A Multimodal System with Synergistic Effects of Magneto-Mechanical, Photothermal, Photodynamic and Chemo Therapies of Cancer in Graphene-Quantum Dot-Coated Hollow Magnetic Nanospheres.
ABSTRACT: In this study, a multimodal therapeutic system was shown to be much more lethal in cancer cell killing compared to a single means of nano therapy, be it photothermal or photodynamic. Hollow magnetic nanospheres (HMNSs) were designed and synthesized for the synergistic effects of both magneto-mechanical and photothermal cancer therapy. By these combined stimuli, the cancer cells were structurally and physically destroyed with the morphological characteristics distinctively different from those by other therapeutics. HMNSs were also coated with the silica shells and conjugated with carboxylated graphene quantum dots (GQDs) as a core-shell composite: HMNS/SiO2/GQDs. The composite was further loaded with an anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) and stabilized with liposomes. The multimodal system was able to kill cancer cells with four different therapeutic mechanisms in a synergetic and multilateral fashion, namely, the magnetic field-mediated mechanical stimulation, photothermal damage, photodynamic toxicity, and chemotherapy. The unique nanocomposites with combined mechanical, chemo, and physical effects will provide an alternative strategy for highly improved cancer therapy efficiency.
Project description:Elaborately designed biocompatible nanoplatforms simultaneously achieving multimodal bioimaging and therapeutic functions are highly desirable for modern biomedical applications. Herein, uniform MoS2 nanoflowers with a broad size range of 80-180 nm have been synthesized through a facile, controllable, and scalable hydrothermal method. The strong absorbance of MoS2 nanoflowers at 808 nm imparts them with high efficiency and stability of photothermal conversion. Then a novel multifunctional composite of MoS2@Fe3O4-ICG/Pt(IV) (labeled as Mo@Fe-ICG/Pt) is designed by covalently grafting Fe3O4 nanoparticles with polyethylenimine (PEI) functionalized MoS2, and then loading indocyanine green molecules (ICG, photosensitizers) and platinum (IV) prodrugs (labeled as Pt(IV) prodrugs) on the surface of MoS2@Fe3O4. The resulting Mo@Fe-ICG/Pt nanocomposites can achieve excellent magnetic resonance/infrared thermal/photoacoustic trimodal biomaging as well as remarkably enhanced antitumor efficacy of combined photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, and chemotherapy triggered by a single 808 nm NIR laser, thus leading to an ideal nanoplatform for cancer diagnosis and treatment in future.
Project description:In this work, a DNA inter-strand replacement strategy for therapeutic activity is successfully designed for multimodal therapy. In this multimodal therapy, chlorin e6 (Ce6) photosensitizer molecules are used for photodynamic therapy (PDT), while aptamer-AuNRs, are used for selective binding to target cancer cells and for photothermal therapy (PTT) with near infrared laser irradiation. Aptamer Sgc8, which specifically targets leukemia T cells, is conjugated to an AuNR by a thiol-Au covalent bond and then hybridized with a Ce6-labeled photosensitizer/reporter to form a DNA double helix. When target cancer cells are absent, Ce6 is quenched and shows no PDT effect. However, when target cancer cells are present, the aptamer changes structure to release Ce6 to produce singlet oxygen for PDT upon light irradiation. Importantly, by combining photosensitizer and photothermal agents, PTT/PDT dual therapy supplies a more effective therapeutic outcome than either therapeutic modality alone.
Project description:Background:Carbon-based drug delivery systems have attracted great interest because of their excellent photothermal conversion capability and high specific surface area for drug loading. Herein, we report a multifunctional nanoplatform based on hyaluronic acid (HA)-modified and graphene quantum dot (GQD)-gated hollow mesoporous carbon nanoparticle (HMCN) for anticancer drug encapsulation and targeted chemo-photothermal therapy of CD44 receptor-overexpressed cancer cells. Methods:In this design, HMCN was not only used as a nanocarrier with high drug loading content to achieve chemotherapy, but also as a near-infrared absorbing agent to realize photothermal therapy. GQDs could not only prevent premature drug release during blood circulation, but also enhance the chemo-photothermal therapeutic efficacy for complete tumor growth suppression. After being modified with HA, the HA-HMCN(DOX)@GQDs could specifically target cancer cells. Results:As expected, the as-prepared HMCN exhibited high doxorubicin (DOX)-loading capacity of 410 mg/g and excellent light-to-heat conversion property. The DOX was released from HA-HMCN(DOX)@GQDs in a near-infrared laser and pH stimuli-responsive manner, which could enhance the therapeutic effect. In vitro cell biological experimental results confirmed that the nanoplatform possesses excellent biocompatibility, specifically target CD44 receptor-overexpressing human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells, and has remarkable synergistic chemo-photothermal killing capacity. The in vivo therapeutic studies in HeLa xenografts also showed negligible toxicity of HA-HMCN@GQDs and complete inhibition of tumor growth of HA-HMCN(DOX) @GQDs with near-infrared irradiation. Conclusion:The excellent therapeutic effects demonstrated in vitro and in vivo suggested the HMCN-based nanoplatform holds potential for efficient dual-responsive targeting drug delivery and synergistic chemo-photothermal therapy.
Project description:In this study, we designed near-infrared (NIR)-responsive Mn2+-doped melanin-like poly(L-DOPA) nanoparticles (MNPs), which act as multifunctional nano-platforms for cancer therapy. MNPs, exhibited favorable ?-? stacking, drug loading, dual stimuli (NIR and glutathione) responsive drug release, photothermal and photodynamic therapeutic activities, and T1-positive contrast for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). First, MNPs were fabricated via KMnO4 oxidation, where the embedded Mn2+ acted as a T1-weighted contrast agent. MNPs were then modified using a photosensitizer, Pheophorbide A, via a reducible disulfide linker for glutathione-responsive intracellular release, and then loaded with doxorubicin through ?-? stacking and hydrogen bonding. The therapeutic potential of MNPs was further explored via targeted design. MNPs were conjugated with folic acid (FA) and loaded with SN38, thereby demonstrating their ability to bind to different anti-cancer drugs and their potential as a versatile platform, integrating targeted cancer therapy and MRI-guided photothermal and chemotherapeutic therapy. The multimodal therapeutic functions of MNPs were investigated in terms of T1-MR contrast phantom study, photothermal and photodynamic activity, stimuli-responsive drug release, enhanced cellular uptake, and in vivo tumor ablation studies.
Project description:We report a type of photosensitizer (PS)-loaded micelles integrating cyanine dye as potential theranostic micelles for precise anatomical tumor localization via dual photoacoustic (PA)/near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging modalities, and simultaneously superior cancer therapy via sequential synergistic photothermal therapy (PTT)/photodynamic therapy (PDT). The micelles exhibit enhanced photostability, cell internalization and tumor accumulation. The dual NIRF/PA imaging modalities of the micelles cause the high imaging contrast and spatial resolution of tumors, which provide precise anatomical localization of the tumor and its inner vasculature for guiding PTT/PDT treatments. Moreover, the micelles can generate severe photothermal damage on cancer cells and destabilization of the lysosomes upon PTT photoirradiation, which subsequently facilitate synergistic photodynamic injury via PS under PDT treatment. The sequential treatments of PTT/PDT trigger the enhanced cytoplasmic delivery of PS, which contributes to the synergistic anticancer efficacy of PS. Our strategy provides a dual-modal cancer imaging with high imaging contrast and spatial resolution, and subsequent therapeutic synergy of PTT/PDT for potential multimodal theranostic application.
Project description:For several decades, cancer has been one of the most life-threatening diseases. For enhancing anticancer efficiency with minimum side effects, combination therapy is envisioned. The current manuscript reports for the first time the development of a methylene blue (MB) bound nanoplatform, which is capable of delivering targeted diagnostic and combined synergistic photothermal and photodynamic treatment of cancer. Experimental data found that, once the nanoparticle binds with the target cell surface, it can detect LNCaP human prostate cancer cell selectively using fluorescence imaging. Our result shows that the therapeutic actions can be controlled with external NIR light. No cytotoxicity was observed in the absence of NIR light. Targeted photodynamic and photothermal treatment using 785 nm NIR light indicates that the multimodal treatment enhances the possibility of destroying LNCaP prostate cancer cells in vitro dramatically. We discuss the operating principle for the targeted imaging and possible mechanisms for combined therapeutic actions. Our experimental data show that NIR light activated combined therapy for cancer may become a highly effective treatment procedure in clinical settings.
Project description:Photo-immunotherapy is a novel therapeutic approach against malignant tumors with minimal invasiveness. Herein, a targeting multifunctional black phosphorus (BP) nanoparticle, modified by PEGylated hyaluronic acid (HA), was designed for photothermal/photodynamic/photo-immunotherapy. In vitro and in vivo assays indicated that HA-BP nanoparticles possess excellent biocompatibility, stability, and sufficient therapeutic efficacy in the combined therapy of photothermal therapy (PTT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for cancer therapy. Moreover, the results of in vitro showed that HA-BP down-regulated the expression of CD206 (M2 macrophage marker) by 42.3% and up-regulated the ratio of CD86?M1 macrophage marker?by 59.6%, indicating that HA-BP nanoparticles have functions in remodeling tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) phenotype (from pro-tumor M2 TAMs to anti-tumor M1 macrophages). Fluorescence (FL) and photoacoustic (PA) multimodal imaging confirmed the selective accumulation of HA-BP in tumor site via both CD44+ mediated active targeting and passive EPR effect. In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that the combined therapy of PDT, PTT and immunotherapy using HA-BP could not only significantly inhibit original tumor but also induce immunogenic cell death (ICD) and release Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which could induce maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) and activate effector cells that robustly evoke the antitumor immune responses for cancer treatment. This study expands the biomedical application of BP nanoparticles and displays the potential of modified BP as a multifunctional therapeutic platform for the future cancer therapy. Graphical abstract Image 1 Highlights • Novel HA-BP NPs were synthesized for photothermal/photodynamic/photo-immunotherapy.• HA-BP NPs with size around 50 nm possess remarkable enhancement of tumor targeting and accumulation ability.• HA-BP NPs could promote M2 to M1 macrophage polarization and further enhance invasion of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.
Project description:An aptamer switch probe (ASP) linking chlorin e6 (Ce6), a photosensitizer molecule, to the surface of gold nanorods (AuNRs) was used to target cancer cells for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT). In the presence of target cancer cells, the ASP changes conformation to drive Ce6 away from the gold surface, thereby producing singlet oxygen for PDT upon light irradiation. Since each AuNR is modified with many ASP-Ce6 molecules, the AuNR-ASP-Ce6 conjugate yields enhanced binding and therapeutic effect by the added ability to carry many photosensitizers. In addition, absorption of radiation by the gold nanorods enables further cell destruction by the photothermal effect. Consequently, this multimodal AuNR-ASP-Ce6 conjugate offers a remarkably improved and synergistic therapeutic effect compared to PTT or PDT alone, providing high specificity and therapeutic efficiency, which can be generalized to other types of cancer therapies.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinically approved and minimally invasive form of cancer treatment. However, due to hypoxia at the tumor site and phototoxicity to normal tissues, monotherapies using photosensitizers remain suboptimal. This study aimed to develop a highly selective controlled catalase-enhanced synergistic photodynamic and photothermal cancer therapy based on gold nanostars. Methods: Gold nanostars (GNS) with high thermal conversion efficiency were used as the core for photothermal therapy (PTT) and the shell consisted of the photosensitizer Ce6-loaded mesoporous silicon. The shell was modified with catalase (E), which catalyzes the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen at the tumor site, alleviating hypoxia and increasing the effect of the photodynamic treatment. Finally, a phospholipid derivative with c(RGDyK) was used as the targeting moiety and the nanoparticle-encapsulating material. Results: The nanoprobe exhibited good dispersion, high stability, and high photothermal conversion efficiency (~28%) for PTT as well as a photodynamic "on-off" effect on Ce6 encapsulated in mesoporous channels. The "release" of Ce6 was only triggered under photothermal stimulation in vivo. Due to its targeting ability, 72 h after injection of the probe, the tumor site in mice showed an observable CT response. The combined treatment using photothermal therapy (PTT) and catalase-enhanced photo-controlled PDT exerted a superior effect to PTT or PDT monotherapies. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that the use of this intelligent nanoprobe for CT-targeted image-guided treatment of tumors with integrated photothermal therapy (PTT) and catalase-enhanced controlled photodynamic therapy (PDT) may provide a novel approach for cancer theranostics.
Project description:Although the antimonene (AM) nanomaterial is recently emerging as a new photothermal therapy (PTT) agent, its rapid degradation in physiological medium immensely limits its direct utilization. To this end, we herein engineered AM by the cooperation of dimension optimization, size control, and cell membrane (CM) camouflage. Compared with traditional AM nanosheets, the resulting AM nanoparticles (∼55 nm) cloaked with the CM (denoted as CmNPs) exhibited significantly improved stability and increased photothermal efficacy as well as superior tumor targeting capacity. After intravenous injection, the CmNPs enabled satisfactory photoacoustic/photothermal multimodal imaging at tumor sites. Meanwhile, the PTT together with the newly explored function of photodynamic therapy (PDT) achieved a potent combination therapy with few side effects. The maximized theranostic performance thus strongly recommends CmNPs as a safe and highly reliable modality for anticancer therapy.