Meigo governs dendrite targeting specificity by modulating ephrin level and N-glycosylation.
ABSTRACT: Neural circuit assembly requires precise dendrite and axon targeting. We identified an evolutionarily conserved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein, Meigo, from a mosaic genetic screen in Drosophila melanogaster. Meigo was cell-autonomously required in olfactory receptor neurons and projection neurons to target their axons and dendrites to the lateral antennal lobe and to refine projection neuron dendrites into individual glomeruli. Loss of Meigo induced an unfolded protein response and reduced the amount of neuronal cell surface proteins, including Ephrin. Ephrin overexpression specifically suppressed the projection neuron dendrite refinement defect present in meigo mutant flies, and ephrin knockdown caused a similar projection neuron dendrite refinement defect. Meigo positively regulated the level of Ephrin N-glycosylation, which was required for its optimal function in vivo. Thus, Meigo, an ER-resident protein, governs neuronal targeting specificity by regulating ER folding capacity and protein N-glycosylation. Furthermore, Ephrin appears to be an important substrate that mediates Meigo's function in refinement of glomerular targeting.
Project description:During assembly of the Drosophila olfactory circuit, projection neuron (PN) dendrites prepattern the developing antennal lobe before the arrival of axons from their presynaptic partners, the adult olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs). We previously found that levels of transmembrane Semaphorin-1a, which acts as a receptor, instruct PN dendrite targeting along the dorsolateral-ventromedial axis. Here we show that two secreted semaphorins, Sema-2a and Sema-2b, provide spatial cues for PN dendrite targeting. Sema-2a and Sema-2b proteins are distributed in gradients opposing the Sema-1a protein gradient, and Sema-1a binds to Sema-2a-expressing cells. In Sema-2a and Sema-2b double mutants, PN dendrites that normally target dorsolaterally in the antennal lobe mistarget ventromedially, phenocopying cell-autonomous Sema-1a removal from these PNs. Cell ablation, cell-specific knockdown, and rescue experiments indicate that secreted semaphorins from degenerating larval ORN axons direct dendrite targeting. Thus, a degenerating brain structure instructs the wiring of a developing circuit through the repulsive action of secreted semaphorins.
Project description:Neurons receive excitatory or sensory inputs through their dendrites, which often branch extensively to form unique neuron-specific structures. How neurons regulate the formation of their particular arbor is only partially understood. In genetic screens using the multidendritic arbor of PVD somatosensory neurons in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified a mutation in the ER stress sensor IRE-1/Ire1 (inositol requiring enzyme 1) as crucial for proper PVD dendrite arborization in vivo. We further found that regulation of dendrite growth in cultured rat hippocampal neurons depends on Ire1 function, showing an evolutionarily conserved role for IRE-1/Ire1 in dendrite patterning. PVD neurons of nematodes lacking ire-1 display reduced arbor complexity, whereas mutations in genes encoding other ER stress sensors displayed normal PVD dendrites, specifying IRE-1 as a selective ER stress sensor that is essential for PVD dendrite morphogenesis. Although structure function analyses indicated that IRE-1's nuclease activity is necessary for its role in dendrite morphogenesis, mutations in xbp-1, the best-known target of non-canonical splicing by IRE-1/Ire1, do not exhibit PVD phenotypes. We further determined that secretion and distal localization to dendrites of the DMA-1/leucine rich transmembrane receptor (DMA-1/LRR-TM) is defective in ire-1 but not xbp-1 mutants, suggesting a block in the secretory pathway. Interestingly, reducing Insulin/IGF1 signaling can bypass the secretory block and restore normal targeting of DMA-1, and consequently normal PVD arborization even in the complete absence of functional IRE-1. This bypass of ire-1 requires the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. In sum, our work identifies a conserved role for ire-1 in neuronal branching, which is independent of xbp-1, and suggests that arborization defects associated with neuronal pathologies may be overcome by reducing Insulin/IGF signaling and improving ER homeostasis and function.
Project description:Refinement of the nervous system depends on selective removal of excessive axons/dendrites, a process known as pruning. Drosophila ddaC sensory neurons prune their larval dendrites via endo-lysosomal degradation of the L1-type cell adhesion molecule (L1-CAM), Neuroglian (Nrg). Here, we have identified a novel gene, pruning defect 1 (prd1), which governs dendrite pruning of ddaC neurons. We show that Prd1 colocalizes with the clathrin adaptor protein ?-Adaptin (?-Ada) and the kinesin-3 immaculate connections (Imac)/Uncoordinated-104 (Unc-104) in dendrites. Moreover, Prd1 physically associates with ?-Ada and Imac, which are both critical for dendrite pruning. Prd1, ?-Ada, and Imac promote dendrite pruning via the regulation of endo-lysosomal degradation of Nrg. Importantly, genetic interactions among prd1, ?-adaptin, and imac indicate that they act in the same pathway to promote dendrite pruning. Our findings indicate that Prd1, ?-Ada, and Imac act together to regulate discrete distribution of ?-Ada/clathrin puncta, facilitate endo-lysosomal degradation, and thereby promote dendrite pruning in sensory neurons.
Project description:Proper neuronal circuit function relies on precise dendritic projection, which is established through activity-dependent refinement during early postnatal development. Here we revealed dynamics of dendritic refinement in the mammalian brain by conducting long-term imaging of the neonatal mouse barrel cortex. By "retrospective" analyses, we identified "prospective" barrel-edge spiny stellate (SS) neurons in early neonates, which had an apical dendrite and primitive basal dendrites (BDs). These neurons retracted the apical dendrite gradually and established strong BD orientation bias through continuous "dendritic tree" turnover. A greater chance of survival was given to BD trees emerged in the barrel-center side, where thalamocortical axons (TCAs) cluster. When the spatial bias of TCA inputs to SS neurons was lost, BD tree turnover was suppressed, and most BD trees became stable and elaborated mildly. Thus, barrel-edge SS neurons could establish the characteristic BD projection pattern through differential dynamics of dendritic trees induced by spatially biased inputs.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is characterized by interconnected tubules and sheets. Neuronal ER adopts specific morphology in axons, dendrites and soma. Here we study mechanisms underlying ER morphogenesis in a C. elegans sensory neuron PVD. In PVD soma and dendrite branch points, ER tubules connect to form networks. ER tubules fill primary dendrites but only extend to some but not all dendritic branches. We find that the Atlastin-1 ortholog, atln-1 is required for neuronal ER morphology. In atln-1 mutants with impaired GTPase activity, ER networks in soma and dendrite branch points are reduced and replaced by tubules, and ER tubules retracted from high-order dendritic branches, causing destabilized microtubule in these branches. The abnormal ER morphology likely causes defects in mitochondria fission at dendritic branch points. Mutant alleles of Atlastin-1 found in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) patients show similar ER phenotypes, suggesting that neuronal ER impairment contributes to HSP disease pathogenesis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Developing neurons form dendritic trees with cell type-specific patterns of growth, branching and targeting. Dendrites of Drosophila peripheral sensory neurons have emerged as a premier genetic model, though the molecular mechanisms that underlie and regulate their morphogenesis remain incompletely understood. Still less is known about this process in central neurons and the extent to which central and peripheral dendrites share common organisational principles and molecular features. To address these issues, we have carried out two comparable gain-of-function screens for genes that influence dendrite morphologies in peripheral dendritic arborisation (da) neurons and central RP2 motor neurons. RESULTS:We found 35 unique loci that influenced da neuron dendrites, including five previously shown as required for da dendrite patterning. Several phenotypes were class-specific and many resembled those of known mutants, suggesting that genes identified in this study may converge with and extend known molecular pathways for dendrite development in da neurons. The second screen used a novel technique for cell-autonomous gene misexpression in RP2 motor neurons. We found 51 unique loci affecting RP2 dendrite morphology, 84% expressed in the central nervous system. The phenotypic classes from both screens demonstrate that gene misexpression can affect specific aspects of dendritic development, such as growth, branching and targeting. We demonstrate that these processes are genetically separable. Targeting phenotypes were specific to the RP2 screen, and we propose that dendrites in the central nervous system are targeted to territories defined by Cartesian co-ordinates along the antero-posterior and the medio-lateral axes of the central neuropile. Comparisons between the screens suggest that the dendrites of peripheral da and central RP2 neurons are shaped by regulatory programs that only partially overlap. We focused on one common candidate pathway controlled by the ecdysone receptor, and found that it promotes branching and growth of developing da neuron dendrites, but a role in RP2 dendrite development during embryonic and early larval stages was not apparent. CONCLUSION:We identified commonalities (for example, growth and branching) and distinctions (for example, targeting and ecdysone response) in the molecular and organizational framework that underlies dendrite development of peripheral and central neurons.
Project description:Pruning that selectively eliminates neuronal processes is crucial for the refinement of neural circuits during development. In Drosophila, the class IV dendritic arborization neuron (ddaC) undergoes pruning to remove its larval dendrites during metamorphosis. We identified Sox14 as a transcription factor that was necessary and sufficient to mediate dendrite severing during pruning in response to ecdysone signaling. We found that Sox14 mediated dendrite pruning by directly regulating the expression of the target gene mical. mical Encodes a large cytosolic protein with multiple domains that are known to associate with cytoskeletal components. mical Mutants had marked severing defects during dendrite pruning that were similar to those of sox14 mutants. Overexpression of Mical could significantly rescue pruning defects in sox14 mutants, suggesting that Mical is a major downstream target of Sox14 during pruning. Thus, our findings indicate that a previously unknown pathway composed of Sox14 and its cytoskeletal target Mical governs dendrite severing.
Project description:As the neural network becomes wired, postsynaptic signaling molecules are thought to control the growth of dendrites and synapses. However, how these molecules are coordinated to sculpt postsynaptic structures is less well understood. We find that ephrin-B3, a transmembrane ligand for Eph receptors, functions postsynaptically as a receptor to transduce reverse signals into developing dendrites of mouse hippocampal neurons. Both tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent GRB4 SH2/SH3 adaptor-mediated signals and PSD-95-discs large-zona occludens-1 (PDZ) domain-dependent signals are required for inhibition of dendrite branching, whereas only PDZ interactions are necessary for spine formation and excitatory synaptic function. PICK1 and syntenin, two PDZ domain proteins, participate with ephrin-B3 in these postsynaptic activities. PICK1 has a specific role in spine and synapse formation, and syntenin promotes both dendrite pruning and synapse formation to build postsynaptic structures that are essential for neural circuits. The study thus dissects ephrin-B reverse signaling into three distinct intracellular pathways and protein-protein interactions that mediate the maturation of postsynaptic neurons.
Project description:Olfactory systems utilize discrete neural pathways to process and integrate odorant information. In Drosophila, axons of first-order olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) and dendrites of second-order projection neurons (PNs) form class-specific synaptic connections at approximately 50 glomeruli. The mechanisms underlying PN dendrite targeting to distinct glomeruli in a three-dimensional discrete neural map are unclear. We found that the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) transmembrane protein Capricious (Caps) was differentially expressed in different classes of PNs. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies indicated that Caps instructs the segregation of Caps-positive and Caps-negative PN dendrites to discrete glomerular targets. Moreover, Caps-mediated PN dendrite targeting was independent of presynaptic ORNs and did not involve homophilic interactions. The closely related protein Tartan was partially redundant with Caps. These LRR proteins are probably part of a combinatorial cell-surface code that instructs discrete olfactory map formation.
Project description:During development, dendrites migrate to their correct locations in response to environmental cues. The mechanisms of dendritic guidance are poorly understood. Recent work has shown that the Drosophila olfactory map is initially formed by the spatial segregation of the projection neuron (PN) dendrites in the developing antennal lobe (AL). We report here that between 16 and 30 h after puparium formation, the PN dendrites undergo dramatic rotational reordering to achieve their final glomerular positions. During this period, a novel set of AL-extrinsic neurons express high levels of the Wnt5 protein and are tightly associated with the dorsolateral edge of the AL. Wnt5 forms a dorsolateral-high to ventromedial-low pattern in the antennal lobe neuropil. Loss of Wnt5 prevents the ventral targeting of the dendrites, whereas Wnt5 overexpression disrupts dendritic patterning. We find that Drl/Ryk, a known Wnt5 receptor, is expressed in a dorsolateral-to-ventromedial (DL > VM) gradient by the PN dendrites. Loss of Drl in the PNs results in the aberrant ventromedial targeting of the dendrites, a defect that is suppressed by reduction in Wnt5 gene dosage. Conversely, overexpression of Drl in the PNs results in the dorsolateral targeting of their dendrites, an effect that requires Drl's cytoplasmic domain. We propose that Wnt5 acts as a repulsive guidance cue for the PN dendrites, whereas Drl signaling in the dendrites inhibits Wnt5 signaling. In this way, the precise expression patterns of Wnt5 and Drl orient the PN dendrites allowing them to target their final glomerular positions.