Transcriptome response to copper heavy metal stress in hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus).
ABSTRACT: The hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) has considerably one of the most economically important marine shellfish worldwide and considered as a good invertebrate model for ecotoxicity study for a long time. In the present study, we used Illumina sequencing technology (HiSeq2000) to sequence, assemble and annotate the transcriptome of the hard-shelled mussel which challenged with copper pollution. A total of 21,723,913 paired-end clean reads (NCBI SRA database SRX1411195) were generated from HiSeq2000 sequencer and 96,403 contigs (with N50 = 1118 bp) were obtained after de novo assembling with Trinity software. Digital gene expression analysis reveals 1156 unigenes are upregulated and 1681 unigenes are downregulated when challenged with copper. By KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, we found that unigenes in four KEGG pathways (aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, apoptosis, DNA replication and mismatch repair) show significant differential expressed between control and copper treated groups. We hope that the gill transcriptome in copper treated hard-shelled mussel can give useful information to understand how mussel handles with heavy metal stress at molecular level.
Project description:The hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) is an economically important shellfish that has been cultivated for the last decade. Due to over-exploitation, most mussel stocks have dramatically declined. Efforts to study this species' natural distribution, genetics, breeding, and cultivation have been hindered by the lack of a high-quality reference genome. To address this, we produced a hybrid high-quality reference genome of M. coruscus using a long-read platform to assemble the genome and short-read, high-quality technology to accurately correct for sequence errors. The genome was assembled into 10,484 scaffolds, a total length of 1.90 Gb, and a scaffold N50 of 898 kb. Ab initio annotation of the M. coruscus genome assembly identified a total of 42,684 genes. This accurate reference genome of M. coruscus provides an essential resource with the advantage of enabling the genome-scale selective breeding of M. coruscus. More importantly, it will also help in deciphering the speciation and local adaptation of the Mytilus species.
Project description:Haemolymph microbiome was considered to be unique to healthy invertebrates and beneficial to the host against external pathogens, including disease resistance and maintenance of homeostasis. Here, we investigated the effects of elevated water temperature on infection of haemolymph microbiome of the hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus). Exposure to Vibrio. cyclitrophicus resulted in high mortality of mussels on day nine at 27?°C. The haemolymph was collected to determine the microbiota by 16?S rRNA gene sequencing. Exposure to waterborne V. cyclitrophicus increased the mortality of mussels that was associated with a reduction in the diversity of their microbial community. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that temperature was an essential factor in shaping microbial communities in mussel haemolymph. Vibrio exposure promoted the proliferation of opportunistic pathogens (e.g., Arcobacter and Francisella) at a lower temperature. A high abundance of Vibrio present in live and dead mussels, at 27?°C might contribute greatly to mortality, as indicated by linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe). These data suggested that the dynamics of microbial community have unique biomarker species in mussel haemolymph that could be used as health indicators. An elevated temperature may reduce the ability of bacterial elimination function against infection in mussel haemolymph.
Project description:Studies have suggested a lipid extract from hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) (HMLE) possessed strong anti-inflammatory activity in arthritis model of rats. This study investigated whether HMLE could improve clinical conditions of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Fifty rheumatoid arthritis patients (28-75 years) were randomly assigned to receive HMLE capsules or receive placebo capsules for 6 months. Forty-two subjects and 50 subjects were included in per-protocol and intention-to-treat analysis, respectively. Significant differences in changes on disease activity score (DAS28) and clinical disease activity index (CDAI) after 6-month intervention (p < 0.01) were observed in both analyses with more evident efficacy shown in per-protocol population (?DAS28 = 0.47; ?CDAI = 4.17), which favored the benefits of the HMLE group. TNF-? (tumor necrosis factor ?), interleukin (IL)-1? and PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) but not IL-6, were significantly decreased in both groups, and the decrements were much larger in the HMLE group for TNF-? and PGE2 after 6 months from baseline (p < 0.05). IL-10 was significantly increased in both groups and the change was much more evident in the HMLE group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, HMLE exhibited benefits for the clinical conditions of rheumatoid patients in relation to improvement in the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory factors, which indicated its potential to serve as adjunctive treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02173587).
Project description:The gut microbial community is critical for the host immune system, and in recent years, it has been extensively studied in vertebrates using 'omic' technologies. In contrast, knowledge about how the interactions between water temperature and diet affect the gut microbiota of marine invertebrates that do not thermoregulate is much less studied. In the present study, the effect of elevated seawater temperature and diet (Isochrysis zhanjiangensis and Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis) on the gut microbial community of the commercial mussel, Mytilus coruscus, was investigated. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the microbial community in M. coruscus gut. The mortality of M. coruscus exposed to a high water temperature (31°C) increased after 3 days and the diversity of the bacterial community in the gut of live M. coruscus was significantly reduced. For example, the abundance of Bacteroides (Bacteroidetes) and norank_Marinilabiaceae (Bacteroidetes) increased in the gut of M. coruscus fed I. zhanjiangensis. In M. coruscus fed P. helgolandica, the abundance of Arcobacter (Proteobacteria) and norank_Marinilabiaceae increased and the abundance of unclassified_Flavobacteriaceae (Bacteroidetes) decreased. The results obtained in the present study suggest that high temperatures favored the proliferation of opportunistic bacteria, including Bacteroides and Arcobacter, which may increase host susceptibility to disease. Microbial community composition of the gut in live M. coruscus was not impacted by the microalgal diet but it was modified in the group of mussels that died. The present study provides insight into the potential effects on the gut microbiome and mussel-bacteria interactions of rising seawater temperatures.
Project description:The increasing usage of nanoparticles has caused their considerable release into the aquatic environment. Meanwhile, anthropogenic CO2 emissions have caused a reduction of seawater pH. However, their combined effects on marine species have not been experimentally evaluated. This study estimated the physiological toxicity of nano-TiO2 in the mussel Mytilus coruscus under high pCO2 (2500-2600??atm). We found that respiration rate (RR), food absorption efficiency (AE), clearance rate (CR), scope for growth (SFG) and O:N ratio were significantly reduced by nano-TiO2, whereas faecal organic weight rate and ammonia excretion rate (ER) were increased under nano-TiO2 conditions. High pCO2 exerted lower effects on CR, RR, ER and O:N ratio than nano-TiO2. Despite this, significant interactions of CO2-induced pH change and nano-TiO2 were found in RR, ER and O:N ratio. PCA showed close relationships among most test parameters, i.e., RR, CR, AE, SFG and O:N ratio. The normal physiological responses were strongly correlated to a positive SFG with normal pH and no/low nano-TiO2 conditions. Our results indicate that physiological functions of M. coruscus are more severely impaired by the combination of nano-TiO2 and high pCO2.
Project description:The rising anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 results in the reduction of seawater pH, namely ocean acidification (OA). In East China Sea, the largest coastal hypoxic zone was observed in the world. This region is also strongly impacted by ocean acidification as receiving much nutrient from Changjiang and Qiantangjiang, and organisms can experience great short-term natural variability of DO and pH in this area. In order to evaluate the defense responses of marine mussels under this scenario, the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus were exposed to three pH/pCO2 levels (7.3/2800 ?atm, 7.7/1020 ?atm, 8.1/376 ?atm) at two dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO, 2.0, 6.0 mg L-1) for 72 h. Results showed that byssus thread parameters, such as the number, diameter, attachment strength and plaque area were reduced by low DO, and shell-closing strength was significantly weaker under both hypoxia and low pH conditions. Expression patterns of genes related to mussel byssus protein (MBP) were affected by hypoxia. Generally, hypoxia reduced MBP1 and MBP7 expressions, but increased MBP13 expression. In conclusion, both hypoxia and low pH induced negative effects on mussel defense responses, with hypoxia being the main driver of change. In addition, significant interactive effects between pH and DO were observed on shell-closing strength. Therefore, the adverse effects induced by hypoxia on the defense of mussels may be aggravated by low pH in the natural environments.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms that drive the development of the endangered fossil fish species Acipenser baeri are difficult to study due to the lack of genomic data. Recent advances in sequencing technologies and the reducing cost of sequencing offer exclusive opportunities for exploring important molecular mechanisms underlying specific biological processes. This manuscript describes the large scale sequencing and analyses of mRNA from Acipenser baeri collected at five development time points using the Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. The sequencing reads were de novo assembled and clustered into 278167 unigenes, of which 57346 (20.62%) had 45837 known homologues proteins in Uniprot protein databases while 11509 proteins matched with at least one sequence of assembled unigenes. The remaining 79.38% of unigenes could stand for non-coding unigenes or unigenes specific to A. baeri. A number of 43062 unigenes were annotated into functional categories via Gene Ontology (GO) annotation whereas 29526 unigenes were associated with 329 pathways by mapping to KEGG database. Subsequently, 3479 differentially expressed genes were scanned within developmental stages and clustered into 50 gene expression profiles. Genes preferentially expressed at each stage were also identified. Through GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, relevant physiological variations during the early development of A. baeri could be better cognized. Accordingly, the present study gives insights into the transcriptome profile of the early development of A. baeri, and the information contained in this large scale transcriptome will provide substantial references for A. baeri developmental biology and promote its aquaculture research.