Impact of the 5As brief counseling on smoking cessation among pregnant clients of Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Ohio.
ABSTRACT: We assessed whether smoking cessation improved among pregnant smokers who attended Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Supplemental Nutrition Program clinics trained to implement a brief smoking cessation counseling intervention, the 5As: ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange.In Ohio, staff in 38 WIC clinics were trained to deliver the 5As from 2006 through 2010. Using 2005-2011 Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System data, we performed conditional logistic regression, stratified on clinic, to estimate the relationship between women's exposure to the 5As and the odds of self-reported quitting during pregnancy. Reporting bias for quitting was assessed by examining whether differences in infants' birth weight by quit status differed by clinic training status.Of 71,526 pregnant smokers at WIC enrollment, 23% quit. Odds of quitting were higher among women who attended a clinic after versus before clinic staff was trained (adjusted odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.29). The adjusted mean infant birth weight was, on average, 96 g higher among women who reported quitting (P<0.0001), regardless of clinic training status.Training all Ohio WIC clinics to deliver the 5As may promote quitting among pregnant smokers, and thus is an important strategy to improve maternal and child health outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Primary care is the most important point of healthcare contact for smokers. Brief physician advice to quit, based on the 5As/AAR model, offers some efficacy but is inconsistently administered and has limited population impact. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) sampling, defined as provision of a brief NRT starter kit, when added to the 5As/AAR, is well-suited to primary care because it is simple, brief, and can be provided to all smokers. This article describes the design and methods of an ongoing comparative effectiveness trial testing standard care vs. standard care?+?NRT sampling within primary care. METHODS:Smokers were recruited directly from primary care practices between July 2014 and December 2017 within an established network of South Carolina clinics. Interventions were delivered randomly by clinic personnel, and phone-based follow-ups were centrally coordinated by research staff to track outcomes through six months post-intervention. Primary study aims are to examine the impact of NRT sampling on smoking, inclusive of cessation, quit attempts, and uptake of evidence-based treatment. RESULTS:Twenty-two clinics were recruited. Across clinics, patient census ranged from 985 to 10,957 and number of providers ranged from 1 to 63. Average patient age across clinics was 52.9?years and smoking prevalence across ranged from 10.6% to 28.5%. CONCLUSION:Improving the effectiveness and reach of brief interventions within primary care could have a considerable impact on population quit rates. We consider the advantages and disadvantages of key methodological decisions relevant to the design of future primary care-based cessation trials.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>We tested a Public Health Service 5As-based clinician-delivered smoking cessation counseling intervention with adolescent smokers in pediatric primary care practice.<h4>Methods</h4>We enrolled clinicians from 120 practices and recruited youth (age ≥14) from the American Academy of Pediatrics Pediatric Research in Office Settings practice-based research network. Practices were randomly assigned to training in smoking cessation (intervention) or social media counseling (attentional control). Youth recruited during clinical visits completed confidential screening forms. All self-reported smokers and a random sample of nonsmokers were offered enrollment and interviewed by phone at 4 to 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after visits. Measures included adolescents' report of clinicians' delivery of screening and counseling, current tobacco use, and cessation behaviors and intentions. Analysis assessed receipt of screening and counseling, predictors of receiving 5As counseling, and effects of interventions on smoking behaviors and cessation at 6 and 12 months.<h4>Results</h4>Clinicians trained in the 5As intervention delivered more screening (β = 1.0605, <i>P</i> < .0001) and counseling (β = 0.4354, <i>P</i> < .0001). In both arms, clinicians more often screened smokers than nonsmokers. At 6 months, study arm was not significantly associated with successful cessation; however, smokers in the 5As group were more likely to have quit at 12 months. Addicted smokers more often were counseled, regardless of study arm, but were less likely to successfully quit smoking.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Adolescent smokers whose clinicians were trained in 5As were more likely to receive smoking screening and counseling than controls, but the ability of this intervention to help adolescents quit smoking was limited.
Project description:The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) found a reduction in lung cancer mortality among participants screened with low-dose computed tomography vs chest radiography. In February 2015, Medicare announced its decision to cover annual lung screening for patients with a significant smoking history. These guidelines promote smoking cessation treatment as an adjunct to screening, but the frequency and effectiveness of clinician-delivered smoking cessation interventions delivered after lung screening are unknown.To determine the association between the reported clinician-delivered 5As (ask, advise, assess, assist [talk about quitting or recommend stop-smoking medications or recommend counseling], and arrange follow-up) after lung screening and smoking behavior changes.A matched case-control study (cases were quitters and controls were continued smokers) of 3336 NLST participants who were smokers at enrollment examined participants' rates and patterns of 5A delivery after a lung screen and reported smoking cessation behaviors.Prevalence of the clinician-delivered 5As and associated smoking cessation after lung screening.Delivery of the 5As 1 year after screening were as follows: ask, 77.2%; advise, 75.6%; assess, 63.4%; assist, 56.4%; and arrange follow-up, 10.4%. Receipt of ask, advise, and assess was not significantly associated with quitting in multivariate models that adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, screening results, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit. Assist was associated with a 40% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI,?1.21-1.63), and arrange was associated with a 46% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% CI,?1.19-1.79).Assist and arrange follow-up delivered by primary care providers to smokers who were participating in the NLST were associated with increased quitting; less intensive interventions (ask, advise, and assess) were not. However, rates of assist and arrange follow-up were relatively low. Our findings confirm the need for and benefit of clinicians taking more active intervention steps in helping patients who undergo screening to quit smoking.
Project description:Implementation of evidence-based interventions for smoking during pregnancy is challenging. We developed 2 highly replicable interventions for smoking during pregnancy: (a) a computer-delivered 5As-based brief intervention (CD-5As) and (b) a computer-assisted, simplified, and low-intensity contingency management (CM-Lite).A sample of 110 primarily Black pregnant women reporting smoking in the past week were recruited from prenatal care clinics and randomly assigned to CD-5As (n = 26), CM-Lite (n = 28), CD-5As plus CM-Lite (n = 30), or treatment as usual (n = 26). Self-report of smoking, urine cotinine, and breath CO were measured 10 weeks following randomization.Participants rated both interventions highly (e.g., 87.5% of CD-5As participants reported increases in likelihood of quitting), but most CM-Lite participants did not initiate reinforcement sessions and did not show increased abstinence. CD-5As led to increased abstinence as measured by cotinine (43.5% cotinine negative vs. 17.4%; odds ratio [OR] = 10.1, p = .02) but not for CO-confirmed 7-day point prevalence (30.4% abstinent vs. 8.7%; OR = 5.7, p = .06). Collapsing across CM-Lite status, participants receiving the CD-5As intervention were more likely to talk to a doctor or nurse about their smoking (60.5% vs. 30.8%; OR = 3.0, p = .02).Low-intensity participant-initiated CM did not affect smoking in this sample, but the CD-5As intervention was successful in increasing abstinence during pregnancy. Further research should seek to replicate these results in larger and more diverse samples. Should CD-5As continue to prove efficacious, it could greatly increase the proportion of pregnant smokers who receive an evidence-based brief intervention.
Project description:The 5As for smoking cessation is an evidence-based intervention to aid providers in counseling patients to quit smoking. While most providers "ask" patients about their tobacco use patterns and "advise" them to quit, fewer patients report being "assessed" for their interest in quitting, and even fewer report subsequent "assistance" in a quit attempt and having follow-up "arranged".This article describes the design of an implementation study testing a computer tablet intervention to improve provider adherence to the 5As for smoking cessation. Findings will contribute to the existing literature on technology acceptance for addressing addictive behaviors, and how digital tools may facilitate the broader implementation of evidence-based behavioral counseling practices without adversely affecting clinical flow or patient care.This project develops and tests a computer-facilitated 5As (CF-5As) model that administers the 5As intervention to patients with a computer tablet, then prompts providers to reinforce next steps. During the development phase, 5As' content will be programmed onto computer tablets, alpha and beta-testing of the service delivery model will be done, and pre-intervention interview and questionnaire data will be collected from patients, providers, and clinic staff about 5As fidelity and technology adoption. During the program evaluation phase, a randomized controlled trial comparing a group who receives the CF-5As intervention to one that does not will be conducted to assess 5As fidelity. Using the technology acceptance model, a mixed methods study of contextual and human factors influencing both 5As and technology adoption will also be conducted.Technology is increasingly being used in clinical settings. A technological tool that connects patients, providers, and clinic staff to facilitate the promotion of behavioral interventions such as smoking cessation may provide an innovative platform through which to efficiently and effectively implement evidence-based practices.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Pregnancy motivates women to try stopping smoking, but little is known about timing of their quit attempts and how quitting intentions change during pregnancy and postpartum. Using longitudinal data, this study aimed to document women's smoking and quitting behaviour throughout pregnancy and after delivery. DESIGN:Longitudinal cohort survey with questionnaires at baseline (8-26 weeks' gestation), late pregnancy (34-36 weeks) and 3 months after delivery. SETTING:Two maternity hospitals in one National Health Service hospital trust, Nottingham, England. PARTICIPANTS:850 pregnant women, aged 16 years or over, who were current smokers or had smoked in the 3 months before pregnancy, were recruited between August 2011 and August 2012. OUTCOME MEASURES:Self-reported smoking behaviour, quit attempts and quitting intentions. RESULTS:Smoking rates, adjusting for non-response at follow-up, were 57.4% (95% CI 54.1 to 60.7) at baseline, 59.1% (95% CI 54.9 to 63.4) in late pregnancy and 67.1% (95% CI 62.7 to 71.5) 3 months postpartum. At baseline, 272 of 488 current smokers had tried to quit since becoming pregnant (55.7%, 95%?CI 51.3 to 60.1); 51.3% (95% CI 44.7 to 58.0) tried quitting between baseline and late pregnancy and 27.4% (95% CI 21.7 to 33.2) after childbirth. The percentage who intended to quit within the next month fell as pregnancy progressed, from 40.4% (95% CI 36.1 to 44.8) at baseline to 29.7% (95% CI 23.8 to 35.6) in late pregnancy and 14.2% (95% CI 10.0 to 18.3) postpartum. Postpartum relapse was lower among women who quit in the 3 months before pregnancy (17.8%, 95%?CI 6.1 to 29.4) than those who stopped between baseline and late pregnancy (42.9%, 95%?CI 24.6 to 61.3). CONCLUSIONS:Many pregnant smokers make quit attempts throughout pregnancy and postpartum, but intention to quit decreases over time; there is no evidence that smoking rates fall during gestation.
Project description:Cigarette smoking is prevalent in pregnant substance users but receives low priority in substance use disorder treatment. This article reports the results of a secondary analysis of a randomized, multisite trial with 200 pregnant substance users, 145 (72.5%) of whom smoked at baseline. As predicted: (1) smokers had significantly greater substance use; (2) approximately half of smokers wanted to quit; and (3) smokers with a quit goal had significantly greater self-efficacy and lower perceived difficulty of quitting. Smoking may be associated with more severe substance use in pregnant substance-using patients, half of whom may be interested in smoking-cessation interventions.
Project description:<h4>Background and aims</h4>Within the context of busy clinical settings, health-care providers need practical, evidence-based options to engage smokers in quitting. Sampling of nicotine replacement therapy [i.e. provision of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT starter kits)] is a brief, pragmatic strategy to address this need. We aimed to compare the effects of NRT sampling plus standard care (SC), relative to SC alone, provided by primary care providers during routine clinic visits.<h4>Design</h4>Cluster-randomized clinical trial.<h4>Setting</h4>Twenty-two primary care clinics in South Carolina, USA.<h4>Participants</h4>Adult smokers [n = 1245; 61% female, mean age = 50.7, standard deviation (SD) = 13.5] both motivated and unmotivated to quit, seen during routine clinical visit. Interventions were provider-delivered SC (n = 652, 12 clinics) cessation advice or SC + a 2-week supply of both nicotine patch and lozenge, with minimal instructions on use (n = 593; 10 clinics).<h4>Measurements</h4>The primary outcome was 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at 6-month follow-up, using intent-to-treat. Additional outcomes included NRT use and quit attempts, assessed at 1, 3 and 6 months following baseline.<h4>Findings</h4>Seven-day point prevalence abstinence rates were significantly higher in the NRT sampling group throughout follow-up, including at 6 months [12 versus 8%, odds ratio (OR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-2.4]. NRT sampling increased prevalence of any use of NRT (65 versus 25%, OR = 5.8, 95% CI = 4.3-7.7), with higher prevalence of use at 6 months (25 versus 14%, OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.5-2.7). NRT sampling increased the rate of quit attempts in the initial month (24 versus 18%, OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0-2.3) but had no significant effect on overall rate of quit attempts (48 versus 45%, OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.8-1.7).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Providing smokers with a free 2-week starter kit of nicotine replacement therapy increased quit attempts, use of stop smoking medications and smoking abstinence compared with standard care in a primary care setting.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Observational studies have shown that attentional bias for smoking-related cues is associated with increased craving and relapse. Laboratory experiments have shown that manipulating attentional bias may change craving. Interventions to reduce attentional bias could reduce relapse in smokers seeking to quit. We report a clinical trial of attentional retraining in treatment-seeking smokers. METHODS:This was a double-blind randomised controlled trial that took place in UK smoking cessation clinics. Smokers interested in quitting were randomised to five weekly sessions of attentional retraining (N=60) or placebo training (N = 58) using a modified visual probe task from one week prior to quit day. Both groups received 21 mg nicotine patches (from quit day onwards) and behavioural support. Primary outcomes included change in attentional bias reaction times four weeks after quit day on the visual probe task and craving measured weekly using the Mood and Physical Symptoms Scale. Secondary outcomes were changes in withdrawal symptoms, time to first lapse and prolonged abstinence. RESULTS:No attentional bias towards smoking cues was found in the sample at baseline (mean difference = 3 ms, 95% CI = -2, 9). Post-training bias was not significantly lower in the retraining group compared with the placebo group (mean difference = -9 ms, 95% CI = -20, 2). There was no difference between groups in change in craving (p = 0.89) and prolonged abstinence at four weeks (risk ratio = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.70, 1.43). CONCLUSIONS:Taken with one other trial, there appears to be no effect from clinic-based attentional retraining using the visual probe task. Attentional retraining conducted out of clinic may prove more effective. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:UK Clinical Trials ISRCTN 54375405.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Explore Aboriginal women's responses to an adapted Risk Behaviour Diagnosis (RBD) Scale about smoking in pregnancy.<h4>Methods and design</h4>An Aboriginal researcher interviewed women and completed a cross-sectional survey including 20 Likert scales.<h4>Setting</h4>Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services, community groups and playgroups and Aboriginal Maternity Services in regional New South Wales, Australia.<h4>Participants</h4>Aboriginal women (n=20) who were pregnant or gave birth in the preceding 18 months; included if they had experiences of smoking or quitting during pregnancy.<h4>Primary and secondary outcome measures</h4>Primary outcomes: RBD constructs of perceived threat and perceived efficacy, dichotomised into high versus low. Women who had quit smoking, answered retrospectively.<h4>Secondary outcome measures</h4>smoking status, intentions to quit smoking (danger control), protection responses (to babies/others) and fear control responses (denial/refutation). Scales were assessed for internal consistency. A chart plotted responses from low to high efficacy and low to high threat.<h4>Results</h4>RBD Scales had moderate-to-good consistency (0.67-0.89 Cronbach's alpha). Nine women had quit and 11 were smoking; 6 currently pregnant and 14 recently pregnant. Mean efficacy level 3.9 (SD=0.7); mean threat 4.3 (SD=0.7). On inspection, a scatter plot revealed a cluster of 12 women in the high efficacy-high threat quadrant-of these 11 had quit or had a high intention of quitting. Conversely, a group with low threat-low efficacy (5 women) were all smokers and had high fear control responses: of these, 4 had low protection responses. Pregnant women had a non-significant trend for higher threat and lower efficacy, than those previously pregnant.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Findings were consistent with a previously validated RBD Scale showing Aboriginal smokers with high efficacy-high threat had greater intentions to quit smoking. The RBD Scale could have diagnostic potential to tailor health messages. Longitudinal research required with a larger sample to explore associations with the RBD Scale and quitting.