Porcine Circovirus 2 Deploys PERK Pathway and GRP78 for Its Enhanced Replication in PK-15 Cells.
ABSTRACT: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infection induces autophagy and apoptosis. These cellular responses could be connected with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. It remains unknown if PCV2 induces ER stress and if autophagy or apoptosis is primary to PCV2 infection or secondary responses following ER stress. Here, we demonstrate that PCV2 triggered unfolded protein response (UPR) in PK-15 cells by activating the PERK/eIF2? pathway without concomitant activation of IRE1 or ATF6. Since ATF4 and CHOP were induced later than PERK/eIF2?, it is clear that persistent PCV2 infection could lead to selective activation of PERK via the PERK-eIF2?-ATF4-CHOP axis. Therefore, PERK activation could be part of the pro-apoptotic signaling via induced expression of CHOP by PCV2. Since PERK inhibition by GSK2606414 or RNA silencing or suppression of eIF2? dephosphorylation by salubrinal limited viral replication, we suppose that PCV2 deploys UPR to enhance its replication. Over-expression of GRP78 or treatment with tauroursodeoxycholic acid could enhance viral capsid expression and/or viral titers, indicating that these chaperones, endogenous or exogenous, could help correct folding of viral proteins. Our findings provide the first evidence that ER stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of PCV2 infection probably as part of autophagic and apoptotic responses.
Project description:Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has recently been reported to elicit the unfolded protein response (UPR) via activation of the PERK/eIF2? (RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase/eukaryotic initiation factor 2?) pathway. This study attempted to examine which viral protein might be involved in inducing UPR and whether this cellular event would lead to apoptosis of the cells expressing the viral protein. By transient expression, we found that both replicase (Rep) and capsid (Cap) proteins of PCV2 could induce ER stress as shown by increased phosphorylation of PERK with subsequent activation of the eIF2?-ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4)-CHOP (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein) axis. Cap expression, but not Rep, significantly reduced anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and increased caspase-3 cleavage, possibly due to increased expression of CHOP. Since knockdown of PERK by RNA interference clearly reduced Cap-induced CHOP expression, caspase-3 cleavage, and apoptotic cell death possibly by partially rescuing Bcl-2 expression, we propose that there is connection between Cap-induced UPR and apoptosis via the PERK/eIF2?/ATF4/CHOP/Bcl-2 pathway. This study, together with our earlier studies, provides insight into the mechanisms underlying PCV2 pathogenesis.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein misfolding activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to help cells cope with ER stress. If ER homeostasis is not restored, UPR promotes cell death. The mechanisms of UPR-mediated cell death are poorly understood. The PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) arm of the UPR is implicated in ER stress-induced cell death, in part through up-regulation of proapoptotic CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Chop((-)/(-)) cells are partially resistant to ER stress-induced cell death, and CHOP overexpression alone does not induce cell death. These findings suggest that additional mechanisms regulate cell death downstream of PERK. Here we find dramatic suppression of antiapoptosis XIAP proteins in response to chronic ER stress. We find that PERK down-regulates XIAP synthesis through eIF2? and promotes XIAP degradation through ATF4. Of interest, PERK's down-regulation of XIAP occurs independently of CHOP activity. Loss of XIAP leads to increased cell death, whereas XIAP overexpression significantly enhances resistance to ER stress-induced cell death, even in the absence of CHOP. Our findings define a novel signaling circuit between PERK and XIAP that operates in parallel with PERK to CHOP induction to influence cell survival during ER stress. We propose a "two-hit" model of ER stress-induced cell death involving concomitant CHOP up-regulation and XIAP down-regulation both induced by PERK.
Project description:Stress induced BSA (bovine serum albumin) protein aggregation is effectively mitigated in vitro by TUDCA (tauroursodeoxycholic acid) than by PBA (4- phenylbutyric acid), chemical chaperones approved by FDA for the treatment of biliary cirrhosis and urea cycle disorders respectively. TUDCA, unlike PBA, enhances trypsin mediated digestion of BSA. TUDCA activates PERK, an ER-resident kinase that phosphorylates the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor2 (eIF2?) and promotes the expression of activated transcription factor 4 (ATF4) in HepG2 cells. In contrast, PBA induced eIF2? phosphorylation is not mediated by PERK activation and results in low ATF4 expression. Neither chaperones promote expression of BiP, an ER chaperone, and CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein), downstream target of eIF2?-ATF4 pathway. Both chaperones mitigate tunicamycin induced PERK-eIF2?-ATF4-CHOP arm of UPR and expression of BiP. TUDCA, unlike PBA does not decrease cell viability and it also mitigates tunicamycin, UV-irradiation and PBA induced PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase) cleavage and cell death. These findings therefore suggest that TUDCA's antiapoptotic activity to protect HepG2 cells and PBA's activity that limits tumor cell progression may be important while considering their therapeutic potential.
Project description:The unfolded protein response (UPR) is involved in a diverse range of pathologies triggered by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Endeavor to seek selective regulators of the UPR is a promising challenge towards therapeutic intervention in ER stress-related disorders. In the present report, we describe aberrant, differential and bidirectional regulation of the UPR by 3'-deoxyadenosine (cordycepin) towards cell survival. 3'-Deoxyadenosine blocked ER stress-induced apoptosis via inhibiting the IRE1-JNK pro-apoptotic pathway. 3'-Deoxyadenosine also inhibited apoptosis through reinforcement of the pro-survival eIF2? signaling without affecting PERK activity. It was associated with depression of GADD34 that dephosphorylates eIF2?, and dephosphorylation of eIF2? by salubrinal mimicked the anti-apoptotic effect of 3'-deoxyadenosine. Unexpectedly, although 3'-deoxyadenosine caused activation of eIF2?, it inhibited downstream pro-apoptotic events including induction of ATF4 and expression of CHOP. Cooperation of adenosine transporter and A3 adenosine receptor, but not A1/A2 receptors, mediated the pluripotent effects of 3'-deoxyadenosine. In mice, ER stress caused activation of JNK, expression of CHOP and induction of apoptosis in renal tubules. The apoptosis was significantly attenuated by administration with 3'-deoxyadenosine, and it was correlated with blunted induction of JNK and CHOP in the kidney. These results disclosed atypical pro-survival regulation of the UPR by 3'-deoxyadenosine, which may be advantageous for the treatment of intractable, ER stress-related disorders.
Project description:Our previous studies demonstrated that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) triggers an unfolded protein response (UPR) in porcine kidney PK-15 cells by activating the protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK)/eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) pathway of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which in turn facilitates viral replication (Y. Zhou et al., Viruses 8:e56, 2016, https://doi.org/10.3390/v8020056; Y. Zhou et al., J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 18:316-323, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B1600208). PCV2 is found to cause oxidative stress and upregulation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels. The virus is reported to employ its open reading frame 3 (ORF3) to induce apoptosis. We wondered whether and how PCV2-induced UPR would lead to apoptosis independent of ORF3. Using an ORF3-deficient PCV2 mutant (?ORF3), apoptotic responses in infected PK-15 and porcine alveolar macrophage (PAM) cells were still apparent, although lower than in the parental PCV2 strain. We hypothesized that apoptosis induced by ?ORF3 might result from the UPR. We found that ?ORF3-induced apoptosis was significantly reduced when the infected cells were treated with the selective PERK blocker GSK2606414 (GSK) or the general ER stress attenuator 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA). Such treatments also ameliorated elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in PK-15 and PAM cells, two predisposing factors for apoptosis via disruption of the ER-mitochondrion units. Treatment of ?ORF3-infected cells with GSK and 4-PBA also decreased the mitochondrial Ca2+ load and increased the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). With transient expression of the structural protein capsid (Cap) in combination with PERK silencing, we found that Cap induced MMP collapse and mitochondrial apoptosis could result from the UPR and elevation of Ca2+ and ROS levels, which were inhibitable by downregulation of PERK. We propose that PCV2-driven ER stress is Cap dependent and could lead to mitochondrial apoptotic responses independent of ORF3 via perturbation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and accumulation of ROS.IMPORTANCE PCV2 encodes protein ORF3, a putative protein with proapoptotic activity. Our early studies showed that PCV2 infection triggers ER stress via selective activation of the PERK pathway, a branch of the ER stress pathways, in permissive cells for enhanced replication and infection increased cytosolic Ca2+ and ROS levels. Here we clearly show that PCV2 infection or Cap expression induces ORF3-independent apoptosis via increased cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ levels and cellular ROS levels as a result of activation of the PERK pathway.
Project description:Disruptions of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that perturb protein folding cause ER stress and elicit an unfolded protein response (UPR) that involves translational and transcriptional changes in gene expression aimed at expanding the ER processing capacity and alleviating cellular injury. Three ER stress sensors (PERK, ATF6, and IRE1) implement the UPR. PERK phosphorylation of the ? subunit of eIF2 during ER stress represses protein synthesis, which prevents further influx of ER client proteins. Phosphorylation of eIF2? (eIF2?~P) also induces preferential translation of ATF4, a transcription activator of the integrated stress response. In this study we show that the PERK/eIF2?~P/ATF4 pathway is required not only for translational control, but also for activation of ATF6 and its target genes. The PERK pathway facilitates both the synthesis of ATF6 and trafficking of ATF6 from the ER to the Golgi for intramembrane proteolysis and activation of ATF6. As a consequence, liver-specific depletion of PERK significantly reduces both the translational and transcriptional phases of the UPR, leading to reduced protein chaperone expression, disruptions of lipid metabolism, and enhanced apoptosis. These findings show that the regulatory networks of the UPR are fully integrated and help explain the diverse biological defects associated with loss of PERK.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leads to activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling cascade and induction of an apoptotic cell death, autophagy, oncogenesis, metastasis, and/or resistance to cancer therapies. Mechanisms underlying regulation of ER transmembrane proteins PERK, IRE1?, and ATF6?/?, and how the balance of these activities determines outcome of the activated UPR, remain largely unclear. Here, we report a novel molecule transmembrane protein 33 (TMEM33) and its actions in UPR signaling. Immunoblotting and northern blot hybridization assays were used to determine the effects of ER stress on TMEM33 expression levels in various cell lines. Transient transfections, immunofluorescence, subcellular fractionation, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblotting were used to study the subcellular localization of TMEM33, the binding partners of TMEM33, and the expression of downstream effectors of PERK and IRE1?. Our data demonstrate that TMEM33 is a unique ER stress-inducible and ER transmembrane molecule, and a new binding partner of PERK. Exogenous expression of TMEM33 led to increased expression of p-eIF2? and p-IRE1? and their known downstream effectors, ATF4-CHOP and XBP1-S, respectively, in breast cancer cells. TMEM33 overexpression also correlated with increased expression of apoptotic signals including cleaved caspase-7 and cleaved PARP, and an autophagosome protein LC3II, and reduced expression of the autophagy marker p62. TMEM33 is a novel regulator of the PERK-eIE2?-ATF4 and IRE1-XBP1 axes of the UPR signaling. Therefore, TMEM33 may function as a determinant of the ER stress-responsive events in cancer cells.
Project description:Upregulation of SESTRIN 2 (SESN2) has been reported in response to diverse cellular stresses. In this study we demonstrate SESTRIN 2 induction following endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ER stress-induced increases in SESTRIN 2 expression were dependent on both PERK and IRE1/XBP1 arms of the unfolded protein response (UPR). SESTRIN 2 induction, post ER stress, was responsible for mTORC1 inactivation and contributed to autophagy induction. Conversely, knockdown of SESTRIN 2 prolonged mTORC1 signaling, repressed autophagy and increased ER stress-induced cell death. Unexpectedly, the increase in ER stress-induced cell death was not linked to autophagy inhibition. Analysis of UPR pathways identified prolonged eIF2?, ATF4 and CHOP signaling in SESTRIN 2 knockdown cells following ER stress. SESTRIN 2 regulation enables UPR derived signals to indirectly control mTORC1 activity shutting down protein translation thus preventing further exacerbation of ER stress.
Project description:Coronavirus replication is closely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the primary cellular organelle for protein synthesis, folding, and modification. ER stress is a common consequence in coronavirus-infected cells. However, how the virus-induced ER stress influences coronavirus replication and pathogenesis remains controversial. Here, we demonstrated that infection with the alphacoronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) induced ER stress and triggered the unfolded protein response (UPR) in vitro and in vivo, and ER stress negatively regulated TGEV replication in vitro Although TGEV infection activated all three UPR pathways (activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6], inositol-requiring enzyme 1 [IRE1], and protein kinase R-like ER kinase [PERK]), the virus-triggered UPR suppressed TGEV replication in both swine testicular (ST) and IPEC-J2 cells primarily through activation of the PERK-eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) axis, as shown by functional studies with overexpression, small interfering RNA (siRNA), or specific chemical inhibitors. Moreover, we demonstrated that PERK-eIF2? axis-mediated inhibition of TGEV replication occurs through phosphorylated eIF2?-induced overall attenuation of protein translation. In addition to direct inhibition of viral production, the PERK-eIF2? pathway activated NF-?B and then facilitated type I IFN production, resulting in TGEV suppression. Taken together, our results suggest that the TGEV-triggered PERK-eIF2? pathway negatively regulates TGEV replication and represents a vital aspect of host innate responses to invading pathogens.IMPORTANCE The induction of ER stress is a common outcome in cells infected with coronaviruses. The UPR initiated by ER stress is actively involved in viral replication and modulates the host innate responses to the invading viruses, but these underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We show here that infection with the alphacoronavirus TGEV elicited ER stress in vitro and in vivo, and the UPR PERK-eIF2? branch was predominantly responsible for the suppression of TGEV replication by ER stress. Furthermore, the PERK-eIF2? axis inhibited TGEV replication through direct inhibition of viral proteins due to global translation inhibition and type I IFN induction. These findings highlight a critical role of the UPR PERK-eIF2? pathway in modulating host innate immunity and coronavirus replication.
Project description:Disruption of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), a transcriptional and translational control network designed to restore protein homeostasis. Central to the UPR is PKR-like ER kinase (PERK/EIF2AK3) phosphorylation of the ? subunit of eIF2 (eIF2??P), which represses global translation coincident with preferential translation of mRNAs, such as activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), that serve to implement UPR transcriptional regulation. In this study, we used sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation and a genome-wide microarray approach to measure changes in mRNA translation during ER stress. Our analysis suggests that translational efficiencies vary over a broad range during ER stress, with the majority of transcripts being either repressed or resistant to eIF2??P, whereas a notable cohort of key regulators are subject to preferential translation. From the latter group, we identified the ? isoform of inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (IBTK?) as being subject to both translational and transcriptional induction during eIF2??P in both cell lines and a mouse model of ER stress. Translational regulation of IBTK? mRNA involves stress-induced relief of two inhibitory upstream open reading frames in the 5'-leader of the transcript. Depletion of IBTK? by short hairpin RNA reduced viability of cultured cells coincident with increased caspase 3/7 cleavage, suggesting that IBTK? is a key regulator in determining cell fate during the UPR.