Rediscovering the wound hematoma as a site of hemostasis during major arterial hemorrhage.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Treatments for major internal bleeding after injury include permissive hypotension to decrease the rate of blood loss, intravenous infusion of plasma or clotting factors to improve clot formation, and rapid surgical hemostasis or arterial embolization to control bleeding vessels. Yet, little is known regarding major internal arterial hemostasis, or how these commonly used treatments might influence hemostasis. OBJECTIVES:(i) To use a swine model of femoral artery bleeding to understand the perivascular hemostatic response to contained arterial hemorrhage. (ii) To directly confirm the association between hemodynamics and bleeding velocity. (iii) To observe the feasibility of delivering an activated clotting factor directly to internal sites of bleeding using a simplified angiographic approach. METHODS:Ultrasound was used to measure bleeding velocity and in vivo clot formation by elastography in a swine model of contained femoral artery bleeding with fluid resuscitation. A swine model of internal pelvic and axillary artery hemorrhage was also used to demonstrate the feasibility of local delivery of an activated clotting factor. RESULTS:In this model, clots formed slowly within the peri-wound hematoma, but eventually contained the bleeding. Central hemodynamics correlated positively with bleeding velocity. Infusion of recombinant human activated factor VII into the injured artery near the site of major internal hemorrhage in the pelvis and axillae was feasible. CONCLUSIONS:We rediscovered that clot formation within the peri-wound hematoma is an integral component of hemostasis and a feasible target for the treatment of major internal bleeding using activated clotting factors delivered using a simplified angiographic approach.
Project description:Clotting factor replacement is the standard management of acute bleeding in congenital and acquired bleeding disorders. We present a synthetic approach to hemostasis using an engineered hemostatic polymer (PolySTAT) that circulates innocuously in the blood, identifies sites of vascular injury, and promotes clot formation to stop bleeding. PolySTAT induces hemostasis by cross-linking the fibrin matrix within clots, mimicking the function of the transglutaminase factor XIII. Furthermore, synthetic PolySTAT binds specifically to fibrin monomers and is uniformly integrated into fibrin fibers during fibrin polymerization, resulting in a fortified, hybrid polymer network with enhanced resistance to enzymatic degradation. In vivo hemostatic activity was confirmed in a rat model of trauma and fluid resuscitation in which intravenous administration of PolySTAT improved survival by reducing blood loss and resuscitation fluid requirements. PolySTAT-induced fibrin cross-linking is a novel approach to hemostasis using synthetic polymers for noninvasive modulation of clot architecture with potentially wide-ranging therapeutic applications.
Project description:Ectopically expressed, human B-domainless (hB) factor 8 (F8) in platelets improves hemostasis in hemophilia A mice in several injury models. However, in both a cuticular bleeding model and a cremaster laser arteriole/venule injury model, there were limitations to platelet-derived (p) hBF8 efficacy, including increased clot embolization. We now address whether variants of F8 with enhanced activity, inactivation resistant F8 (IR8) and canine (c) BF8, would improve clotting efficacy. In both transgenic and lentiviral murine model approaches, pIR8 expressed at comparable levels to phBF8, but pcBF8 expressed at only approximately 30%. Both variants were more effective than hBF8 in cuticular bleeding and FeCl(3) carotid artery models. However, in the cremaster injury model, only pcBF8 was more effective, markedly decreasing clot embolization. Because inhibitors of F8 are stored in platelet granules and IR8 is not protected by binding to von Willebrand factor, we also tested whether pIR8 was effective in the face of inhibitors and found that pIR8 is protected from the inhibitors. In summary, pF8 variants with high specific activity are more effective in controlling bleeding, but this improved efficacy was inconsistent between bleeding models, perhaps reflecting the underlying mechanism(s) for the increased specific activity of the studied F8 variants.
Project description:A blood clot is formed in response to bleeding by platelet aggregation and adherence to fibrin fibers. Platelets contract over time, stabilizing the clot, which contributes to wound healing. We have developed platelet-like particles (PLPs) that augment clotting and induce clot retraction by mimicking the fibrin-binding capabilities and morphology of native platelets. Wound repair following hemostasis can be complicated by infection; therefore, we aim to augment wound healing by combining PLPs with antimicrobial gold to develop nanogold composites (NGCs). PLPs were synthesized with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm)/co-acrylic acid in a precipitation polymerization reaction and conjugated to a fibrin-specific antibody. Two methods were employed to create NGCs: 1) noncovalent swelling with aqueous gold nanospheres, and 2) covalent seeding and growth. Since the ability of PLPs to mimic platelet morphology and clot retraction requires a high degree of particle deformability, we investigated how PLPs created from NGCs affected these properties. Cryogenic Scanning Electron Microscopy (cryoSEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrated that particle deformability, platelet-mimetic morphology and clot retraction were maintained in NGC-based PLPs. The effect of NGCs on bacterial adhesion and growth was assessed with antimicrobial assays. These results demonstrate NGCs fabricated through noncovalent and covalent methods retain deformability necessary for clot collapse and exhibit some antimicrobial potential. Therefore, NGCs are promising materials for preventing hemorrhage and infection following trauma.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Our aims were to assess risks of early rebleeding after successful endoscopic hemostasis for Forrest oozing (FIB) peptic ulcer bleeding (PUBs) compared with other stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH). METHODS:These were post hoc multivariable analyses of a large, international, double-blind study (NCT00251979) of patients randomized to high-dose intravenous (IV) esomeprazole (PPI) or placebo for 72?h. Rebleeding rates of patients with PUB SRH treated with either PPI or placebo after successful endoscopic hemostasis were also compared. RESULTS:For patients treated with placebo for 72?h after successful endoscopic hemostasis, rebleed rates by SRH were spurting arterial bleeding (FIA) 22.5%, adherent clot (FIIB) 17.6%, non-bleeding visible vessel (FIIA) 11.3%, and oozing bleeding (FIB) 4.9%. Compared with FIB patients, FIA, FIIB, and FIIA had significantly greater risks of rebleeding with odds ratios (95% CI's) from 2.61 (1.05, 6.52) for FIIA to 6.66 (2.19, 20.26) for FIA. After hemostasis, PUB rebleeding rates for FIB patients at 72?h were similar with esomeprazole (5.4%) and placebo (4.9%), whereas rebleed rates for all other major SRH (FIA, FIIA, FIIB) were lower for PPI than placebo, but the treatment by SRH interaction test was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS:After successful endoscopic hemostasis, FIB patients had very low PUB rebleeding rates irrespective of PPI or placebo treatment. This implies that after successful endoscopic hemostasis the prognostic classification of FIB ulcers as a high-risk SRH and the recommendation to treat these with high-dose IV PPI's should be re-evaluated.
Project description:Anticoagulant overdose is associated with major bleeding complications. Rapid coagulation sensing may ensure safe and accurate anticoagulant dosing and reduce bleeding risk. Here, we report the novel use of Laser Speckle Rheology (LSR) for measuring anticoagulation and haemodilution status in whole blood. In the LSR approach, blood from 12 patients and 4 swine was placed in disposable cartridges and time-varying intensity fluctuations of laser speckle patterns were measured to quantify the viscoelastic modulus during clotting. Coagulation parameters, mainly clotting time, clot progression rate (?-angle) and maximum clot stiffness (MA) were derived from the clot viscoelasticity trace and compared with standard Thromboelastography (TEG). To demonstrate the capability for anticoagulation sensing in patients, blood samples from 12 patients treated with warfarin anticoagulant were analyzed. LSR clotting time correlated with prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin time (r = 0.57-0.77, p<0.04) and all LSR parameters demonstrated good correlation with TEG (r = 0.61-0.87, p<0.04). To further evaluate the dose-dependent sensitivity of LSR parameters, swine blood was spiked with varying concentrations of heparin, argatroban and rivaroxaban or serially diluted with saline. We observed that anticoagulant treatments prolonged LSR clotting time in a dose-dependent manner that correlated closely with TEG (r = 0.99, p<0.01). LSR angle was unaltered by anticoagulation whereas TEG angle presented dose-dependent diminution likely linked to the mechanical manipulation of the clot. In both LSR and TEG, MA was largely unaffected by anticoagulation, and LSR presented a higher sensitivity to increased haemodilution in comparison to TEG (p<0.01). Our results establish that LSR rapidly and accurately measures the response of various anticoagulants, opening the opportunity for routine anticoagulation monitoring at the point-of-care or for patient self-testing.
Project description:Endovascular techniques have proven beneficial in the treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), but with high risk of arterial clotting, emboli and dissection. Platelet activation and alterations in hemostasis may contribute to these complications. We investigated platelet activation and aggregation pathways in aSAH patients who underwent endovascular treatment.Two blood samples were taken, in the early days after bleeding and during the period at risk of vasospasm. We studied platelet activation through the expression of GpIIbIIIa and P-selectin as well as aggregation rate in the presence of agonists. Platelets from aSAH patients were compared with those from orthopedic postoperative patients (POSTOP).Platelets in aSAH were initially spontaneously activated and remained so over time. aSAH platelets were further activated with rapid aggregation in the presence of agonists, particularly ADP, with behavior comparable to POSTOP platelets.aSAH platelets showed prolonged increases in activation and aggregation. Therapies targeting the ADP pathway might reduce the risk of clotting and ischemic events in this context among patients requiring multiple endovascular procedures.Not applicable.
Project description:Blood coagulation is a critical hemostatic process that must be properly regulated to maintain a delicate balance between bleeding and clotting. Disorders of blood coagulation can expose patients to the risk of either bleeding disorders or thrombotic diseases. Coagulation diagnostics using whole blood is very promising for assessing the complexity of the coagulation system and for global measurements of hemostasis. Despite the clinic values that existing whole blood coagulation tests have demonstrated, these systems have significant limitations that diminish their potential for point-of-care applications. Here, recent advancements in device miniaturization using functional soft materials are leveraged to develop a miniaturized clot retraction force assay device termed mHemoRetractoMeter (mHRM). The mHRM is capable of precise measurements of dynamic clot retraction forces in real time using minute amounts of whole blood. To further demonstrate the clinical utility of the mHRM, systematic studies are conducted using the mHRM to examine the effects of assay temperature, treatments of clotting agents, and pro- and anti-coagulant drugs on clot retraction force developments of whole blood samples. The mHRM's low fabrication cost, small size, and consumption of only minute amounts of blood samples make the technology promising as a point-of-care tool for future coagulation monitoring.
Project description:Effective therapies are needed to control excessive bleeding in a range of clinical conditions. We improve hemostasis in vivo using a conformationally pliant variant of coagulation factor Xa (FXa(I16L)) rendered partially inactive by a defect in the transition from zymogen to active protease. Using mouse models of hemophilia, we show that FXa(I16L) has a longer half-life than wild-type FXa and does not cause excessive activation of coagulation. Once clotting mechanisms are activated to produce its cofactor FVa, FXa(I16L) is driven to the protease state and restores hemostasis in hemophilic animals upon vascular injury. Moreover, using human or murine analogs, we show that FXa(I16L) is more efficacious than FVIIa, which is used to treat bleeding in hemophilia inhibitor patients. FXa(I16L) may provide an effective strategy to enhance blood clot formation and act as a rapid pan-hemostatic agent for the treatment of bleeding conditions.
Project description:Biological and physical factors interact to modulate blood response in a wounded vessel, resulting in a hemostatic clot or an occlusive thrombus. Flow and pressure differential (?P) across the wound from the lumen to the extravascular compartment may impact hemostasis and the observed core/shell architecture. We examined physical and biological factors responsible for regulating thrombin-mediated clot growth.Using factor XIIa-inhibited human whole blood perfused in a microfluidic device over collagen/tissue factor at controlled wall shear rate and ?P, we found thrombin to be highly localized in the P-selectin(+) core of hemostatic clots. Increasing ?P from 9 to 29 mm Hg (wall shear rate=400 s(-1)) reduced P-selectin(+) core size and total clot size because of enhanced extravasation of thrombin. Blockade of fibrin polymerization with 5 mmol/L Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro dysregulated hemostasis by enhancing both P-selectin(+) core size and clot size at 400 s(-1) (20 mm Hg). For whole-blood flow (no Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro), the thickness of the P-selectin-negative shell was reduced under arterial conditions (2000 s(-1), 20 mm Hg). Consistent with the antithrombin-1 activity of fibrin implicated with Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro, anti-?'-fibrinogen antibody enhanced core-localized thrombin, core size, and overall clot size, especially at venous (100 s(-1)) but not arterial wall shear rates (2000 s(-1)). Pathological shear (15 000 s(-1)) and Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro synergized to exacerbate clot growth.Hemostatic clotting was dependent on core-localized thrombin that (1) triggered platelet P-selectin display and (2) was highly regulated by fibrin and the transclot ?P. Also, ?'-fibrinogen had a role in venous but not arterial conditions.
Project description:Hemostatic materials are of great importance in medicine. However, their successful implementation is still challenging as it depends on two, often counteracting, attributes; achieving blood coagulation rapidly, before significant blood loss, and enabling subsequent facile wound-dressing removal, without clot tears and secondary bleeding. Here we illustrate an approach for achieving hemostasis, rationally targeting both attributes, via a superhydrophobic surface with immobilized carbon nanofibers (CNFs). We find that CNFs promote quick fibrin growth and cause rapid clotting, and due to their superhydrophobic nature they severely limit blood wetting to prevent blood loss and drastically reduce bacteria attachment. Furthermore, minimal contact between the clot and the superhydrophobic CNF surface yields an unforced clot detachment after clot shrinkage. All these important attributes are verified in vitro and in vivo with rat experiments. Our work thereby demonstrates that this strategy for designing hemostatic patch materials has great potential.