Effects of stroke severity and treatment duration in normobaric hyperoxia treatment of ischemic stroke.
ABSTRACT: In order to improve clinical trial design and translation of normobaric oxygen (NBO) treatment of ischemic stroke, NBO treatment parameters need to be better understood. This study investigated NBO treatment efficacy at two different stroke severities and two NBO treatment durations in rats. For the 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), NBO treatment for 25 min and 150 min were studied. For the 90-min MCAO, NBO treatment for 55 min and 150 min were studied. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and T2 MRI were acquired during occlusion prior to treatment, after reperfusion, and 48h after MCAO. The effects of NBO treatment on lesion volumes, and CBF, ADC and T2 of ischemic core, perfusion-diffusion mismatch and normal tissue were analyzed longitudinally. The major findings were: i) NBO treatment was effective in both groups of stroke severities, salvaging similar percentage of initial abnormal ADC tissue, and ii) NBO treatments continued after reperfusion were more beneficial than NBO treatment during occlusion alone for both MCAO groups. These findings underscore the importance of the effects of NBO duration and stroke severity on treatment outcomes.
Project description:Oxygen therapy is a promising treatment strategy for ischemic stroke. One potential safety concern with oxygen therapy, however, is the possibility of increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which could exacerbate ischemic brain injury. Our previous study indicated that normobaric hyperoxia (NBO, 95% O(2) with 5% CO(2)) treatment during ischemia salvaged ischemic brain tissue and significantly reduced ROS generation in transient experimental stroke. In this follow-up study, we tested the hypothesis that suppression of NADPH oxidase is an important mechanism for NBO-induced reduction of ROS generation in focal cerebral ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given NBO (95% O(2)) or normoxia (21% O(2)) during 90-min filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, followed by 22.5-hour reperfusion. NBO treatment increased the tissue oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) level in the ischemic penumbra close to the pre-ischemic value, as measured by electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and led to a 30.2% reduction in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) lesion volume. Real time PCR and western blot analyses showed that the mRNA and protein expression of NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91(phox) were upregulated in the ischemic brain, which was significantly inhibited by NBO. As a consequence of gp91(phox) inhibition, NBO treatment reduced NADPH oxidase activity in the ischemic brain. Our results suggest that NBO treatment given during ischemia reduces ROS generation via inhibiting NADPH oxidase, which may serve as an important mechanism underlying NBO's neuroprotection in acute ischemic stroke.
Project description:Accurate prediction of ischemic tissue fate could aid clinical decision-making in the treatment of acute stroke. We investigated predictions of tissue fate for three (30-min, 60-min and permanent) stroke models in rats. Quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and spin-spin relaxation time constant (T(2)) were acquired during the acute phase and at the end point followed by histological examination. Probability-of-infarct profiles based on ADC and CBF data were constructed using a training dataset. Probability-of-infarct maps were predicted using only acute stroke data from a separate experimental dataset, revealing the likelihood of future infarction. Performance measures of sensitivity and specificity showed accurate predictions. Sensitivities (mean +/- SD) for the 30-min, 60-min and permanent stroke were, respectively, 82 +/- 6%, 82 +/- 7%, and 86 +/- 4%, specificities were 83 +/- 5%, 86 +/- 5%, and 89 +/- 6%, and the areas under the receiver operating curve were 87 +/- 3%, 90 +/- 4%, and 93 +/- 3%. Importantly, to improve prediction accuracy, we took into account regional susceptibility to infarction. Spatial frequency-of-infarct maps were constructed and predictions were made by taking the weighted average of the probability-of-infarct map and spatial frequency-of-infarct map. The optimal weighting coefficient of spatial frequency-of-infarct was small (10%) for the permanent occlusion group but surprisingly large (40%) for the reperfusion groups, indicating that regional susceptibility of infarction was important for accurate prediction in reperfusion stroke. We concluded that the likelihood of cerebral infarction in rats can be accurately predicted and that accounting for regional susceptibility of infarct further improves prediction accuracy. Predictive models have the potential to provide a valuable quantitative framework for clinicians to consider different stroke treatment options.
Project description:Recanalization of an occluded vessel with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is an effective strategy for treating acute ischemic stroke. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is administered as alteplase, a formulation containing many excipients including L-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide production. Most studies fail to compare the effects of alteplase on brain injury to its L-arginine carrier solution. This study aimed to verify the previously reported detrimental effects of alteplase after cerebral ischemia and delineate the contribution of L-arginine. Male Wistar rats, subjected to 90?minutes of intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), were administered alteplase, the carrier solution or saline upon reperfusion. Neither alteplase nor the carrier affected cerebral blood flow (CBF) restoration throughout the first 60?minutes of reperfusion. Alteplase treatment was associated with increased mortality after MCAO. Twenty-four hours after MCAO, neurologic function and infarct volume did not differ between rats treated with alteplase, the carrier solution, or saline. Irrespective of treatment group, infarct volume was correlated with CBF during reperfusion, neuroscore, and peri-infarct depolarizations. These results suggest that alteplase treatment, independent of thrombolysis, does not cause increased ischemic injury compared with its appropriate carrier solution, supporting the continued use of alteplase in eligible ischemic stroke patients.
Project description:The intraluminal filament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice and rats has been plagued by inconsistency, owing in part to the multitude of variables requiring control. In this study we investigated the impact of several major variables on survival rate, lesion volume, neurological scores, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and body weight including filament width, time after reperfusion, occlusion time and the choice of surgical method. Using the Koizumi method, we found ischemic injury can be detected as early as 30 min after reperfusion, to a degree that is not statistically different from 24 h post-perfusion, using 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. We also found a distinct increase in total lesion volume with increasing occlusion time, with 30-45 min a critical time for the development of large, reproducible lesions. Furthermore, although we found no significant difference in total lesion volume generated by the Koizumi and Longa methods of MCAO, nor were survival rates appreciably different between the two at 4 h after reperfusion, the Longa method produces significantly greater reperfusion. Finally, we found no statistical evidence to support the exclusion of data from animals experiencing a CBF reduction of <70% in the MCA territory following MCAO, using laser-Doppler flowmetry. Instead we suggest the main usefulness of laser-Doppler flowmetry is for guiding filament placement and the identification of subarachnoid haemorrhages and premature reperfusion. In summary, this study provides detailed evaluation of the Koizumi method of intraluminal filament MCAO in mice and a direct comparison to the Longa method.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Currently there is no approved anticoagulant for treating acute stroke. This is largely because of concern for hemorrhagic complications, and suggests a critical need for safer anticoagulants. Solulin is a soluble analog of the endothelial cell receptor thrombomodulin, able to bind free thrombin and convert it to an activator of the anticoagulant, protein C.<h4>Objective</h4> Solulin was tested for its ability to inhibit middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced by photothrombosis, and to restore MCA patency after establishment of stable occlusion.<h4>Methods</h4> Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was monitored by laser Doppler for 1.5 h after occlusion and again 72 h later.<h4>Results</h4> Solulin treatment 30 min before thrombosis resulted in an approximately 50% increase in time to form a stable occlusion. When administered 30 or 60 min after MCAO, Solulin significantly improved CBF within 90 min of treatment. In contrast, none of the vehicle-treated mice showed restoration of CBF in the first 90 min and only 17% did so by 72 h. Solulin treatment was associated with a significant reduction in infarct volume, and was well tolerated with no overt hemorrhage observed in any treatment group. Mechanistic studies in mice homozygous for the factor (F)V Leiden mutation, suggest that Solulin's efficacy derives primarily from the anticoagulant activity of the thrombin-Solulin complex and not from direct anti-inflammatory or neuroprotective effects of Solulin or activated protein C.<h4>Conclusions</h4> Our data indicate that Solulin is a safe and effective anticoagulant that is able to antagonize active thrombosis in acute ischemic stroke, and to reduce infarct volume.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Ischemic stroke is a global burden that contributes to the disability and mortality of millions of patients. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of combined MB (methylene blue) and NBO (normobaric hyperoxia) therapy in experimental ischemic stroke. METHODS:Rats with transient (60 min) MCAO (middle cerebral artery occlusion) were treated with: (1) air + vehicle (N = 8), (2) air + MB (N = 8), (3) NBO + vehicle (N = 7), and (4) NBO + MB (N = 9). MB (1 mg/kg) was administered at 30 min, again on days 2, 7, and 14 after stroke. NBO was given during MRI (30-150 min) on day 0, and again 1 h each during MRI on subsequent days. Serial diffusion, perfusion and T2 MRI were performed to evaluate lesion volumes. Foot-fault and cylinder tests were performed to evaluate sensorimotor function. RESULTS:The major findings were: (1) NBO + MB therapy showed a greater decrease in infarct volume compared to NBO alone, but similar infarct volume compared to MB alone, (2) NBO + MB therapy accelerated sensorimotor functional recovery compared to NBO or MB alone, (3) Infarct volumes on day 2 did not change significantly from those on day 28 for all four groups, but behavioral function continued to show improved recovery in the NBO + MB group. CONCLUSIONS:These findings support the hypothesis that combined NBO + MB further improves functional outcome and reduces infarct volume compared to either treatment alone and these improvements extended up to 28 days.
Project description:Following middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke, enhanced contralesional evoked responses have been consistently reported both in man and rodents as part of plastic processes thought to influence motor recovery. How early this marker of large-scale network reorganization develops has however been little addressed, yet has clinical relevance for rehabilitation strategies targeting plasticity. Previous work in mice has reported enhanced contralesional responses to unaffected-side forepaw stimulation as early as 45 min after MCA small branch occlusion. Using functional ultrasound imaging (fUSi) in anesthetized rats subjected to distal temporary MCA occlusion (MCAo), we assessed here (i) whether enhanced contralesional responses also occurred with unaffected-side whisker pad stimulation, and if so, how early after MCAo; and (ii) the time course of this abnormal response during occlusion and after reperfusion. We replicate in a more proximal MCA occlusion model the earlier findings of ultra-early enhanced contralesional evoked responses. In addition, we document this phenomenon within minutes after MCAo, and its persistence throughout the entire 90-min occlusion as well as 90-min reperfusion periods studied. These findings suggest that plastic processes may start within minutes following MCAo in rodents. If replicated in man, they might have implications regarding how early plasticity-enhancing therapies can be initiated after stroke.
Project description:Despite improvements in imaging techniques, it remains challenging to quantitatively assess the time of ischemic onset of an acute ischemic stroke. It is crucial to evaluate the early signs of infarction, which are predictive of responses to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within a treatment window of 4.5 h after stroke induction. The aim of the present study was to assess and quantify the onset time for hyperacute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) ischemic stroke by measuring the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of diffusion?weighted imaging (DWI) and 1H?magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 7.0 T. DWI, conventional T2?weighted imaging (T2WI) and subsequent focal ADCs were employed to evaluate ischemic brain lesions in a rat model of MCAO (n=20) at different time?points following a stroke. A quantitation of local changes in metabolite concentrations within the lesions was performed using MRS. Proton metabolites were quantified automatically using LCModel software. At 30 min after MCAO, intense signals were observed in the DWI spectra of all animals. No abnormal signal was observed within 3 h by T2WI. ADC images of the central area, peripheral striping and on the fringes of the infarction demonstrated a lower signal than that of the normal side. The ADC decreased significantly within 30 min after infarction, followed by a gradual elevation in volatility levels and then becoming relatively stable at a lower level 3 h later. MRS exhibited a consistent elevation of lactate and reduced N?acetyl aspartic acid. Glutamate and taurine reached a maximum 2 h after MCAO and began to decrease 1 h later. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that hyperacute ischemic stroke can be quantitatively detected with the application of ADC, DWI and MRS. These methods may also be used to quantitatively assess the ischemic onset time of a hyperacute stroke.
Project description:Cerebral blood flow and oxygenation in the first few hours after reperfusion following ischemic stroke are critical for therapeutic interventions but are not well understood. We investigate changes in oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) concentration in the cortex during and after ischemic stroke, using multispectral optical imaging in anesthetized mice, a remote filament to induce either 30 minute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), sham surgery or anesthesia alone. Immunohistochemistry establishes cortical injury and correlates the severity of damage with the change of oxygen perfusion. All groups were imaged for 6 hours after MCAo or sham surgery. Oxygenation maps were calculated using a pathlength scaling algorithm. The MCAo group shows a significant drop in HbO2 during occlusion and an initial increase after reperfusion. Over the subsequent 6 hours HbO2 concentrations decline to levels below those observed during stroke. Platelets, activated microglia, interleukin-1?, evidence of BBB breakdown and neuronal stress increase within the stroked hemisphere and correlate with the severity of the delayed reperfusion deficit but not with the ?HbO2 during stroke. Despite initial restoration of HbO2 after 30 min MCAo there is a delayed compromise that coincides with inflammation and could be a target for improved stroke outcome after thrombolysis.
Project description:Ticagrelor is a direct acting and reversibly binding P2Y12 antagonist approved for the prevention of thromboembolic events. Its potential benefits in ischemic stroke have not been investigated sufficiently. Mice were subjected to 2 hours of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Mice were orally treated with ticagrelor (10 or 30 mg/kg), aspirin (60 mg/kg), or vehicle at 3 and 24 hours before MCAO and 0 and 6 hours after reperfusion. The infarct volume and neurological deficits 22 hours after reperfusion were evaluated. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) within 24 hours after MCAO was monitored. We performed western blotting and in vitro analysis using oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) stress in human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMVECs) to investigate the protective effects of ticagrelor. Ticagrelor (30 mg/kg) improved neurological deficits, reduced the infarct volume, and improved CBF. It promoted the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) during the early phase after reperfusion. Increased phosphorylation of eNOS and ERK1/2 were also observed in HBMVECs after OGD stress. Ticagrelor attenuate ischemia reperfusion injury possibly via phosphorylation of eNOS and ERK1/2 in endothelial cells. This suggests that ticagrelor has neuroprotective effects via mechanisms other than its antiplatelet action.