear. We investigated the accumulation of IS and PCS using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry in various tissues from mice with adenine-induced CKD. IS and PCS accumulated in all 15 organs analyzed, including kidney, skeletal muscle, and brain. We also visualized the tissue accumulation of IS and PCS with immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry imaging techniques. The oral adsorbent AST-120 prevented some tissue accumulation of IS and PCS. In skeletal muscle, reduced accumulation following AST-120 treatment resulted in the amelioration of renal failure-associated muscle atrophy. We conclude that uremic toxins can accumulate in various organs and that AST-120 may be useful in treating or preventing organ dysfunction in CKD, possibly by reducing tissue accumulation of uremic toxins.
Project description:In chronic kidney disease (CKD), impaired kidney function results in accumulation of uremic toxins, which exert deleterious biological effects and contribute to inflammation and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs), such as p-cresyl sulfate, indoxyl sulfate and indole-3-acetic acid, originate from phenolic and indolic compounds, which are end products of gut bacterial metabolization of aromatic amino acids (AAA). This study investigates gut microbial composition at different CKD stages by isolating, identifying and quantifying PBUT precursor-generating bacteria. Fecal DNA extracts from 14 controls and 138 CKD patients were used to quantify total bacterial number and 11 bacterial taxa with qPCR. Moreover, isolated bacteria from CKD 1 and CKD 5 fecal samples were cultured in broth medium supplemented with AAA under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and classified as PBUT precursor-generators based on their generation capacity of phenolic and indolic compounds, measured with U(H)PLC. In total, 148 different fecal bacterial species were isolated, of which 92 were PBUT precursor-generators. These bacterial species can be a potential target for reducing PBUT plasma levels in CKD. qPCR indicated lower abundance of short chain fatty acid-generating bacteria, Bifidobacterium spp. and Streptococcus spp., and higher Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli with impaired kidney function, confirming an altered gut microbial composition in CKD.
Project description:Metabolic products of the intestinal microbiome such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) that accumulate in renal failure (gut-derived uremic toxins, GDUTs) affect atherosclerosis and increase cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that patients on a Mediterranean diet and those consuming lower amounts of dietary precursors would have lower levels of GDUTs. Patients attending vascular prevention clinics completed a Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and had plasma levels of TMAO, p-cresylsulfate, hippuric acid, indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl glucuronide, phenyl acetyl glutamine, and phenyl sulfate measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Carotid plaque burden was measured by ultrasound; CKD-Epi equations were used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate. In total, 276 patients completed the study. Even moderate renal function significantly increased plasma GDUTs, which were significantly associated with higher carotid plaque burden. There was no significant difference in plasma levels of any GDUT associated with a Mediterranean diet score or with intake of dietary precursors. In omnivorous patients with vascular disease, the intake of dietary precursors of intestinal metabolites or adherence to a Mediterranean diet did not change plasma GDUT. Approaches other than diet, such as probiotics and repopulation of the intestinal microbiome, may be required to mitigate the adverse effects of GDUTs.
Project description:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive loss of renal function. The gradual decline in kidney function leads to an accumulation of toxins normally cleared by the kidneys, resulting in uremia. Uremic toxins are classified into three categories: free water-soluble low-molecular-weight solutes, protein-bound solutes, and middle molecules. CKD patients have increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), due to an assortment of CKD-specific risk factors. The accumulation of uremic toxins in the circulation and in tissues is associated with the progression of CKD and its co-morbidities, including CVD. Although numerous uremic toxins have been identified to date and many of them are believed to play a role in the progression of CKD and CVD, very few toxins have been extensively studied. The pathophysiological mechanisms of uremic toxins must be investigated further for a better understanding of their roles in disease progression and to develop therapeutic interventions against uremic toxicity. This review discusses the renal and cardiovascular toxicity of uremic toxins indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, hippuric acid, TMAO, ADMA, TNF-?, and IL-6. A focus is also placed on potential therapeutic targets against uremic toxicity.
Project description:Although gastrointestinal complications are a common feature of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the impact of uremia on bowel motility remains poorly understood. The present study was, therefore, designed to investigate the impact of uremia on gut motility. Kidney failure was induced in mice by chemical nephrectomy using an adenine diet (0.25% w/w). Gastrointestinal transit time and colon motility were explored in vivo and ex vivo. Colons from control mice were incubated with uremic plasma or uremic toxins (urea, indoxyl-sulfate or p-cresyl-sulfate) at concentrations encountered in patients with end-stage renal disease. Mice fed an adenine diet for 3 weeks exhibited a 3-fold increase in plasma urea (p < 0.001) evidencing kidney failure. The median gastrointestinal transit time was doubled (1.8-fold, p < 0.001) while a reduction in colonic propulsive motility was observed in CKD mice (3-fold, p < 0.001). Colon from CKD mice exhibited an abnormal pattern of contraction associated with a blunted maximal force of contraction. Control colons incubated with plasma from hemodialysis patients exhibited a blunted level of maximal contraction (p < 0.01). Incubation with urea did not elicit any difference but incubation with indoxyl-sulfate or p-cresyl-sulfate decreased the maximal force of contraction (-66% and -55%, respectively. p < 0.01). Taken together, these data suggest that uremia impairs colon motility probably through the retention of uremic toxins. Colon dysmotility might contribute to the gastrointestinal symptoms often reported in patients with CKD.