Characterization of SXT/R391 Integrative and Conjugative Elements in Proteus mirabilis Isolates from Food-Producing Animals in China.
ABSTRACT: SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) were detected in 8 out of 125 Proteus mirabilis isolates from food-producing animals in China. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that seven ICEs were identical to ICEPmiJpn1, carrying the cephalosporinase gene blaCMY-2. Another one, designated ICEPmiChn1, carried five resistance genes. All eight ICEs could be transferred to Escherichia coli via conjugation. The results highlight the idea that animal farms are important reservoir of the SXT/R391 ICE-containing P. mirabilis.
Project description:Integrating conjugative elements (ICEs) are mobile genetic elements that can transfer from the chromosome of a host to the chromosome of a new host through the process of excision, conjugation, and integration. Although SXT/R391-related ICEs, originally demonstrated in Vibrio cholerae O139 isolates, have become prevalent among V. cholerae isolates in Asia, the prevalence of the ICEs among gram-negative bacteria other than Vibrio spp. remains unknown. In addition, SXT/R391-related ICEs carrying genes conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins have never been described. Here we carried out a genetic analysis of a cefoxitin-resistant Proteus mirabilis clinical isolate, TUM4660, which revealed the presence of a novel SXT/R391-related ICE, ICEPmiJpn1. ICEPmiJpn1 had a core genetic structure showing high similarity to that of R391 and carried xis and int genes completely identical to those of R391, while an IS10-mediated composite transposon carrying bla(CMY-2) was integrated into the ICE. A nucleotide sequence identical to the 3' part of ISEcp1 was located upstream of the bla(CMY-2) gene, and other genes observed around bla(CMY-2) in earlier studies were also present. Furthermore, the nucleotide sequences of hot spot 2 and hot spot 4 in ICEPmiJpn1 showed high similarity to that of hot spot 2 in SXT(MO10) and with a part of the nucleotide sequence found in P. mirabilis ATCC 29906, respectively. ICEPmiJpn1 was successfully transferred to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Citrobacter koseri in conjugation experiments. These observations suggest that ICEs may contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes among clinically relevant Enterobacteriaceae, which warrants careful observation of the prevalence of ICEs, including SXT/R391-related ICEs.
Project description:Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) are widespread in many bacterial species, often carrying antibiotic resistance determinants. In the present work, we screened a collection of Proteus mirabilis clinical isolates for the presence of type 1 SXT/R391 ICEs. Among the 76 isolates analyzed, 5 of them carry such elements. The complete sequences of these elements were obtained. One of the isolates carried the CMY-2 beta-lactamase gene in a transposon and is nearly identical to the element ICEPmiJpn1 previously described in Japan, and later shown to be present in other parts of the world, indicating global spread of this element. Nevertheless, the Brazilian isolate carrying ICEPmiJpn1 is not clonally related to the other lineages carrying the same element around the world. The other ICEs identified in this work do not carry known antibiotic resistance markers and are diverse in variable gene content and size, suggesting that these elements may be responsible for the acquisition of other advantageous traits by bacteria. Some sequences carried by these elements in Brazilian strains were not previously found in other SXT/R391 variants.
Project description:SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are self-transmissible mobile genetic elements that are found in most members of Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we determined fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs carried by Proteus isolates from food (4.2%) and diarrhoea patients (17.3%). BLASTn searches against GenBank showed that the fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs were closely related to that from different Enterobacteriaceae species, including Proteus mirabilis. Using core gene phylogenetic analysis, the fifteen SXT/R391 ICEs were grouped into six distinct clusters, including a dominant cluster and three clusters that have not been previously reported in Proteus isolates. The SXT/R391 ICEs shared a common structure with a set of conserved genes, five hotspots and two variable regions, which contained more foreign genes, including drug-resistance genes. Notably, a class A ?-lactamase gene was identified in nine SXT/R391 ICEs. Collectively, the ICE-carrying isolates carried resistance genes for 20 tested drugs. Six isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline, which are drug resistances commonly encoded by ICEs. Our results demonstrate abundant genetic diversity and multidrug resistance of the SXT/R391 ICEs carried by Proteus isolates, which may have significance for public health. It is therefore necessary to continuously monitor the antimicrobial resistance and related mobile elements among Proteus isolates.
Project description:The genetic structures involved in the dissemination of blaCMY-2 carried by Proteus mirabilis isolates recovered from different gull species in the South of France were characterized and compared to clinical isolates. blaCMY-2 was identified in P. mirabilis isolates from 27/93 yellow-legged gulls and from 37/65 slender-billed gulls. It was carried by a conjugative SXT/R391-like integrative and conjugative element (ICE) in all avian strains and in 3/7 human strains. Two clinical isolates had the same genetic background as six avian isolates.
Project description:The rapid spread of the <i>bla</i><sub>NDM-1</sub> gene is a major public health concern. Here, we describe the multidrug-resistant Proteus mirabilis strain XH1653, which contains a novel SXT/R391 integrative and conjugative element (ICE), harboring two tandem copies of <i>bla</i><sub>NDM-1</sub> and 21 other resistance genes. XH1653 was resistant to all antibiotics tested, apart from aztreonam. Whole-genome data revealed that two copies of <i>bla</i><sub>NDM-1</sub> embedded in the IS<i>CR1</i> element are located in HS4 of the novel ICE, which we named ICE<i>Pmi</i>ChnXH1653. A circular intermediate of ICE<i>Pmi</i>ChnXH1653 was detected by PCR, and conjugation experiments showed that the ICE can be transferred to the Escherichia coli strain EC600 with frequencies of 1.5 × 10<sup>-7</sup>. In the recipient strain, the ICE exhibited a higher excision frequency and extrachromosomal copy number than the ICE in the donor strain. We also observed that the presence of ICE<i>Pmi</i>ChnXH1653 has a negative impact on bacterial fitness and leads to changes in the transcriptome of the host. <i>In vitro</i> evolution experiments under nonselective conditions showed that the two tandem copies of the IS<i>CR1</i> element and the IS<i>Vsa3</i> element can be lost during repeated laboratory passage. This is the first report of a novel SXT/R391 ICE carrying two tandem copies of <i>bla</i><sub>NDM-1</sub>, which also illustrates the role that ICEs may play as platforms for the accumulation and transmission of antibiotic resistance genes. <b>IMPORTANCE</b> The occurrence of carbapenemase-producing Proteus mirabilis, especially those strains producing NDM-1 and its variants, is a major public health concern worldwide. The integrative conjugative element (ICE) plays an important role in horizontal acquisition of resistance genes. In this study, we characterized a novel SXT/R391 ICE from a clinical P. mirabilis isolate that we named ICE<i>Pmi</i>ChnXH1653, which contains two tandem copies of the carbapenemase gene <i>bla</i><sub>NDM-1</sub>. We performed an integrative approach to gain insights into different aspects of ICE<i>Pmi</i>ChnXH1653 evolution and biology and observed that ICE<i>Pmi</i>ChnXH1653 obtained the carbapenemase gene <i>bla</i><sub>NDM-1</sub> by IS<i>CR1</i>-mediated homologous recombination. Our study reveals that the transmission of <i>bla</i><sub>NDM-1</sub> by IS<i>CR1</i> elements or ICEs may be an important contributor to the carbapenem resistance development across species, which could improve our understanding of horizontal gene transfer in clinical environments.
Project description:Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family are key drivers of the spread of antibiotic resistance in <i>Vibrio cholerae</i>, the infectious agent of cholera, and other pathogenic bacteria. The SXT/R391 family of ICEs was defined based on the conservation of a core set of 52 genes and site-specific integration into the 5' end of the chromosomal gene <i>prfC</i> Hence, the integrase gene <i>int</i> has been intensively used as a marker to detect SXT/R391 ICEs in clinical isolates. ICEs sharing most core genes but differing by their integration site and integrase gene have been recently reported and excluded from the SXT/R391 family. Here we explored the prevalence and diversity of atypical ICEs in GenBank databases and their relationship with typical SXT/R391 ICEs. We found atypical ICEs in <i>V. cholerae</i> isolates that predate the emergence and expansion of typical SXT/R391 ICEs in the mid-1980s in seventh-pandemic toxigenic <i>V. cholerae</i> strains O1 and O139. Our analyses revealed that while atypical ICEs are not associated with antibiotic resistance genes, they often carry cation efflux pumps, suggesting heavy metal resistance. Atypical ICEs constitute a polyphyletic group likely because of occasional recombination events with typical ICEs. Furthermore, we show that the alternative integration and excision genes of atypical ICEs remain under the control of SetCD, the main activator of the conjugative functions of SXT/R391 ICEs. Together, these observations indicate that substitution of the integration/excision module and change of specificity of integration do not preclude atypical ICEs from inclusion into the SXT/R391 family.<b>IMPORTANCE</b><i>Vibrio cholerae</i> is the causative agent of cholera, an acute intestinal infection that remains to this day a world public health threat. Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family have played a major role in spreading antimicrobial resistance in seventh-pandemic <i>V. cholerae</i> but also in several species of <i>Enterobacteriaceae</i> Most epidemiological surveys use the integrase gene as a marker to screen for SXT/R391 ICEs in clinical or environmental strains. With the recent reports of closely related elements that carry an alternative integrase gene, it became urgent to investigate whether ICEs that have been left out of the family are a liability for the accuracy of such screenings. In this study, based on comparative genomics, we broaden the SXT/R391 family of ICEs to include atypical ICEs that are often associated with heavy metal resistance.
Project description:Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family have been recognized as key drivers of antibiotic resistance dissemination in the seventh-pandemic lineage of Vibrio cholerae. SXT/R391 ICEs propagate by conjugation and integrate site-specifically into the chromosome of a wide range of environmental and clinical Gammaproteobacteria. SXT/R391 ICEs bear setC and setD, two conserved genes coding for a transcriptional activator complex that is essential for activation of conjugative transfer. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with exonuclease digestion (ChIP-exo) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to characterize the SetCD regulon of three representative members of the SXT/R391 family. We also identified the DNA sequences bound by SetCD in MGIVflInd1, a mobilizable genomic island phylogenetically unrelated to SXT/R391 ICEs that hijacks the conjugative machinery of these ICEs to drive its own transfer. SetCD was found to bind a 19-bp sequence that is consistently located near the promoter -35 element of SetCD-activated genes, a position typical of class II transcriptional activators. Furthermore, we refined our understanding of the regulation of excision from and integration into the chromosome for SXT/R391 ICEs and demonstrated that de novo expression of SetCD is crucial to allow integration of the incoming ICE DNA into a naive host following conjugative transfer.
Project description:Integrating conjugative elements (ICEs) are self-transmissible, mobile elements that are widespread among bacteria. Following their excision from the chromosome, ICEs transfer by conjugation, a process initiated by a single-stranded DNA break at a specific locus called the origin of transfer (oriT). The SXT/R391 family of ICEs includes SXT(MO10), R391, and more than 25 related ICEs found in gammaproteobacteria. A previous study mapped the oriT locus of SXT(MO10) to a 550-bp intergenic region between traD and s043. We suspected that this was not the correct oriT locus, because the identical traD-s043 region in R391 and other SXT/R391 family ICEs was annotated as a gene of an unknown function. Here, we investigated the location and structure of the oriT locus in the ICEs of the SXT/R391 family and demonstrated that oriT(SXT) corresponds to a 299-bp sequence that contains multiple imperfect direct and inverted repeats and is located in the intergenic region between s003 and rumB'. The oriT(SXT) locus is well conserved among SXT/R391 ICEs, like R391, R997, and pMERPH, and cross-recognition of oriT(SXT) and oriT(R391) by R391 and SXT(MO10) was demonstrated. Furthermore, we identified a previously unannotated gene, mobI, located immediately downstream from oriT(SXT), which proved to be essential for SXT(MO10) transfer and SXT(MO10)-mediated chromosomal DNA mobilization. Deletion of mobI did not impair the SXT(MO10)-dependent transfer of the mobilizable plasmid CloDF13, suggesting that mobI has no role in the assembly of the SXT(MO10) mating pair apparatus. Instead, mobI appears to be involved in the recognition of oriT(SXT).
Project description:The genus Shewanella consists of facultatively anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, which are regarded as potential agents of food contamination and opportunistic human pathogens. Information about the distribution and genetic characteristics of SXT/R391 integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) in Shewanella species is limited. Here, 91 Shewanella strains collected from diverse samples in China were studied for the presence of SXT/R391 ICEs. Three positive strains, classified as Shewanella upenei, were obtained from patients and water from a local mill. In light of their close clonal relationships and high sequence similarity, a representative ICE was selected and designated ICESupCHN110003. The BLASTn searches against GenBank showed that ICEVchBan5 was most closely related to ICESupCHN110003, with the coverage of 76% and identity of 99%. The phylogenetic tree of concatenated core genes demonstrated that ICESupCHN110003 formed a distinct branch outside the cluster comprising ICEValA056-1, ICEPmiCHN2410, and ICEPmiChn1. Comparison of the genetic structures revealed that ICESupCHN110003 encoded uncommon genes in hotspots, such as specific type III restriction-modification system, conferring adaptive functions to the host. Based on the low coverage in the sequence analysis, independent clade in the phylogenetic tree, and unique inserted fragments in hotspots, ICESupCHN110003 represented a novel SXT/R391 element, which widened the list of ICEs. Furthermore, the antibiotic resistance genes floR, strA, strB, and sul2 in ICESupCHN110003 and resistance to multiple drugs of the positive isolates were detected. A cross-species transfer capability of the SXT/R391 ICEs was also discovered. In summary, it is necessary to reinforce continuous surveillance of SXT/R391 ICEs in the genus Shewanella.
Project description:Integrating and conjugative elements (ICEs) are one of the three principal types of self-transmissible mobile genetic elements in bacteria. ICEs, like plasmids, transfer via conjugation; but unlike plasmids and similar to many phages, these elements integrate into and replicate along with the host chromosome. Members of the SXT/R391 family of ICEs have been isolated from several species of gram-negative bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, where they have been important vectors for disseminating genes conferring resistance to antibiotics. Here we developed a plasmid-based system to capture and isolate SXT/R391 ICEs for sequencing. Comparative analyses of the genomes of 13 SXT/R391 ICEs derived from diverse hosts and locations revealed that they contain 52 perfectly syntenic and nearly identical core genes that serve as a scaffold capable of mobilizing an array of variable DNA. Furthermore, selection pressure to maintain ICE mobility appears to have restricted insertions of variable DNA into intergenic sites that do not interrupt core functions. The variable genes confer diverse element-specific phenotypes, such as resistance to antibiotics. Functional analysis of a set of deletion mutants revealed that less than half of the conserved core genes are required for ICE mobility; the functions of most of the dispensable core genes are unknown. Several lines of evidence suggest that there has been extensive recombination between SXT/R391 ICEs, resulting in re-assortment of their respective variable gene content. Furthermore, our analyses suggest that there may be a network of phylogenetic relationships among sequences found in all types of mobile genetic elements.