Recurrent viral infections associated with a homozygous CORO1A mutation that disrupts oligomerization and cytoskeletal association.
ABSTRACT: Coronin-1A (CORO1A) is a regulator of actin dynamics important for T-cell homeostasis. CORO1A deficiency causes T(-)B(+) natural killer-positive severe combined immunodeficiency or T-cell lymphopenia with severe viral infections. However, because all known human mutations in CORO1A abrogate protein expression, the role of the protein's functional domains in host immunity is unknown.We sought to identify the cause of the primary immunodeficiency in 2 young adult siblings with a history of disseminated varicella, cutaneous warts, and CD4(+) T-cell lymphopenia.We performed immunologic, genetic, and biochemical studies in the patients, family members, and healthy control subjects.Both patients had CD4(+) T-cell lymphopenia and decreased lymphocyte proliferation to mitogens. IgG, IgM, IgA, and specific antibody responses were normal. Whole-genome sequencing identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in CORO1A disrupting the last 2 C-terminal domains by replacing 61 amino acids with a novel 91-amino-acid sequence. The CORO1A(S401fs) mutant was expressed in the patients' lymphocytes at a level comparable with that of wild-type CORO1A in normal lymphocytes but did not oligomerize and had impaired cytoskeletal association. CORO1A(S401fs) was associated with increased filamentous actin accumulation in T cells, severely defective thymic output, and impaired T-cell survival but normal calcium flux and cytotoxicity, demonstrating the importance of CORO1A oligomerization and subcellular localization in T-cell homeostasis.We describe a truncating mutation in CORO1A that permits protein expression and survival into young adulthood. Our studies demonstrate the importance of intact CORO1A C-terminal domains in thymic egress and T-cell survival, as well as in defense against viral pathogens.
Project description:Coronin-1A deficiency is a recently recognized autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in CORO1A (OMIM 605000) that results in T-cell lymphopenia and is classified as T(-)B(+)NK(+)severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Only two other CORO1A-kindred are known to date, thus the defining characteristics are not well delineated. We identified a unique CORO1A-kindred.We captured a 10-year analysis of the immune-clinical phenotypes in two affected siblings from disease debut of age 7 years. Target-specific genetic studies were pursued but unrevealing. Telomere lengths were also assessed. Whole exome sequencing (WES) uncovered the molecular diagnosis and Western blot validated findings.We found the compound heterozygous CORO1A variants: c.248_249delCT (p.P83RfsX10) and a novel mutation c.1077delC (p.Q360RfsX44) (NM_007074.3) in two affected non-consanguineous siblings that manifested as absent CD4CD45RA(+) (naïve) T and memory B cells, low NK cells and abnormally increased double-negative (DN) ?? T-cells. Distinguishing characteristics were late clinical debut with an unusual mucocutaneous syndrome of epidermodysplasia verruciformis-human papilloma virus (EV-HPV), molluscum contagiosum and oral-cutaneous herpetic ulcers; the older female sibling also had a disfiguring granulomatous tuberculoid leprosy. Both had bilateral bronchiectasis and the female died of EBV+ lymphomas at age 16 years. The younger surviving male, without malignancy, had reproducibly very short telomere lengths, not before appreciated in CORO1A mutations.We reveal the third CORO1A-mutated kindred, with the immune phenotype of abnormal naïve CD4 and DN T-cells and newfound characteristics of a late/hypomorphic-like SCID of an EV-HPV mucocutaneous syndrome with also B and NK defects and shortened telomeres. Our findings contribute to the elucidation of the CORO1A-SCID-CID spectrum.
Project description:FOXN1 is the master regulatory gene of thymic epithelium development. FOXN1 deficiency leads to thymic aplasia, alopecia, and nail dystrophy, accounting for the nude/severe combined immunodeficiency (nu/SCID) phenotype in humans and mice. We identified several newborns with low levels of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and T cell lymphopenia at birth, who carried heterozygous loss-of-function FOXN1 variants. Longitudinal analysis showed persistent T cell lymphopenia during infancy, often associated with nail dystrophy. Adult individuals with heterozygous FOXN1 variants had in most cases normal CD4+ but lower than normal CD8+ cell counts. We hypothesized a FOXN1 gene dosage effect on the function of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) and thymopoiesis and postulated that these effects would be more prominent early in life. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed TEC subset frequency and phenotype, early thymic progenitor (ETP) cell count, and expression of FOXN1 target genes (Ccl25, Cxcl12, Dll4, Scf, Psmb11, Prss16, and Cd83) in Foxn1nu/+ (nu/+) mice and age-matched wild-type (+/+) littermate controls. Both the frequency and the absolute count of ETP were significantly reduced in nu/+ mice up to 3 weeks of age. Analysis of the TEC compartment showed reduced expression of FOXN1 target genes and delayed maturation of the medullary TEC compartment in nu/+ mice. These observations establish a FOXN1 gene dosage effect on thymic function and identify FOXN1 haploinsufficiency as an important genetic determinant of T cell lymphopenia at birth.
Project description:T-cell differentiation is governed by interactions with thymic epithelial cells (TECs) and defects in this process undermine immune function and tolerance. To uncover new strategies to restore thymic function and adaptive immunity in immunodeficiency, we sought to determine the molecular mechanisms that control life and death decisions in TECs. Guided by gene expression profiling, we created mouse models that specifically deleted prosurvival genes in TECs. We found that although BCL-2 and BCL-XL were dispensable for TEC homeostasis, MCL-1 deficiency impacted on TECs as early as embryonic day 15.5, resulting in early thymic atrophy and T-cell lymphopenia, with near complete loss of thymic tissue by 2 months of age. MCL-1 was not necessary for TEC differentiation but was continually required for the survival of mature cortical and medullary TECs and the maintenance of thymic architecture. A screen of TEC trophic factors in organ cultures showed that epidermal growth factor upregulated MCL-1 via MAPK/ERK kinase activity, providing a molecular mechanism for the support of TEC survival. This signaling axis governing TEC survival and thymic function represents a new target for strategies for thymic protection and regeneration.
Project description:Background: Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a multisystem disorder with progressive cerebellar ataxia, immunodeficiency, chromosomal instability, and increased cancer susceptibility. Cellular immunodeficiency is based on naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell lymphopenia. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a potential to cure immunodeficiency and cancer due to restoration of the lymphopoietic system. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effect of HSCT on naïve CD4+ as well as CD8+ T-cell numbers in A-T. Methods: We analyzed total numbers of peripheral naïve (CD45RA+CD62L+) and memory (CD45RO+CD62L-) CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells of 32 A-T patients. Naïve (CD62LhighCD44low) and memory (CD62LlowCD44high) T-cells were also measured in Atm-deficient mice before and after HSCT with GFP-expressing bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells. In addition, we analyzed T-cells in the peripheral blood of two A-T patients after HLA-identic allogeneic HSCT. Results: Like in humans, naïve CD4+ as well as naïve CD8+ lymphocytes were decreased in Atm-deficient mice. HSCT significantly inhibited thymic lymphomas and increased survival time in these animals. Donor cell chimerism increased up to more than 50% 6 months after HSCT accompanied by a significant increase of naïve CD4 and CD8 T-cell subpopulations, but not of memory T-cells. This finding was also identified in the blood of the A-T patients after HSCT. Conclusion: HSCT seems to be a feasible strategy to overcome immunodeficiency and might be a conceivable strategy to avoid T-cell driven cancer in A-T at higher risk for malignancy. Naïve CD4 and CD8 T-cells counts are suitable markers for monitoring immune reconstitution post-HSCT. However, risks and benefits of HSCT in A-T have to be properly weighted.
Project description:Mice carrying the recessive locus for peripheral T cell deficiency (Ptcd) have a block in thymic egress, but the mechanism responsible is undefined. Here we found that Ptcd T cells had an intrinsic migration defect, impaired lymphoid tissue trafficking and irregularly shaped protrusions. Characterization of the Ptcd locus showed a point substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 26 in the actin regulator coronin 1A that enhanced its inhibition of the actin regulator Arp2/3 and resulted in its mislocalization from the leading edge of migrating T cells. The discovery of another coronin 1A mutant during an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-mutagenesis screen for T cell-lymphopenic mice prompted us to evaluate a T cell-deficient, B cell-sufficient and natural killer cell-sufficient patient with severe combined immunodeficiency, whom we found had mutations in both CORO1A alleles. Our findings establish a function for coronin 1A in T cell egress, identify a surface of coronin involved in Arp2/3 regulation and demonstrate that actin regulation is a biological process defective in human and mouse severe combined immunodeficiency.
Project description:Developing B lymphocytes expressing defective or autoreactive pre-B or B cell receptors (BCRs) are eliminated by programmed cell death, but how the balance between death and survival signals is regulated to prevent immunodeficiency and autoimmunity remains incompletely understood. In this study, we show that absence of the essential ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) substrate Chk2-interacting Zn(2+)-finger protein (ASCIZ; also known as ATMIN/ZNF822), a protein with dual functions in the DNA damage response and as a transcription factor, leads to progressive cell loss from the pre-B stage onwards and severely diminished splenic B cell numbers in mice. This lymphopenia cannot be suppressed by deletion of p53 or complementation with a prearranged BCR, indicating that it is not caused by impaired DNA damage responses or defective V(D)J recombination. Instead, ASCIZ-deficient B cell precursors contain highly reduced levels of DYNLL1 (dynein light chain 1; LC8), a recently identified transcriptional target of ASCIZ, and normal B cell development can be restored by ectopic Dynll1 expression. Remarkably, the B cell lymphopenia in the absence of ASCIZ can also be fully suppressed by deletion of the proapoptotic DYNLL1 target Bim. Our findings demonstrate a key role for ASCIZ in regulating the survival of developing B cells by activating DYNLL1 expression, which may then modulate Bim-dependent apoptosis.
Project description:T cell differentiation is governed by interactions with thymic epithelial cells (TECs) and defects in this process undermine immune function and tolerance. To uncover new strategies to restore thymic function and adaptive immunity in immunodeficiency, we sought to determine the molecular mechanisms that control life and death decisions in TEC. We created a mouse model which specifically deleted the pro-survival gene Mcl1 in TEC. We found that while BCL-2 and BCL-XL were dispensable for TEC homeostasis, MCL-1 deficiency impacted on TEC as early as E15.5, resulting in early thymic atrophy and T cell lymphopenia, with near complete loss of thymic tissue by 2 months of age. MCL-1 was not necessary for TEC differentiation but was continually required for the survival of medullary TEC, including autoimmune regulator (AIRE) expressing TECs and the maintenance of overall thymic architecture. To understand the molecular mechanisms in more detail, RNA-seq profiling was undertaken of cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (cTECs and mTECs) from wildtype and knockout mice. Overall design: The number of biological replicates was n=4 for WT cTECs, n=2 for WT mTECs, n=1 for KO cTECs and n=1 for KO mTECs.
Project description:Coronin 1A (Coro1A) is involved in cytoskeletal and signaling events, including the regulation of Rac1 GTPase- and myosin II-dependent pathways. Mutations that generate truncated or unstable Coro1A proteins cause immunodeficiencies in both humans and rodents. However, in the case of the peripheral T-cell-deficient (Ptcd) mouse strain, the immunodeficiency is caused by a Glu-26-Lys mutation that targets a surface-exposed residue unlikely to affect the intramolecular architecture and stability of the protein. Here we report that this mutation induces pleiotropic effects in Coro1A protein, including the exacerbation of Coro1A-dependent actin-binding and -bundling activities; the formation of large meshworks of Coro1A(E26K)-decorated filaments endowed with unusual organizational, functional, and staining properties; and the elimination of Coro1A functions associated with both Rac1 and myosin II signaling. By contrast, it does not affect the ability of Coro1A to stimulate the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NF-AT). Coro1A(E26K) is not a dominant-negative mutant, indicating that its pathological effects are derived from the inability to rescue the complete loss of the wild-type counterpart in cells. These results indicate that Coro1A(E26K) behaves as either a recessive gain-of-function or loss-of-function mutant protein, depending on signaling context and presence of the wild-type counterpart in cells.
Project description:We have previously shown that in vivo ?-retroviral gene therapy of dogs with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) results in sustained T cell reconstitution and sustained marking in myeloid and B cells for up to 4 years with no evidence of any serious adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ex vivo ?-retroviral gene therapy of XSCID dogs results in a similar outcome. Eight of 12 XSCID dogs treated with an average of dose of 5.8 × 10(6) transduced CD34(+) cells/kg successfully engrafted producing normal numbers of gene-corrected CD45RA(+) (naïve) T cells. However, this was followed by a steady decrease in CD45RA(+) T cells, T cell diversity, and thymic output as measured by T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) resulting in a T cell lymphopenia. None of the dogs survived past 11 months post treatment. At necropsy, few gene-corrected thymocytes were observed correlating with the TREC levels and one of the dogs was diagnosed with a thymic T cell lymphoma that was attributed to the gene therapy. This study highlights the outcome differences between the ex vivo and in vivo approach to ?-retroviral gene therapy and is the first to document a serious adverse event following gene therapy in a canine model of a human genetic disease.
Project description:Coronin-1A is a WD repeat protein family member, highly expressed in all hematopoietic lineages, and acts as a regulator of F-actin dynamics and Ca2+ signaling. In Coro1a(Lmb3) mice results in inactivation of the protein and leads to disease resistance in a model of lupus erythematosus. In Coro1a(-/-) and Coro1a(Lmb3) mice, peripheral T cells exhibit impairments in survival, migration, activation, and Ca2+ flux. In this study, we show that in vitro-differentiated mast cells from Coro1a(Lmb3) mice are viable, developed normally, and are fully functional in assays of degranulation, cytokine secretion, and chemotactic migration, despite increased F-actin levels. In Coro1a(Lmb3) mast cells, Ca2+ flux in response to physiological FcεRI stimulation is unaffected. Finally, Coro1a(Lmb3) mice showed similar in vivo mast cell responses as the WT mice. Coronin-1B and Coronin-1C expression levels were not increased in Coro1a(Lmb3) mast cells but were higher in mast cells than in CD4 T cells or B cells in WT mice. We conclude that Coronin-1A activity is not required for mast cell function.