Overlapping Yet Response-Specific Transcriptome Alterations Characterize the Nature of Tobacco-Pseudomonas syringae Interactions.
ABSTRACT: In this study transcriptomic alterations of bacterially induced pattern triggered immunity (PTI) were compared with other types of tobacco-Pseudomonas interactions. In addition, using pharmacological agents we blocked some signal transduction pathways (Ca(2+) influx, kinases, phospholipases, proteasomic protein degradation) to find out how they contribute to gene expression during PTI. PTI is the first defense response of plant cells to microbes, elicited by their widely conserved molecular patterns. Tobacco is an important model of Solanaceae to study resistance responses, including defense mechanisms against bacteria. In spite of these facts the transcription regulation of tobacco genes during different types of plant bacterial interactions is not well-described. In this paper we compared the tobacco transcriptomic alterations in microarray experiments induced by (i) PTI inducer Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae type III secretion mutant (hrcC) at earlier (6 h post inoculation) and later (48 hpi) stages of defense, (ii) wild type P. syringae (6 hpi) that causes effector triggered immunity (ETI) and cell death (HR), and (iii) disease-causing P. syringae pv. tabaci (6 hpi). Among the different treatments the highest overlap was between the PTI and ETI at 6 hpi, however, there were groups of genes with specifically altered activity for either type of defenses. Instead of quantitative effects of the virulent P. tabaci on PTI-related genes it influenced transcription qualitatively and blocked the expression changes of a special set of genes including ones involved in signal transduction and transcription regulation. P. tabaci specifically activated or repressed other groups of genes seemingly not related to either PTI or ETI. Kinase and phospholipase A inhibitors had highest impacts on the PTI response and effects of these signal inhibitors on transcription greatly overlapped. Remarkable interactions of phospholipase C-related pathways with the proteasomal system were also observable. Genes specifically affected by virulent P. tabaci belonged to various previously identified signaling routes, suggesting that compatible pathogens may modulate diverse signaling pathways of PTI to overcome plant defense.
Project description:The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae injects about 30 different virulence proteins, so-called effectors, via a type III secretion system into plant cells to promote disease. Although some of these effectors are known to suppress either pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) or effector-triggered immunity (ETI), the mode of action of most of them remains unknown. Here, we used transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, to test the abilities of type III effectors of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Pta) 11528 to interfere with plant immunity. We monitored the sequential and rapid bursts of cytoplasmic Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species (ROS), the subsequent induction of defense gene expression, and promotion of cell death. We found that several effector proteins caused cell death, but independently of the known plant immune regulator NbSGT1, a gene essential for ETI. Furthermore, many effectors delayed or blocked the cell death-promoting activity of other effectors, thereby potentially contributing to pathogenesis. Secondly, a large number of effectors were able to suppress PAMP-induced defense responses. In the majority of cases, this resulted in suppression of all studied PAMP responses, suggesting that these effectors target common elements of PTI. However, effectors also targeted different steps within defense pathways and could be divided into three major groups based on their suppressive activities. Finally, the abilities of effectors of both Pto DC3000 and Pta 11528 to suppress plant immunity was conserved in most but not all cases. Overall, our data present a comprehensive picture of the mode of action of these effectors and indicate that most of them suppress plant defenses in various ways.
Project description:Plant-pathogen interactions involve sophisticated action and counteraction strategies from both parties. Plants can recognize pathogen derived molecules, such as conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and effector proteins, and subsequently activate PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), respectively. However, pathogens can evade such recognitions and suppress host immunity with effectors, causing effector-triggered susceptibility (ETS). The differences among PTI, ETS, and ETI have not been completely understood. Toward a better understanding of PTI, ETS, and ETI, we systematically examined various defense-related phenotypes of Arabidopsis infected with different Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326 strains, using the virulence strain DG3 to induce ETS, the avirulence strain DG34 that expresses avrRpm1 (recognized by the resistance protein RPM1) to induce ETI, and HrcC(-) that lacks the type three secretion system to activate PTI. We found that plants infected with different strains displayed dynamic differences in the accumulation of the defense signaling molecule salicylic acid, expression of the defense marker gene PR1, cell death formation, and accumulation/localization of the reactive oxygen species, H2O2. The differences between PTI, ETS, and ETI are dependent on the doses of the strains used. These data support the quantitative nature of PTI, ETS, and ETI and they also reveal qualitative differences between PTI, ETS, and ETI. Interestingly, we observed the induction of large cells in the infected leaves, most obviously with HrcC(-) at later infection stages. The enlarged cells have increased DNA content, suggesting a possible activation of endoreplication. Consistent with strong induction of abnormal cell growth by HrcC(-), we found that the PTI elicitor flg22 also activates abnormal cell growth, depending on a functional flg22-receptor FLS2. Thus, our study has revealed a comprehensive picture of dynamic changes of defense phenotypes and cell fate determination during Arabidopsis-P. syringae interactions, contributing to a better understanding of plant defense mechanisms.
Project description:As sessile organisms, plants have developed sophisticated system to defend themselves against microbial attack. Since plants do not have specialized immune cells, all plant cells appear to have the innate ability to recognize pathogens and turn on an appropriate defense response. The plant innate immune system has two major branches: PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular patterns)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). The ability to discriminate between self and non-self is a fundamental feature of living organisms, and it is a prerequisite for the activation of plant defenses specific to microbial infection. Arabidopsis cells express receptors that detect extracellular molecules or structures of the microbes, which are called collectively PAMPs and activate PTI. However, nucleotidebinding site leucine-rich repeats (NB-LRR) proteins mediated ETI is induced by direct or indirect recognition of effector molecules encoded by avr genes. In Arabidopsis, plasmamembrane localized multifunctional protein RIN4 (RPM1interacting protein 4) plays important role in both PTI and ETI. Previous studies have suggested that RIN4 functions as a negative regulator of PTI. In addition, many different bacterial effector proteins modify RIN4 to destabilize plant immunity and several NB-LRR proteins, including RPM1 (resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola 1), RPS2 (resistance to P. syringae 2) guard RIN4. This review summarizes the current studies that have described signaling mechanism of RIN4 function, modification of RIN4 by bacterial effectors and different interacting partner of RIN4 in defense related pathway. In addition, the emerging role of the RIN4 in plant physiology and intercellular signaling as it presents in exosomes will be discussed.
Project description:Plants have evolved a two-layered immune system consisting of pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). PTI and ETI are functionally linked, but also have distinct characteristics. Unraveling how these immune systems coordinate plant responses against pathogens is crucial for understanding the regulatory mechanisms underlying plant defense. Here we report integrative proteomic and phosphoproteomic analyses of the tomato-<i>Pseudomonas syringae (Pst)</i> pathosystem with different <i>Pst</i> mutants that allow the dissection of PTI and ETI. A total of 225 proteins and 79 phosphopeptides differentially accumulated in tomato leaves during <i>Pst</i> infection. The abundances of many proteins and phosphoproteins changed during PTI or ETI, and some responses were triggered by both PTI and ETI. For most proteins, the ETI response was more robust than the PTI response. The patterns of protein abundance and phosphorylation changes revealed key regulators involved in Ca<sup>2+</sup> signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades, reversible protein phosphorylation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox homeostasis, transcription and protein turnover, transport and trafficking, cell wall remodeling, hormone biosynthesis and signaling, suggesting their common or specific roles in PTI and/or ETI. A NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC family) domain protein and lipid particle serine esterase, two PTI-specific genes identified from previous transcriptomic work, were not detected as differentially regulated at the protein level and were not induced by PTI. Based on integrative transcriptomics and proteomics data, as well as qRT-PCR analysis, several potential PTI and ETI-specific markers are proposed. These results provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms underlying PTI and ETI in the tomato-<i>Pst</i> pathosystem, and will promote future validation and application of the disease biomarkers in plant defense.
Project description:To study the role of type III-secreted effectors in the host adaptation of the tobacco (Nicotiana sp.) pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, a selection of seven strains was first characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine their phylogenetic affinity. MLST revealed that all strains represented a tight phylogenetic group and that the most closely related strain with a completely sequenced genome was the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) pathogen P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A. Using primers designed to 21 P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A effector genes, it was determined that P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A shared at least 10 effectors with all tested P. syringae pv. tabaci strains. Six of the 11 effectors that failed to amplify from P. syringae pv. tabaci strains were individually expressed in one P. syringae pv. tabaci strain. Although five effectors had no effect on phenotype, growth in planta and disease severity of the transgenic P. syringae pv. tabaci expressing hopQ1-1(Pph1448A) were significantly increased in bean, but reduced in tobacco. We conclude that hopQ1-1 has been retained in P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A, as this effector suppresses immunity in bean, whereas hopQ1-1 is missing from P. syringae pv. tabaci strains because it triggers defences in Nicotiana spp. This provides evidence that fine-tuning effector repertoires during host adaptation lead to a concomitant reduction in virulence in non-host species.
Project description:Unlike mammals with adaptive immunity, plants rely on their innate immunity based on pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) for pathogen defense. Reactive oxygen species, known to play crucial roles in PTI and ETI, can perturb cellular redox homeostasis and lead to changes of redox-sensitive proteins through modification of cysteine sulfhydryl groups. Although redox regulation of protein functions has emerged as an important mechanism in several biological processes, little is known about redox proteins and how they function in PTI and ETI. In this study, cysTMT proteomics technology was used to identify similarities and differences of protein redox modifications in tomato resistant (PtoR) and susceptible (prf3) genotypes in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) infection. In addition, the results of the redox changes were compared and corrected with the protein level changes. A total of 90 potential redox-regulated proteins were identified with functions in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, biosynthesis of cysteine, sucrose and brassinosteroid, cell wall biogenesis, polysaccharide/starch biosynthesis, cuticle development, lipid metabolism, proteolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, protein targeting to vacuole, and oxidation-reduction. This inventory of previously unknown protein redox switches in tomato pathogen defense lays a foundation for future research toward understanding the biological significance of protein redox modifications in plant defense responses.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Pattern Triggered Immunity (PTI) or Basal Resistance (BR) is a potent, symptomless form of plant resistance. Upon inoculation of a plant with non-pathogens or pathogenicity-mutant bacteria, the induced PTI will prevent bacterial proliferation. Developed PTI is also able to protect the plant from disease or HR (Hypersensitive Response) after a challenging infection with pathogenic bacteria. Our aim was to reveal those PTI-related genes of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) that could possibly play a role in the protection of the plant from disease.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Leaves were infiltrated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae hrcC- mutant bacteria to induce PTI, and samples were taken 6 and 48 hours later. Subtraction Suppressive Hybridization (SSH) resulted in 156 PTI-activated genes. A cDNA microarray was generated from the SSH clone library. Analysis of hybridization data showed that in the early (6 hpi) phase of PTI, among others, genes of peroxidases, signalling elements, heat shock proteins and secondary metabolites were upregulated, while at the late phase (48 hpi) the group of proteolysis genes was newly activated. Microarray data were verified by real time RT-PCR analysis. Almost all members of the phenyl-propanoid pathway (PPP) possibly leading to lignin biosynthesis were activated. Specific inhibition of cinnamic-acid-4-hydroxylase (C4H), rate limiting enzyme of the PPP, decreased the strength of PTI--as shown by the HR-inhibition and electrolyte leakage tests. Quantification of cinnamate and p-coumarate by thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry supported specific changes in the levels of these metabolites upon elicitation of PTI.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>We believe to provide first report on PTI-related changes in the levels of these PPP metabolites. Results implicated an actual role of the upregulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway in the inhibition of bacterial pathogenic activity during PTI.
Project description:Pathogenic bacterial effectors suppress pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered host immunity, thereby promoting parasitism. In the presence of cognate resistance genes, it is proposed that plants detect the virulence activity of bacterial effectors and trigger a defense response, referred to here as effector-triggered immunity (ETI). However, the link between effector virulence and ETI at the molecular level is unknown. Here, we show that the Pseudomonas syringae effector AvrB suppresses PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) through RAR1, a co-chaperone of HSP90 required for ETI. AvrB expressed in plants lacking the cognate resistance gene RPM1 suppresses cell wall defense induced by the flagellar peptide flg22, a well known PAMP, and promotes the growth of nonpathogenic bacteria in a RAR1-dependent manner. rar1 mutants display enhanced cell wall defense in response to flg22, indicating that RAR1 negatively regulates PTI. Furthermore, coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicated that RAR1 and AvrB interact in the plant. The results demonstrate that RAR1 molecularly links PTI, effector virulence, and ETI. The study supports that both pathogen virulence and plant disease resistance have evolved around PTI.
Project description:Pseudomonas syringae is the most widespread bacterial pathogen in plants. Several strains of P. syringae produce a phytotoxin, coronatine (COR), which acts as a jasmonic acid mimic and inhibits plant defense responses and contributes to disease symptom development. In this study, we found that COR inhibits early defense responses during nonhost disease resistance. Stomatal closure induced by a nonhost pathogen, P. syringae pv. tabaci, was disrupted by COR in tomato epidermal peels. In addition, nonhost HR cell death triggered by P. syringae pv. tabaci on tomato was remarkably delayed when COR was supplemented along with P. syringae pv. tabaci inoculation. Using isochorismate synthase (ICS)-silenced tomato plants and transcript profiles of genes in SA- and JA-related defense pathways, we show that COR suppresses SA-mediated defense during nonhost resistance.
Project description:Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), a bacterial pathogen, is a severe threat to kiwifruit production. To elucidate the species-specific interaction between Psa and kiwifruit, transcriptomic-profiles analyses were conducted, under Psa-infected treatment and mock-inoculated control, on shoots of resistant Maohua (MH) and susceptible Hongyang (HY) kiwifruit varieties. The plant hormone-signal transduction and plant–pathogen interaction were significantly enriched in HY compared with MH. However, the starch and sucrose metabolism, antigen processing and presentation, phagosome, and galactose metabolism were significantly enriched in MH compared with HY. Interestingly, the MAP2 in the pathogen/microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-triggered immunity (PTI) was significantly up-regulated in MH. The genes RAR1, SUGT1, and HSP90A in the effector-triggered immunity (ETI), and the NPR1 and TGA genes involved in the salicylic acid signaling pathway as regulatory roles of ETI, were significantly up-regulated in HY. Other important genes, such as the CCRs involved in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, were highly expressed in MH, but some genes in the Ca2+ internal flow or involved in the reactive oxygen metabolism were obviously expressed in HY. These results suggested that the PTI and cell walls involved in defense mechanisms were significant in MH against Psa infection, while the ETI was notable in HY against Psa infection. This study will help to understand kiwifruit bacterial canker disease and provide important theoretical support in kiwifruit breeding.