SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b played similar but irreplaceable roles in regulating the biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza.
ABSTRACT: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which contains tanshinones and phenolic acids as major classes of bioactive components, is one of the most widely used herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. Production of tanshinones and phenolic acids is enhanced by methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Transcription factor MYC2 is the switch of jasmontes signaling in plants. Here, we focused on two novel JA-inducible genes in S. miltiorrhiza, designated as SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b, which were localized in the nucleus. SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b were also discovered to interact with SmJAZ1 and SmJAZ2, implying that the two MYC2s might function as direct targets of JAZ proteins. Ectopic RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown experiments suggested that SmMYC2a/b affected multiple genes in tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway. Besides, the accumulation of tanshinones and phenolic acids was impaired by the loss of function in SmMYC2a/b. Meanwhile, SmMYC2a could bind with an E-box motif within SmHCT6 and SmCYP98A14 promoters, while SmMYC2b bound with an E-box motif within SmCYP98A14 promoter, through which the regulation of phenolic acid biosynthetic pathway might achieve. Together, these results suggest that SmMYC2a and SmMYC2b are JAZ-interacting transcription factors that positively regulate the biosynthesis of tanshinones and Sal B with similar but irreplaceable effects.
Project description:Secondary metabolites from plants play key roles in human medicine and chemical industries. Due to limited accumulation of secondary metabolites in plants and their important roles, characterization of key enzymes involved in biosynthetic pathway will enable metabolic engineering or synthetic biology to improve or produce the compounds in plants or microorganisms, which provides an alternative for production of these valuable compounds. Salvia miltiorrhiza, containing tanshinones and phenolic acids as its active compounds, has been widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The biosynthetic analysis of secondary metabolites in S. miltiorrhiza has made great progress due to the successful genetic transformation system, simplified hairy roots system, and high-throughput sequencing. The cloned genes in S. miltiorrhiza had provided references for functional characterization of the post-modification steps involved in biosynthesis of tanshinones and phenolic acids, and further utilization of these steps in metabolic engineering. The strategies used in these studies could provide solid foundation for elucidation of biosynthetic pathways of diterpenoids and phenolic acids in other species. The present review systematically summarizes recent advances in biosynthetic pathway analysis of tanshinones and phenolic acids as well as synthetic biology and metabolic engineering applications of the rate-limiting genes involved in the secondary metabolism in S. miltiorrhiza.
Project description:Phenolic acids and tanshinones are two groups of bioactive ingredients in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. As a heavy metal elicitor, it has been reported that Ag+ can induce accumulations of both phenolic acids and tanshinones in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots. In this study, the effects of Ag+ treatment on accumulations of six phenolic acids and four tanshinones in S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots were investigated. To further elucidate the molecular mechanism, expressions of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of these ingredients were also detected. The results showed that although the total phenolic acids content was almost not affected by Ag+, accumulations of rosmarinic acid (RA), caffeic acid and ferulic acid were significantly increased, while accumulations of salvianolic acid B (LAB), danshensu (DSU) and cinnamic acid were decreased. We speculate that LAB probably derived from the branch pathway of DSU biosynthesis. Contents of four tanshinones were enhanced by Ag+ and their accumulations were more sensitive to Ag+ than phenolic acids. Genes in the upstream biosynthetic pathways of these ingredients responded to Ag+ earlier than those in the downstream biosynthetic pathways. Ag+ probably induced the whole pathways, upregulated gene expressions from the upstream pathways to the downstream pathways, and finally resulted in the enhancement of ingredient production. Compared with phenolic acids, tanshinone production was more sensitive to Ag+ treatments. This study will help us understand how secondary metabolism in S. miltiorrhiza responds to elicitors and provide a reference for the improvement of the production of targeted compounds in the near future.
Project description:Tanshinones and phenolic acids are crucial bioactive compounds biosynthesized in Salvia miltiorrhiza. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is an effective elicitor to enhance the production of phenolic acids and tanshinones simultaneously, while yeast extract (YE) is used as a biotic elicitor that only induce tanshinones accumulation. However, little was known about the different molecular mechanism. To identify the downstream and regulatory genes involved in tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthesis, we conducted comprehensive transcriptome profiling of S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots treated with either MeJA or YE. Total 55588 unigenes were assembled from about 1.72 billion clean reads, of which 42458 unigenes (76.4%) were successfully annotated. The expression patterns of 19 selected genes in the significantly upregulated unigenes were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. The candidate downstream genes and other cytochrome P450s involved in the late steps of tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthesis pathways were screened from the RNA-seq dataset based on co-expression pattern analysis with specific biosynthetic genes. Additionally, 375 transcription factors were identified to exhibit a significant up-regulated expression pattern in response to induction. This study can provide us a valuable gene resource for elucidating the molecular mechanism of tanshinones and phenolic acids biosynthesis in hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza.
Project description:Salvia miltiorrhiza is one of the most widely used traditional Chinese medicinal plants because of its excellent performance in treating heart diseases. Tanshinones and phenolic acids are two important classes of effective metabolites, and their biosynthesis has attracted widespread interest. Here, we functionally characterized SmGRAS1 and SmGRAS2, two GRAS family transcription factors from S. miltiorrhiza. SmGRAS1/2 were highly expressed in the root periderm, where tanshinones mainly accumulated in S. miltiorrhiza. Overexpression of SmGRAS1/2 upregulated tanshinones accumulation and downregulated GA, phenolic acids contents, and root biomass. However, antisense expression of SmGRAS1/2 reduced the tanshinones accumulation and increased the GA, phenolic acids contents, and root biomass. The expression patterns of biosynthesis genes were consistent with the changes in compounds accumulation. GA treatment increased tanshinones, phenolic acids, and GA contents in the overexpression lines, and restored the root growth inhibited by overexpressing SmGRAS1/2. Subsequently, yeast one-hybrid, dual-luciferase, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) showed SmGRAS1 promoted tanshinones biosynthesis by directly binding to the GARE motif in the SmKSL1 promoter and activating its expression. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed SmGRAS1 interacted physically with SmGRAS2. Taken together, the results revealed that SmGRAS1/2 acted as repressors in root growth and phenolic acids biosynthesis but as positive regulators in tanshinones biosynthesis. Overall, our findings revealed the potential value of SmGRAS1/2 in genetically engineering changes in secondary metabolism.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The tanshinones and phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza (also named Danshen) have been confirmed for the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD), but the action mechanisms remain elusive. METHODS:In the current study, the co-expression protein interaction network (Ce-PIN) was used to illustrate the differences between the tanshinones and phenolic acids of Danshen in the treatment of CHD. By integrating the gene expression profile data and protein-protein interactions (PPIs) data, the Ce-PINs of tanshinones and phenolic acids were constructed. Then, the Ce-PINs were analyzed by gene ontology enrichment analyzed based on the optimal algorithm. RESULTS:It turned out that Danshen is able to treat CHD by regulating the blood circulation, immune response and lipid metabolism. However, phenolic acids may regulate the blood circulation by Extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), Endothelin-1 receptor (EDNRA), Endothelin-1 receptor (EDNRB), Kininogen-1 (KNG1), tanshinones may regulate the blood circulation by Guanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha-1 (GUCY1A3) and Guanylate cyclase soluble subunit beta-1 (GUCY1B3). In addition, both the phenolic acids and tanshinones may regulate the immune response or inflammation by T-cell surface glycoprotein CD4 (CD4), Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C (PTPRC). CONCLUSION:Through the same targets of the same biological process and different targets of the same biological process, the tanshinones and phenolic acids synergistically treat coronary heart disease.
Project description:Tanshinones and phenolic acids are crucial bioactive compounds biosynthesized in Salvia miltiorrhiza. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is an effective elicitor to enhance the production of phenolic acids and tanshinones simultaneously, while yeast extract (YE) is used as a biotic elicitor that only induce tanshinones accumulation. However, little was known about the different molecular mechanism. To identify the downstream and regulatory genes involved in tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthesis, we conducted comparative transcriptome profiling of S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots treated with either MeJA or YE.Total 55588 unigenes were assembled from about 1.72 billion clean reads, of which 42458 unigenes (76.4%) were successfully annotated. The expression patterns of 19 selected genes in the significantly upregulated unigenes were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. The candidate downstream genes and other cytochrome P450s involved in the late steps of tanshinone and phenolic acid biosynthesis pathways were screened from the RNA-seq dataset based on co-expression pattern analysis with specific biosynthetic genes. Additionally, 375 transcription factors were identified to exhibit a significant up-regulated expression pattern in response to induction. This study can provide us a valuable gene resource for elucidating the molecular mechanism of tanshinones and phenolic acids biosynthesis in hairy roots of S.miltiorrhiza. Overall design: Examination of 2 different elictors at two different induced time points and the control
Project description:Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a Chinese traditional herb for treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and tanshinones and phenolic acids are the dominated medicinal and secondary metabolism constituents of this plant. WRKY transcription factors (TFs) can function as regulators of secondary metabolites biosynthesis in many plants. However, studies on the WRKY that regulate tanshinones and phenolics biosynthesis are limited. In this study, 69 SmWRKYs were identified in the transcriptome database of S. miltiorrhiza, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that some SmWRKYs had closer genetic relationships with other plant WRKYs, which were involved in secondary metabolism. Hairy roots of S. miltiorrhiza were treated by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to detect the dynamic change trend of SmWRKY, biosynthetic genes, and medicinal ingredients accumulation. Base on those date, a correlation analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient was performed to construct gene-to-metabolite network and identify 9 SmWRKYs (SmWRKY1, 7, 19, 29, 45, 52, 56, 58, and 68), which were most likely to be involved in tanshinones and phenolic acids biosynthesis. Taken together, this study has provided a significant resource that could be used for further research on SmWRKY in S. miltiorrhiza and especially could be used as a cue for further investigating SmWRKY functions in secondary metabolite accumulation.
Project description:<i>Salvia miltiorrhiza</i> Bunge (<i>S. miltiorrhiza</i>), a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, contains numerous bioactive components with broad range of pharmacological properties. By increasing the levels of endogenous jasmonate (JA) in plants or treating them with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), the level of tanshinones and salvianolic acids can be greatly enhanced. The jasmonate ZIM (JAZ) proteins belong to the TIFY family, and act as repressors, releasing targeted transcriptional factors in the JA signaling pathway. Herein, we identified and characterized 15 TIFY proteins present in <i>S. miltiorrhiza</i>. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis indicated that the <i>JAZ</i> genes were all constitutively expressed in different tissues and were induced by MeJA treatments. SmJAZ3, which negatively regulates the tanshinones biosynthesis pathway in <i>S. miltiorrhiza</i> and the detailed molecular mechanism is poorly understood. SmJAZ3 acts as a bait protein to capture and identify a WD-repeat containing the protein SmWD40-170. Further molecular and genetic analysis revealed that SmWD40-170 is a positive regulator, promoting the accumulation of secondary metabolites in <i>S. miltiorrhiza</i>. Our study systematically analyzed the TIFY family and speculated a module of the JAZ-WD40 complex provides new insights into the mechanisms regulating the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in <i>S. miltiorrhiza</i>.
Project description:Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiaceae) is an economically important medicinal plant as well as an emerging model plant. Our previous studies indicate that SmMYC2b is a positive transcription factor that can affect the biosynthesis of phenolic acids and tanshinones in S. miltiorrhiza. Moreover, MYC2s are well known to induce the development of lateral roots. As tanshinones are mainly distributed in the periderm, the promotion of lateral root development probably leads to increased accumulation of tanshinones. In this paper, we firstly discovered that SmMYC2b played a dual regulatory role in effectively enhancing the tanshinone accumulation by activating tanshinone biosynthetic pathway and promoting lateral root development. The expression levels of the previously studied pathway genes SmCPS1, SmKSL1, SmCYP76AH1, SmCYP76AH3, and SmCYP76AK1 dramatically increased. In addition, SmMYC2b was proved to exhibit a similar function as other homologs in promoting lateral root development, which increased the tanshinone produced tissue and further enhanced the biosynthesis of tanshinones. RNA-seq assays revealed that SmMYC2b-regulated genes comprised 30.6% (1,901 of 6,210) of JA-responsive genes, confirming that SmMYC2b played a crucial role in transcriptional regulation of JA-regulated genes. Overall, we concluded that SmMYC2b could enhance tanshinone accumulation by activating the tanshinone biosynthetic pathway and promoting lateral root development. Our study provides an effective approach to enhance the production of desired tanshinones and enriches our knowledge of the related regulatory network.
Project description:Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is an important herb for the treatment of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases with bioactive compounds (phenolic acids and tanshinones). Abundant studies showed that tanshinones could be stimulated by biotic and abiotic stresses, but limited information is available on biosynthesis of phenolic acids promoted by biotic stresses. The aim of the present work was to isolate and identify rhizosphere bacteria which stimulated phenolic compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots and investigated the internal mechanism, providing a potential means to enhance content of pharmaceuticals in S. miltiorrhiza. The results showed that six bacteria, namely, HYR1, HYR26, SCR22, 14DSR23, DS6, and LNHR13, belonging to the genus Pseudomonas and Pantoea, significantly promoted the growth and content of major phenolic acids, RA and SAB. Bacteria LNHR13 was the most effective one, with the contents of RA and SAB reaching ?2.5-fold (30.1 mg/g DW) and ?2.3-fold (48.3 mg/g DW) as those of the control, respectively. Phytohormones and polysaccharides produced by bacteria showed potential responsibility for the growth and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites of S. miltiorrhiza. Meanwhile, we found that the more abundant the types and contents of phytohormones, the stronger their stimulating effect on the content of salvianolic acids.