PPAR Agonists: I. Role of Receptor Subunits in Alcohol Consumption in Male and Female Mice.
ABSTRACT: Several peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists reduce voluntary alcohol consumption in rodent models, and evidence suggests that PPAR? and ? subunits play an important role in this effect. To define the subunit dependence of this action, we tested selective PPAR? and ?/? agonists and antagonists in addition to null mutant mice lacking PPAR?.The effects of fenofibrate (PPAR? agonist) and tesaglitazar (PPAR?/? agonist) on continuous and intermittent 2-bottle choice drinking tests were examined in male and female wild-type mice and in male mice lacking PPAR?. We compared the ability of MK886 (PPAR? antagonist) and GW9662 (PPAR? antagonist) to inhibit the effects of fenofibrate and tesaglitazar in wild-type mice. The estrogen receptor antagonist, tamoxifen, can inhibit PPAR?-dependent transcription and was also studied in male and female mice.Fenofibrate and tesaglitazar reduced ethanol (EtOH) consumption and preference in wild-type mice, but these effects were not observed in mice lacking PPAR?. MK886 inhibited the action of fenofibrate, but not tesaglitazer, while GW9662 did not inhibit either agonist. The PPAR agonists were more effective in male mice compared to females, and drinking in the continuous 2-bottle choice test was more sensitive to fenofibrate and tesaglitazar compared to drinking in the intermittent access test. Tamoxifen also reduced EtOH consumption in male mice and this action was inhibited by GW9662, but not MK886, suggesting that it acts by activation of PPAR?.Our study using selective PPAR agonists, antagonists, and null mutant mice indicates a key role for PPAR? in mediating reduced EtOH consumption by fenofibrate and tesaglitazar.
Project description:In the accompanying article, we showed that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) signaling by fenofibrate and tesaglitazar decreases ethanol (EtOH) consumption in mice. In this study, we determined the role of these PPAR agonists in EtOH-related behaviors and other actions that may be important in regulating EtOH consumption.The effects of fenofibrate (150 mg/kg) and tesaglitazar (1.5 mg/kg) were examined on the following responses in male and female C57BL/6J (B6) and B6 × 129S4 mice: preference for saccharin, EtOH-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), conditioned taste aversion (CTA), loss of righting reflex, and withdrawal, acoustic startle reflex, response to novelty, and EtOH clearance. Because the B6 inbred strain usually displays weak EtOH-induced CPP and weak EtOH-induced acute withdrawal, B6 × 129S4 mice were also studied.Fenofibrate and tesaglitazar decreased the novelty response and increased acute EtOH withdrawal severity, and fenofibrate increased EtOH-induced CTA. Two important factors for EtOH consumption (saccharin preference and EtOH-induced CPP) were not altered by fenofibrate or tesaglitazar. EtOH clearance was increased by both fenofibrate and tesaglitazar. Response to novelty, acute withdrawal, and EtOH clearance show sex differences and could contribute to the reduced EtOH consumption following fenofibrate administration.These studies indicate the complexity of EtOH-dependent and EtOH-independent behaviors that are altered by PPAR agonists and provide evidence for novel behavioral actions of these drugs that may contribute to PPAR-mediated effects on alcohol drinking.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists reduce voluntary ethanol (EtOH) consumption in rat models and are promising therapeutics in the treatment for drug addictions. We studied the effects of different classes of PPAR agonists on chronic EtOH intake and preference in mice with a genetic predisposition for high alcohol consumption and then examined human genomewide association data for polymorphisms in PPAR genes in alcohol-dependent subjects. METHODS:Two different behavioral tests were used to measure intake of 15% EtOH in C57BL/6J male mice: 24-hour 2-bottle choice and limited access (3-hour) 2-bottle choice, drinking in the dark. We measured the effects of pioglitazone (10 and 30 mg/kg), fenofibrate (50 and 150 mg/kg), GW0742 (10 mg/kg), tesaglitazar (1.5 mg/kg), and bezafibrate (25 and 75 mg/kg) on EtOH intake and preference. Fenofibric acid, the active metabolite of fenofibrate, was quantified in mouse plasma, liver, and brain by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Data from a human genome-wide association study (GWAS) completed in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) were then used to analyze the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different PPAR genes (PPARA, PPARD, PPARG, and PPARGC1A) with 2 phenotypes: DSM-IV alcohol dependence (AD) and the DSM-IV criterion of withdrawal. RESULTS:Activation of 2 isoforms of PPARs, ? and ?, reduced EtOH intake and preference in the 2 different consumption tests in mice. However, a selective PPAR? agonist or a pan agonist for all 3 PPAR isoforms did not decrease EtOH consumption. Fenofibric acid, the active metabolite of the PPAR? agonist fenofibrate, was detected in liver, plasma, and brain after 1 or 8 days of oral treatment. The GWAS from COGA supported an association of SNPs in PPARA and PPARG with alcohol withdrawal and PPARGC1A with AD but found no association for PPARD with either phenotype. CONCLUSIONS:We provide convergent evidence using both mouse and human data for specific PPARs in alcohol action. Reduced EtOH intake in mice and the genetic association between AD or withdrawal in humans highlight the potential for repurposing FDA-approved PPAR? or PPAR? agonists for the treatment of AD.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that act as ligand-activated transcription factors. Although prescribed for dyslipidemia and type-II diabetes, PPAR agonists also possess anti-addictive characteristics. PPAR agonists decrease ethanol consumption and reduce withdrawal severity and susceptibility to stress-induced relapse in rodents. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms facilitating these properties have yet to be investigated. We tested three PPAR agonists in a continuous access two-bottle choice (2BC) drinking paradigm and found that tesaglitazar (PPAR?/?; 1.5 mg/kg) and fenofibrate (PPAR?; 150 mg/kg) decreased ethanol consumption in male C57BL/6J mice while bezafibrate (PPAR?/?/?; 75 mg/kg) did not. We hypothesized that changes in brain gene expression following fenofibrate and tesaglitazar treatment lead to reduced ethanol drinking. We studied unbiased genomic profiles in areas of the brain known to be important for ethanol dependence, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala, and also profiled gene expression in liver. Genomic profiles from the non-effective bezafibrate treatment were used to filter out genes not associated with ethanol consumption. Because PPAR agonists are anti-inflammatory, they would be expected to target microglia and astrocytes. Surprisingly, PPAR agonists produced a strong neuronal signature in mouse brain, and fenofibrate and tesaglitazar (but not bezafibrate) targeted a subset of GABAergic interneurons in the amygdala. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) revealed co-expression of treatment-significant genes. Functional annotation of these gene networks suggested that PPAR agonists might act via neuropeptide and dopaminergic signaling pathways in the amygdala. Our results reveal gene targets through which PPAR agonists can affect alcohol consumption behavior.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that act as ligand-activated transcription factors. Although prescribed for dyslipidemia and type-II diabetes, PPAR agonists have demonstrated therapeutic properties for several brain disorders, including alcohol dependence. PPAR agonists decrease ethanol consumption and reduce withdrawal severity and susceptibility to stress-induced relapse in rodents. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms facilitating these properties have yet to be investigated and little is known about their effects in the brain. We tested three PPAR agonists in a continuous access two-bottle choice (2BC) drinking paradigm and found that tesaglitazar and fenofibrate decreased ethanol consumption in male C57BL/6J mice while bezafibrate did not. Hypothesizing that fenofibrate and tesaglitazar are causing brain gene expression changes that precipitate the reduction in ethanol drinking, we gave daily oral injections of fenofibrate, tesaglitazar and bezafibrate to mice for eight consecutive days and collected liver, prefrontal cortex and amygdala 24 hours after last injection. RNA was isolated and purified using MagMAX-96 Total RNA Isolation Kit. Biotinylated, amplified cRNA was generated using Illumina TotalPrep RNA Amplification Kit and hybridized to Illumina MouseWG-6 v2.0 Expression microarrays. Mice were divided into four groups (N=10 per group): fenofibrate, tesaglitazar, bezafibrate and saline. See summary and protocols for details.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Rodent models of high alcohol drinking offer opportunities to better understand factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) and test potential treatments. Selective breeding was carried out to create 2 unique High Drinking in the Dark (HDID-1, HDID-2) mouse lines that represent models of genetic risk for binge-like drinking. A number of studies have indicated that neuroimmune genes are important for regulation of alcohol drinking. We tested whether compounds shown to reduce drinking in other models also reduce alcohol intake in these unique genetic lines.<h4>Methods</h4>We report tests of gabapentin, tesaglitazar, fenofibrate, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), ibrutinib, and rolipram. Although these compounds have different mechanisms of action, they have all been shown to reduce inflammatory responses. We evaluated effects of these compounds on alcohol intake. In order to facilitate comparison with previously published findings for some compounds, we employed similar schedules that were previously used for that compound.<h4>Results</h4>Gabapentin increased ethanol (EtOH) binge-like alcohol drinking in female HDID-1 and HS/NPT mice. Tesaglitazar and fenofibrate did not alter 2-bottle choice (2BC) drinking in male HDID-1 or HS/NPT mice. However, tesaglitazar had no effect on DID EtOH intake but reduced blood alcohol levels (BAL), and fenofibrate increased DID intake with no effects on BAL. CAPE had no effect on EtOH intake. Ibrutinib reduced intake in female HDID-1 in initial testing, but did not reduce intake in a second week of testing. Rolipram reduced DID intake and BALs in male and female HDID-1, HDID-2, and HS/NPT mice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>A number of compounds shown to reduce EtOH drinking in other models, and genotypes are not effective in HDID mice or their genetically heterogeneous founders, HS/NPT. The most promising compound was the PDE4 inhibitor, rolipram. These results highlight the importance of assessing generalizability when rigorously testing compounds for therapeutic development.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that act as transcription factors in response to endogenous lipid messengers. The fibrates and thiazolidinediones are synthetic PPAR agonists used clinically to treat dyslipidemia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, respectively, but also improve symptoms of several other diseases. Transposable elements (TEs), repetitive sequences in mammalian genomes, are implicated in many of the same conditions for which PPAR agonists are therapeutic, including neurodegeneration, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. We tested the hypothesis that there is a link between actions of PPAR agonists and TE expression. We developed an innovative application of microarray data by mapping Illumina mouse WG-6 microarray probes to areas of the mouse genome that contain TEs. Using this information, we assessed the effects of systemic administration of three PPAR agonists with different PPAR subtype selectivity: fenofibrate, tesaglitazar, and bezafibrate, on TE probe expression in mouse brain [prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala] and liver. We found that fenofibrate, and bezafibrate to a lesser extent, up-regulated probes mapped to retrotransposons: Short-Interspersed Elements (SINEs) and Long-Interspersed Elements (LINEs), in the PFC. Conversely, all PPAR agonists down-regulated LINEs and tesaglitazar and bezafibrate also down-regulated SINEs in liver. We built gene coexpression networks that partitioned the diverse transcriptional response to PPAR agonists into groups of probes with highly correlated expression patterns (modules). Most of the differentially expressed retrotransposons were within the same module, suggesting coordinated regulation of their expression, possibly by PPAR signaling. One TE module was conserved across tissues and was enriched with genes whose products participate in epigenetic regulation, suggesting that PPAR agonists affect TE expression via epigenetic mechanisms. Other enriched functional categories included phenotypes related to embryonic development and learning and memory, suggesting functional links between these biological processes and TE expression. In summary, these findings suggest mechanistic relationships between retrotransposons and PPAR agonists and provide a basis for future exploration of their functional roles in brain and liver.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists are used for treating hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism of action of these agonists is still under investigation. The lipid droplet-associated proteins FSP27/CIDEC and LSDP5, regulated directly by PPAR? and PPAR?, are associated with hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity. Here, we evaluated the expression levels of FSP27/CIDEC and LSDP5 and the regulation of these proteins by consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) or administration of PPAR agonists. Mice with diet-induced obesity were treated with the PPAR? or PPAR? agonist, pioglitazone or fenofibrate, respectively. Liver tissues from db/db diabetic mice and human were also collected. Interestingly, FSP27/CIEDC was expressed in mouse and human livers and was upregulated in obese C57BL/6J mice. Fenofibrate treatment decreased hepatic triglyceride (TG) content and FSP27/CIDEC protein expression in mice fed an HFD diet. In mice, LSDP5 was not detected, even in the context of insulin resistance or treatment with PPAR agonists. However, LSDP5 was highly expressed in humans, with elevated expression observed in the fatty liver. We concluded that fenofibrate greatly decreased hepatic TG content and FSP27/CIDEC protein expression in mice fed an HFD, suggesting a potential regulatory role for fenofibrate in the amelioration of hepatic steatosis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:PPAR?/? dual agonists have been in clinical development for the treatment of metabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. However, severe adverse side effects led to complications in clinical trials. As most of the beneficial effects rely on the compound activity in adipocytes, the selective targeting of this cell type is a cutting-edge strategy to develop safe anti-diabetic drugs. The goal of this study was to strengthen the adipocyte-specific uptake of the PPAR?/? agonist tesaglitazar via NPY1R-mediated internalization. METHODS:NPY1R-preferring peptide tesaglitazar-[F7, P34]-NPY (tesa-NPY) was synthesized by a combination of automated SPPS and manual couplings. Following molecular and functional analyses for proof of concept, cell culture experiments were conducted to monitor the effects on adipogenesis. Mice treated with peptide drug conjugates or vehicle either by gavage or intraperitoneal injection were characterized phenotypically and metabolically. Histological analysis and transcriptional profiling of the adipose tissue were performed. RESULTS:In vitro studies revealed that the tesaglitazar-[F7, P34]-NPY conjugate selectively activates PPAR? in NPY1R-expressing cells and enhances adipocyte differentiation and adiponectin expression in adipocyte precursor cells. In vivo studies using db/db mice demonstrated that the anti-diabetic activity of the peptide conjugate is as efficient as that of systemically administered tesaglitazar. Additionally, tesa-NPY induces adipocyte differentiation in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:The use of the tesaglitazar-[F7, P34]-NPY conjugate is a promising strategy to apply the beneficial PPAR?/? effects in adipocytes while potentially omitting adverse effects in other tissues.
Project description:Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in seizure mechanisms. Hence, nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy was the first idiopathic epilepsy linked with specific mutations in ?4 or ?2 nAChR subunit genes. These mutations confer gain of function to nAChRs by increasing sensitivity toward acetylcholine. Consistently, nicotine elicits seizures through nAChRs and mimics the excessive nAChR activation observed in animal models of the disease. Treatments aimed at reducing nicotinic inputs are sought as therapies for epilepsies where these receptors contribute to neuronal excitation and synchronization. Previous studies demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-? (PPAR?), nuclear receptor transcription factors, suppress nicotine-induced behavioral and electrophysiological effects by modulating nAChRs containing ?2 subunits. On these bases, we tested whether PPAR? agonists were protective against nicotine-induced seizures. To this aim we utilized behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) experiments in C57BL/J6 mice and in vitro patch clamp recordings from mice and rats. Convulsive doses of nicotine evoked severe seizures and bursts of spike-waves discharges in ?100% of mice. A single dose of the synthetic PPAR? agonist WY14643 (WY, 80 mg/kg, i.p.) or chronic administration of fenofibrate, clinically available for lipid metabolism disorders, in the diet (0.2%) for 14 days significantly reduced or abolished behavioral and EEG expressions of nicotine-induced seizures. Acute WY effects were reverted by the PPAR? antagonist MK886 (3 mg/kg, i.p.). Since neocortical networks are crucial in the generation of ictal activity and synchrony, we performed patch clamp recordings of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) from frontal cortex layer II/III pyramidal neurons. We found that both acute and chronic treatment with PPAR? agonists abolished nicotine-induced sIPSC increases. PPAR? within the CNS are key regulators of neuronal activity through modulation of nAChRs. These effects might be therapeutically exploited for idiopathic or genetically determined forms of epilepsy where nAChRs play a major role.
Project description:Various insults cause ototoxicity in mammals by increasing oxidative stress leading to apoptosis of auditory hair cells (HCs). The thiazolidinediones (TZDs; e.g., pioglitazone) and fibrate (e.g., fenofibrate) drugs are used for the treatment of diabetes and dyslipidemia. These agents target the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, PPAR? and PPAR?, which are transcription factors that influence glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, and organ protection. In this study, we explored the effects of pioglitazone and other PPAR agonists to prevent gentamicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in mouse organ of Corti (OC) explants. Western blots showed high levels of PPAR? and PPAR? proteins in mouse OC lysates. Immunofluorescence assays indicated that PPAR? and PPAR? proteins are present in auditory HCs and other cell types in the mouse cochlea. Gentamicin treatment induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation, caspase activation, PARP-1 cleavage, and HC apoptosis in cultured OCs. Pioglitazone mediated its anti-apoptotic effects by opposing the increase in ROS induced by gentamicin, which inhibited the subsequent formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and activation of pro-apoptotic mediators. Pioglitazone mediated its effects by upregulating genes that control ROS production and detoxification pathways leading to restoration of the reduced:oxidized glutathione ratio. Structurally diverse PPAR agonists were protective of HCs. Pioglitazone (PPAR?-specific), tesaglitazar (PPAR?/?-specific), and fenofibric acid (PPAR?-specific) all provided >90% protection from gentamicin toxicity by regulation of overlapping subsets of genes controlling ROS detoxification. This study revealed that PPARs play important roles in the cochlea, and that PPAR-targeting drugs possess therapeutic potential as treatment for hearing loss.