Rapid detection of Mannheimia haemolytica in lung tissues of sheep and from bacterial culture.
ABSTRACT: AIM:This study was aimed to detect Mannheimia haemolytica in lung tissues of sheep and from a bacterial culture. INTRODUCTION:M. haemolytica is one of the most important and well-established etiological agents of pneumonia in sheep and other ruminants throughout the world. Accurate diagnosis of M. haemolytica primarily relies on bacteriological examination, biochemical characteristics and, biotyping and serotyping of the isolates. In an effort to facilitate rapid M. haemolytica detection, polymerase chain reaction assay targeting Pasteurella haemolytica serotype-1 specific antigens (PHSSA), Rpt2 and 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes were used to detect M. haemolytica directly from lung tissues and from bacterial culture. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 12 archived lung tissues from sheep that died of pneumonia on an organized farm were used. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) based on two-amplicons targeted PHSSA and Rpt2 genes of M. haemolytica were used for identification of M. haemolytica isolates in culture from the lung samples. All the 12 lung tissue samples were tested for the presence M. haemolytica by PHSSA and Rpt2 genes based PCR and its confirmation by sequencing of the amplicons. RESULTS:All the 12 lung tissue samples tested for the presence of PHSSA and Rpt2 genes of M. haemolytica by mPCR were found to be positive. Amplification of 12S rRNA gene fragment as internal amplification control was obtained with each mPCR reaction performed from DNA extracted directly from lung tissue samples. All the M. haemolytica were also positive for mPCR. No amplified DNA bands were observed for negative control reactions. All the three nucleotide sequences were deposited in NCBI GenBank (Accession No. KJ534629, KJ534630 and KJ534631). Sequencing of the amplified products revealed the identity of 99-100%, with published sequence of PHSSA and Rpt2 genes of M. haemolytica available in the NCBI database. Sheep specific mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequence also revealed the identity of 98% with published sequences in the NCBI database. CONCLUSION:The present study emphasized the PCR as a valuable tool for rapid detection of M. haemolytica in clinical samples from animals. In addition, it offers the opportunity to perform large-scale epidemiological studies regarding the role of M. haemolytica in clinical cases of pneumonia and other disease manifestations in sheep and other ruminants, thereby providing the basis for effective preventive strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mannheimia haemolytica has been recognized as the principal cause of pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep and goats. It is one of the important diseases of small ruminants in Ethiopia. While annual vaccination using a monovalent vaccine (inactivated Pasteurella multocida biotype A) is common, respiratory diseases are still reported in various parts of Ethiopia. This suggests the need for further investigation into the species and strains responsible for the disease, which is vital information for development of a multivalent vaccine. The objective of the current study was to isolate M. heamolytica associated with pneumonic cases of sheep in selected areas of Central Ethiopia, determine its role and the strains/genotypes of the bacterium circulating in the study area. RESULTS:Bacteriological analysis of nasal swab samples collected from a total of 76 pneumonic cases of sheep showed that M. haemolytica was isolated from 26 of them while B.trehalosi from two cases. Further molecular analyses of the isolates using M. haemolytica species-specific and M.haemolytica serotype-1 antigen specific PCR assays revealed, 26 of the isolates were identified as M. haemolytica of which 21 of them were M. haemolytica serotype-1. Both M. haemolytica and B.trehalosi isolates were not detected in a PCR assay targeting capsular biosynthesis gene (capA) of P.multocida despite the non-specific products observed in M. haemolytica isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of M. haemolytica isolates included in this study in comparison with the reference strains with respect to PHSSA and Rpt2 genes revealed that the Ethiopian M. haemolytica isolates constituted three distinct genotypes consistent with site of origin. CONCLUSION:The study indicated that M.haemolytica is commonly associated with cases of pneumonia in sheep in the study areas of central Ethiopia although the remaining other pathogens responsible for majority of the cases are yet to be determined. Molecular characterization revealed the existence of three genotypes of M. haemolytica circulating in the study areas consistent to the site of isolation. The findings suggest further extensive work to determine all pathogens associated with sheep pneumonia and the strain distribution of M. heamolytica to understand its molecular epidemiology at national level and design cost effective prevention and control methods.
Project description:Background and Aim:Respiratory infection due to Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida are responsible for huge economic losses in livestock sector globally and it is poorly understood in ovine population. The study aimed to investigate and characterize M. haemolytica and P. multocida from infected and healthy sheep to rule out the involvement of these bacteria in the disease. Materials and Methods:A total of 374 healthy and infected sheep samples were processed for isolation, direct detection by multiplex PCR (mPCR), and antibiotic susceptibility testing by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Results:Overall, 55 Pasteurella isolates (27 [7.2%] M. haemolytica and 28 [7.4%] P. multocida) were recovered and identified by bacteriological tests and species-specific PCR assays. Significant correlation between the detection of M. haemolytica (66.6%) with disease condition and P. multocida (19.1%) exclusively from infected sheep was recorded by mPCR. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility testing of 55 isolates revealed higher multidrug resistance in M. haemolytica (25.9%) than P. multocida (7.1%) isolates. Descending resistance towards penicillin (63.6%), oxytetracycline (23.6%), streptomycin (14.5%), and gentamicin (12.7%) and absolute sensitivity towards chloramphenicol were observed in both the pathogens. The antibiotic resistance genes such as strA (32.7%) and sul2 (32.7%) associated with streptomycin and sulfonamide resistance, respectively, were detected in the isolates. Conclusion:The study revealed the significant involvement of M. haemolytica together with P. multocida in ovine respiratory infection and is probably responsible for frequent disease outbreaks even after vaccination against hemorrhagic septicemia in sheep population of Karnataka, southern province of India.
Project description:Aim:The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize the Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida from blood, nasal discharge, and lung tissue of pneumonic goats. Materials and Methods:A total of 14 goats were investigated for pneumonic pasteurellosis. Of 14 goats, nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from 10 clinically diseased animals. Moreover, lung tissue and heart blood samples were collected during necropsy of four goats died with pneumonia. All the samples were processed for the isolation of M. haemolytica and P. multocida in the laboratory. Bacterial isolates were identified by cultural and biochemical characters and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. All the isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing using commonly used antimicrobials. M. haemolytica isolates were characterized by PHSSA gene detection. P. multocida isolates were characterized by KMT1 gene detection and capsule typing. Results:On necropsy of dead goats, the pneumonia was characterized as acute fibrinous bronchopneumonia. Bacterial culture revealed the isolation of M. haemolytica (7) and P. multocida (5) of 10 clinical cases. Moreover, M. haemolytica and P. multocida were coisolated from two of the lung tissues. Furthermore, one of the other two lung tissues showed the isolation of M. haemolytica while the other showed recovery of P. multocida. Bacterial isolates were specifically identified by the 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The isolates showed reduced susceptibility to ?-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. Moreover, the PHSSA and KMT1 genes were specifically detected among M. haemolytica, and P. multocida isolates, respectively. All P. multocida isolates belonged to serogroup A. Conclusion:The present study reported an occurrence of pneumonic pasteurellosis caused by M. haemolytica and P. multocida in a goat flock.
Project description:The pneumonic lesions and mortality caused by Mannheimia haemolytica in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) are more severe than those in the related species, domestic sheep (DS; Ovis aries), under both natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin (Lkt) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are the most important virulence factors of this organism. One hallmark of pathogenesis of pneumonia is the influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the lungs. Lkt-induced cytolysis of PMNs results in the release of cytotoxic compounds capable of damaging lung tissue. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent PMN chemoattractant. The objective of the present study was to determine if there is differential expression of IL-8 by the macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS in response to M. haemolytica. Macrophages and PMNs of BHS and DS were stimulated with heat-killed M. haemolytica or LPS. IL-8 expression by the cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The PMNs of BHS expressed severalfold higher levels of IL-8 than those of DS upon stimulation. Lesional lung tissue of M. haemolytica-infected BHS contained significantly higher levels of IL-8 than nonlesional tissue. The bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of infected BHS also contained higher levels of IL-8 than that of infected DS. Depletion of IL-8 reduced migration of PMNs toward BAL fluid by approximately 50%, indicating that IL-8 is integral to PMN recruitment to the lung during M. haemolytica infection. Excessive production of IL-8, enhanced recruitment of PMNs, and PMN lysis by Lkt are likely responsible for the severity of the lung lesions in M. haemolytica-infected BHS.
Project description:Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep is a devastating disease of uncertain etiology. To help clarify the etiology, we used culture and culture-independent methods to compare the prevalence of the bacterial respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica, Bibersteinia trehalosi, Pasteurella multocida, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in lung tissue from 44 bighorn sheep from herds affected by 8 outbreaks in the western United States. M. ovipneumoniae, the only agent detected at significantly higher prevalence in animals from outbreaks (95%) than in animals from unaffected healthy populations (0%), was the most consistently detected agent and the only agent that exhibited single strain types within each outbreak. The other respiratory pathogens were frequently but inconsistently detected, as were several obligate anaerobic bacterial species, all of which might represent secondary or opportunistic infections that could contribute to disease severity. These data provide evidence that M. ovipneumoniae plays a primary role in the etiology of epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep.
Project description:Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). The cause of this disease has been a subject of debate. Leukotoxin expressing Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi produce acute pneumonia after experimental challenge but are infrequently isolated from animals in natural outbreaks. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, epidemiologically implicated in naturally occurring outbreaks, has received little experimental evaluation as a primary agent of bighorn sheep pneumonia.In two experiments, bighorn sheep housed in multiple pens 7.6 to 12 m apart were exposed to M. ovipneumoniae by introduction of a single infected or challenged animal to a single pen. Respiratory disease was monitored by observation of clinical signs and confirmed by necropsy. Bacterial involvement in the pneumonic lungs was evaluated by conventional aerobic bacteriology and by culture-independent methods. In both experiments the challenge strain of M. ovipneumoniae was transmitted to all animals both within and between pens and all infected bighorn sheep developed bronchopneumonia. In six bighorn sheep in which the disease was allowed to run its course, three died with bronchopneumonia 34, 65, and 109 days after M. ovipneumoniae introduction. Diverse bacterial populations, predominantly including multiple obligate anaerobic species, were present in pneumonic lung tissues at necropsy.Exposure to a single M. ovipneumoniae infected animal resulted in transmission of infection to all bighorn sheep both within the pen and in adjacent pens, and all infected sheep developed bronchopneumonia. The epidemiologic, pathologic and microbiologic findings in these experimental animals resembled those seen in naturally occurring pneumonia outbreaks in free ranging bighorn sheep.
Project description:Introduction:Cysticercosis caused by the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena is economically the most important endemic parasitic disease in Iraq. Few data are available relating to the genetic divergence of this helminth. This study aimed to molecularly characterise Cysticercus tenuicollis isolates from sheep in Sulaymaniyah province, Iraq. Material and Methods:DNA extraction and amplification of specimens of C. tenuicollis from 46 sheep were conducted by PCR for the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. The 19 amplicons were subjected to purification and partial sequencing. Results:Five 12S rRNA nucleotide sequence haplotypes were found. The pairwise nucleotide difference between haplotypes of 12S rRNA gene ranged from 0.2% to 0.7%. Four out of the five haplotypes of C. tenuicollis contained one to two base mutations and were discovered in Iraq for the first time, and this may be a unique mutation globally which has not been recorded previously. Three newly recorded haplotypes contained only one single mutation, and the other one contained two mutations. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all isolated strains were closely related to Iranian sheep isolates. Conclusions:Four new strains of T. hydatigena were discovered for the first time in the study area.
Project description:The aetiology and pathogenesis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) are complex and involve the interplay of infectious agents, management and environmental factors. Previous studies of BRD focused on ante-mortem samples from the upper respiratory tract and identified several unconventional viruses. The lung, however, is the primary location where significant BRD lesions are usually found and is a common post-mortem diagnostic specimen. In this study, results of high-throughput virome sequencing, bacterial culture, targeted real-time PCR and histological examination of 130 bovine pneumonic lungs from western Canadian cattle were combined to explore associations of microorganisms with different types of pneumonia. Fibrinous bronchopneumonia (FBP) was the predominant type of pneumonia (46.2%, 60/130) and was associated with the detection of Mannheimia haemolytica. Detection of Histophilus somni and Pasteurella multocida was associated with suppurative bronchopneumonia (SBP) and concurrent bronchopneumonia and bronchointerstitial pneumonia (BP&BIP), respectively. Sixteen viruses were identified, of which bovine parvovirus 2 (BPV2) was the most prevalent (11.5%, 15/130) followed by ungulate tetraparvovirus 1 (UTPV1, 8.5%, 11/130) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV, 8.5%, 11/130). None of these viruses, however, were significantly associated with a particular type of pneumonia. Unconventional viruses such as influenza D virus (IDV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were detected, although sparsely, consistent with our previous findings in upper respiratory tract samples. Taken together, our results show that while virus detection in post-mortem lung samples is of relatively little diagnostic value, the strong associations of H. somni and M. haemolytica with SBP and FBP, respectively, indicate that histopathology can be useful in differentiating bacterial aetiologies.
Project description:This dataset investigates the transcriptional effect of mitochondrial 12S rRNA hypermethylation, both by overexpressing the mitochondrial methyltransferase mtTFB1 in HeLa cells and by using A1555G cybrids, where the 12S rRNA is hypermethylated. HeLa cells overexpressing a methyltransferase-deficient mtTFB1 (mtTFB1[G65A]) and wild-type A1555A cybrids were used as controls. four samples with 12S rRNA hypermethylation (two cell lines, with two biological replicates each) versus four samples with basal 12S rRNA methylation (two cell lines, with two biological replicates each)
Project description:Bacterial pneumonia causes significant economic loss to the beef industry and occurs at times of stress and viral infection. Administering antibiotics to at-risk calves is often used to prevent the disease, but alternatives to mass treatment with antibiotics are needed. Tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP), a ?-defensin naturally produced by bovine airways, has bactericidal activity against the pathogens that cause pneumonia in cattle. However, TAP expression is suppressed by glucocorticoid (stress) and viral infection. We hypothesized that delivering TAP to the respiratory tract would prevent development of pneumonia in calves infected with Mannheimia haemolytica. Clean-catch calves (i.e. obtained prior to contact with the dam) were challenged by aerosol with M. haemolytica, and TAP or water was delivered to the respiratory tract at 0.3, 2 and 6 hours post-infection. TAP treatment did not protect against development of disease. Calves treated with TAP had similar bacterial loads in the nasal cavity and lung compared to calves treated with water. Similarly, TAP treatment did not affect the development of clinical signs, elevated rectal temperatures, or increased levels of blood neutrophils, haptoglobin and fibrinogen that occurred after bacterial challenge. Postmortem gross and histologic lung lesions were also similar in the two groups. To determine why there was a lack of protective effect, we tested the effect of substances in respiratory lining fluid on the bactericidal activity of TAP. Physiologic concentrations of sodium chloride inhibited TAP bactericidal activity in vitro, as did serum at concentrations of 0.62 to 2.5%, but concentrated bronchoalveolar lavage fluid had no consistent effect. These findings suggest that TAP does not have in vivo bactericidal activity against M. haemolytica because of interference by physiological sodium chloride levels and by serum. Thus, administration of TAP may not be effective for prevention of M. haemolytica pneumonia.