Bidirectional Notch Signaling and Osteocyte-Derived Factors in the Bone Marrow Microenvironment Promote Tumor Cell Proliferation and Bone Destruction in Multiple Myeloma.
ABSTRACT: In multiple myeloma, an overabundance of monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow induces localized osteolytic lesions that rarely heal due to increased bone resorption and suppressed bone formation. Matrix-embedded osteocytes comprise more than 95% of bone cells and are major regulators of osteoclast and osteoblast activity, but their contribution to multiple myeloma growth and bone disease is unknown. Here, we report that osteocytes in a mouse model of human MM physically interact with multiple myeloma cells in vivo, undergo caspase-3-dependent apoptosis, and express higher RANKL (TNFSF11) and sclerostin levels than osteocytes in control mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that osteocyte apoptosis was initiated by multiple myeloma cell-mediated activation of Notch signaling and was further amplified by multiple myeloma cell-secreted TNF. The induction of apoptosis increased osteocytic Rankl expression, the osteocytic Rankl/Opg (TNFRSF11B) ratio, and the ability of osteocytes to attract osteoclast precursors to induce local bone resorption. Furthermore, osteocytes in contact with multiple myeloma cells expressed high levels of Sost/sclerostin, leading to a reduction in Wnt signaling and subsequent inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. Importantly, direct contact between osteocytes and multiple myeloma cells reciprocally activated Notch signaling and increased Notch receptor expression, particularly Notch3 and 4, stimulating multiple myeloma cell growth. These studies reveal a previously unknown role for bidirectional Notch signaling that enhances MM growth and bone disease, suggesting that targeting osteocyte-multiple myeloma cell interactions through specific Notch receptor blockade may represent a promising treatment strategy in multiple myeloma.
Project description:Osteolytic destruction is a hallmark of multiple myeloma, resulting from activation of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and reduction of osteoblast-mediated bone formation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts within a myelomatous microenvironment remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the osteocyte-expressed major histocompatibility complex class II transactivator (CIITA) contributes to myeloma-induced bone lesions. CIITA upregulates the secretion of osteolytic cytokines from osteocytes through acetylation at histone 3 lysine 14 in the promoter of TNFSF11 (encoding RANKL) and SOST (encoding sclerostin), leading to enhanced osteoclastogenesis and decreased osteoblastogenesis. In turn, myeloma cell-secreted 2-deoxy-D-ribose, the product of thymidine catalyzed by the function of thymidine phosphorylase, upregulates CIITA expression in osteocytes through the STAT1/IRF1 signaling pathway. Our work thus broadens the understanding of myeloma-induced osteolysis and indicates a potential strategy for disrupting tumor-osteocyte interaction to prevent or treat patients with myeloma bone disease.
Project description:Connexin 43 (Cx43) mediates osteocyte communication with other cells and with the extracellular milieu and regulates osteoblastic cell signaling and gene expression. We now report that mice lacking Cx43 in osteoblasts/osteocytes or only in osteocytes (Cx43(?Ot) mice) exhibit increased osteocyte apoptosis, endocortical resorption, and periosteal bone formation, resulting in higher marrow cavity and total tissue areas measured at the femoral mid-diaphysis. Blockade of resorption reversed the increased marrow cavity but not total tissue area, demonstrating that endocortical resorption and periosteal apposition are independently regulated. Anatomical mapping of apoptotic osteocytes, osteocytic protein expression, and resorption and formation suggests that Cx43 controls osteoclast and osteoblast activity by regulating osteoprotegerin and sclerostin levels, respectively, in osteocytes located in specific areas of the cortex. Whereas empty lacunae and living osteocytes lacking osteoprotegerin were distributed throughout cortical bone in Cx43(?Ot) mice, apoptotic osteocytes were preferentially located in areas containing osteoclasts, suggesting that osteoclast recruitment requires active signaling from dying osteocytes. Furthermore, Cx43 deletion in cultured osteocytic cells resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased osteoprotegerin expression. Thus, Cx43 is essential in a cell-autonomous fashion in vivo and in vitro for osteocyte survival and for controlling the expression of osteocytic genes that affect osteoclast and osteoblast function.
Project description:Osteocytes are abundant cells in bone, which contribute to bone maintenance. Osteocytes express receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and regulate osteoclast formation. Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) occurs by osteoclast resorption of alveolar bone. Osteocyte-derived RANKL is critical in bone resorption during OTM. Additionally, tumor necrosis factor-<i>α</i> (TNF-<i>α</i>) is important in osteoclastogenesis during OTM. Sclerostin has been reported to enhance RANKL expression in the MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cell line. This study investigated the effect of TNF-<i>α</i> on sclerostin expression in osteocytes during OTM. <i>In vitro</i> analysis of primary osteocytes, which were isolated from DMP1-Topaz mice by sorting the Topaz variant of GFP-positive cells, revealed that <i>SOST</i> mRNA expression was increased when osteocytes were cultured with TNF-<i>α</i> and that <i>RANKL</i> mRNA expression was increased when osteocytes were cultured with sclerostin. Moreover, the number of TRAP-positive cells was increased in osteocytes and osteoclast precursors cocultured with sclerostin. <i>In vivo</i> analysis of mouse calvariae that had been subcutaneously injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or TNF-<i>α</i> revealed that the number of TRAP-positive cells and the percentage of sclerostin-positive osteocytes were higher in the TNF-<i>α</i> group than in the PBS group. Furthermore, the level of <i>SOST</i> mRNA was increased by TNF-<i>α</i>. As an OTM model, a Ni-Ti closed-coil spring connecting the upper incisors and upper-left first molar was placed to move the first molar to the mesial direction in wild-type (WT) mice and TNF receptor 1- and 2-deficient (TNFRsKO) mice. After 6 days of OTM, the percentage of sclerostin-positive osteocytes on the compression side of the first molar in TNFRsKO mice was lower than that in WT mice. In this study, TNF-<i>α</i> increased sclerostin expression in osteocytes, and sclerostin enhanced RANKL expression in osteocytes. Thus, TNF-<i>α</i> may play an important role in sclerostin expression in osteocytes and enhance osteoclast formation during OTM.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes with periodontitis shows elevated TNF-? expression. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? stimulates the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) and sclerostin. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of TNF-? expression of osteocytic RANKL and sclerostin in type 1 diabetes rats with periodontitis using infliximab (IFX), a TNF-? antagonist. Rats were divided into two timepoint groups: day 3 and day 20. Each timepoint group was then divided into four subgroups: 1) control (C, n = 6 for each time point); 2) periodontitis (P, n = 6 for each time point); 3) diabetes with periodontitis (DP, n = 8 for each time point); and 4) diabetes with periodontitis treated with IFX (DP+IFX, n = 8 for each time point). To induce type 1 diabetes, rats were injected with streptozotocin (50 mg/kg dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer). Periodontitis was then induced by ligature of the mandibular first molars at day 7 after STZ injection (day 0). IFX was administered once for the 3 day group (on day 0) and twice for the 20 day group (on days 7 and 14). The DP group showed greater alveolar bone loss than the P group on day 20 (P = 0.020). On day 3, higher osteoclast formation and RANKL-positive osteocytes in P group (P = 0.000 and P = 0.011, respectively) and DP group (P = 0.006 and P = 0.017, respectively) than those in C group were observed. However, there was no significant difference in osteoclast formation or RANKL-positive osteocytes between P and DP groups. The DP+IFX group exhibited lower alveolar bone loss (P = 0.041), osteoclast formation (P = 0.019), and RANKL-positive osteocytes (P = 0.009) than that of the DP group. On day 20, DP group showed a lower osteoid area (P = 0.001) and more sclerostin-positive osteocytes (P = 0.000) than P group. On days 3 and 20, the DP+IFX group showed more osteoid area (P = 0.048 and 0.040, respectively) but lower sclerostin-positive osteocytes (both P = 0.000) than DP group. Taken together, these results suggest that TNF-? antagonist can diminish osteocytic RANKL/sclerostin expression and osteoclast formation, eventually recovering osteoid formation. Therefore, TNF-? might mediate alveolar bone loss via inducing expression of osteocytic RANKL and sclerostin in type 1 diabetes rats with periodontitis.
Project description:Osteocytes, >90% of the cells in bone, lie embedded within the mineralized matrix and coordinate osteoclast and osteoblast activity on bone surfaces by mechanisms still unclear. Bone anabolic stimuli activate Wnt signaling, and human mutations of components along this pathway underscore its crucial role in bone accrual and maintenance. However, the cell responsible for orchestrating Wnt anabolic actions has remained elusive. We show herein that activation of canonical Wnt signaling exclusively in osteocytes [dominant active (da)?cat(Ot) mice] induces bone anabolism and triggers Notch signaling without affecting survival. These features contrast with those of mice expressing the same daß-catenin in osteoblasts, which exhibit decreased resorption and perinatal death from leukemia. daßcat(Ot) mice exhibit increased bone mineral density in the axial and appendicular skeleton, and marked increase in bone volume in cancellous/trabecular and cortical compartments compared with littermate controls. daßcat(Ot) mice display increased resorption and formation markers, high number of osteoclasts and osteoblasts in cancellous and cortical bone, increased bone matrix production, and markedly elevated periosteal bone formation rate. Wnt and Notch signaling target genes, osteoblast and osteocyte markers, and proosteoclastogenic and antiosteoclastogenic cytokines are elevated in bones of daßcat(Ot) mice. Further, the increase in RANKL depends on Sost/sclerostin. Thus, activation of osteocytic ?-catenin signaling increases both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, leading to bone gain, and is sufficient to activate the Notch pathway. These findings demonstrate disparate outcomes of ?-catenin activation in osteocytes versus osteoblasts and identify osteocytes as central target cells of the anabolic actions of canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling in bone.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neutralising antibodies to sclerostin (Scl-Ab) have shown significant potential to induce bone formation and decrease bone resorption, increase strength and substantially reduce fracture risk in animal studies and clinical trials. Mechanical loading negatively regulates sclerostin expression, and sclerostin has been shown to induce RANKL synthesis in osteocytes. However, how Scl-Ab governs osteocyte regulation of osteoclast differentiation and function is not fully understood. We have recently discovered that osteoblasts and osteocytes alter osteoclastogenic signalling (RANKL/OPG) during estrogen-deficiency, and that osteoblast-induced osteoclastogenesis and resorption are exacerbated. However, it is not known whether estrogen deficient osteocytes exacerbate osteoclastogenesis. The aims of this study were to (1) establish whether osteocytes induce osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption during estrogen deficiency in vitro (2) investigate whether the sclerostin antibody can revert osteocyte-mediated osteoclastogenesis and resorption by attenuating RANKL/OPG expression. RESULTS:Using conditioned media and co-culture experiments we found increased osteocyte-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in estrogen deficient conditions. This is the first study to report that administration of Scl-Ab has the ability to revert osteocyte-mediated osteoclastogenesis and resorption by decreasing RANKL/OPG ratio expression and increasing WISP1 expression in estrogen deficient osteocytes. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides an enhanced understanding of the biological changes underpinning decreases in bone resorption following Scl-Ab treatment observed in vivo by revealing that Scl-Ab can reduce pro-osteoclastogenic cell signalling between osteocytes and osteoclasts.
Project description:Osteocytes secrete the glycoprotein sclerostin to inhibit bone formation by osteoblasts, but how sclerostin production is regulated in osteocytes remains unclear. Here, we show that tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) in osteocytes promotes sclerostin secretion through inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and downregulation of Sirt1. We generated mice with DMP1-Cre-directed Tsc1 gene deletion ( Tsc1 CKO) to constitutively activate mTORC1 in osteocytes. Although osteocyte TSC1 disruption increased RANKL expression and osteoclast formation, it markedly reduced sclerostin production in bone, resulting in severe osteosclerosis with enhanced bone formation in mice. Knockdown of TSC1 activated mTORC1 and decreased sclerostin, while rapamycin inhibited mTORC1 and increased sclerostin mRNA and protein expression levels in MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells. Furthermore, mechanical loading activated mTORC1 and prevented sclerostin expression in osteocytes. Mechanistically, TSC1 promotes sclerostin production and prevents osteogenesis through inhibition of mTORC1 and downregulation of Sirt1, a repressor of the sclerostin gene Sost. Our findings reveal a role of TSC1/mTORC1 signalling in the regulation of osteocyte sclerostin secretion and bone formation in response to mechanical loading in vitro. Targeting TSC1 represents a potential strategy to increase osteogenesis and prevent bone loss-related diseases.
Project description:Osteolytic destruction is a hallmark of multiple myeloma, resulting from activation of osteoclast mediated bone resorption and reduction of osteoblast-mediated bone formation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts within a myelomatous microenvironment remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the osteocyte-expressed major histocompatibility complex class II transactivator (CIITA) contributes to myeloma-induced bone lesions. CIITA upregulates the secretion of osteolytic cytokines from osteocytes through acetylation at histone 3 lysine 14 in the promoter of TNFSF11 (encoding RANKL) and SOST (encoding sclerostin), leading to enhanced osteoclastogenesis and decreased osteoblastogenesis. In turn, myeloma cell–secreted 2-deoxy-D-ribose, the product of thymidine catalyzed by the function of thymidine phosphorylase, upregulates CIITA expression in osteocytes through the STAT1/IRF1 signaling pathway. Our work thus broadens the understanding of myeloma-induced osteolysis and indicates a potential strategy for disrupting tumor-osteocyte interaction to prevent, or treat patients with, myeloma bone disease. Overall design: Define a heretofore unrecognized role for osteocytes in genesis of myeloma-associated bone disease
Project description:Old age and Cx43 deletion in osteocytes are associated with increased osteocyte apoptosis and osteoclastogenesis. We previously demonstrated that apoptotic osteocytes release elevated concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokine, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and apoptotic osteocyte conditioned media (CM) promotes osteoclast differentiation. Further, prevention of osteocyte apoptosis blocks osteoclast differentiation and attenuates the extracellular release of HMGB1 and RANKL. Moreover, sequestration of HMGB1, in turn, reduces RANKL production/release by MLO-Y4 osteocytic cells silenced for Cx43 (Cx43def ), highlighting the possibility that HMGB1 promotes apoptotic osteocyte-induced osteoclastogenesis. However, the role of HMGB1 signaling in osteocytes has not been well studied. Further, the mechanisms underlying its release and the receptor(s) responsible for its actions is not clear. We now report that a neutralizing HMGB1 antibody reduces osteoclast formation in RANKL/M-CSF treated bone marrow cells. In bone marrow macrophages (BMMs), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) inhibition with LPS-RS, but not receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) inhibition with Azeliragon attenuated osteoclast differentiation. Further, inhibition of RAGE but not of TLR4 in osteoclast precursors reduced osteoclast number, suggesting that HGMB1 produced by osteoclasts directly affects differentiation by activating TLR4 in BMMs and RAGE in preosteoclasts. Our findings also suggest that increased osteoclastogenesis induced by apoptotic osteocytes CM is not mediated through HMGB1/RAGE activation and that direct HMGB1 actions in osteocytes stimulate pro-osteoclastogenic signal release from Cx43def osteocytes. Based on these findings, we propose that HMGB1 exerts dual effects on osteoclasts, directly by inducing differentiation through TLR4 and RAGE activation and indirectly by increasing pro-osteoclastogenic cytokine secretion from osteocytes.
Project description:Our recent studies demonstrate that the focal adhesion protein Kindlin-2 is critical for chondrogenesis and early skeletal development. Here, we show that deleting Kindlin-2 from osteoblasts using the 2.3-kb mouse Col1a1-Cre transgene minimally impacts bone mass in mice, but deleting Kindlin-2 using the 10-kb mouse Dmp1-Cre transgene, which targets osteocytes and mature osteoblasts, results in striking osteopenia in mice. Kindlin-2 loss reduces the osteoblastic population but increases the osteoclastic and adipocytic populations in the bone microenvironment. Kindlin-2 loss upregulates sclerostin in osteocytes, downregulates ?-catenin in osteoblasts, and inhibits osteoblast formation and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Upregulation of ?-catenin in the mutant cells reverses the osteopenia induced by Kindlin-2 deficiency. Kindlin-2 loss additionally increases the expression of RANKL in osteocytes and increases osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Kindlin-2 deletion in osteocytes promotes osteoclast formation in osteocyte/bone marrow monocyte cocultures, which is significantly blocked by an anti-RANKL-neutralizing antibody. Finally, Kindlin-2 loss increases osteocyte apoptosis and impairs osteocyte spreading and dendrite formation. Thus, we demonstrate an important role of Kindlin-2 in the regulation of bone homeostasis and provide a potential target for the treatment of metabolic bone diseases.