Draft Genome Sequence of Rheinheimera sp. F8, a Biofilm-Forming Strain Which Produces Large Amounts of Extracellular DNA.
ABSTRACT: Rheinheimera sp. strain F8 is a biofilm-forming gammaproteobacterium that has been found to produce large amounts of filamentous extracellular DNA. Here, we announce the de novo assembly of its genome. It is estimated to be 4,464,511 bp in length, with 3,970 protein-coding sequences and 92 RNA-coding sequences.
Project description:Rheinheimera salexigens KH87T is an obligately halophilic gammaproteobacterium. The strain's draft genome sequence, generated by the Roche 454 GS FLX+ platform, comprises two scaffolds of ~3.4 Mbp and ~3 kbp, with 3,030 protein-coding sequences and 58 tRNA coding regions. The G+C content is 42 mol%.
Project description:UNLABELLED:ESSENTIALS: Anti-factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitory antibody formation is a severe complication in hemophilia A therapy. We genetically engineered and characterized a mouse model with complete deletion of the F8 coding region. F8(TKO) mice exhibit severe hemophilia, express no detectable F8 mRNA, and produce FVIII inhibitors. The defined background and lack of FVIII in F8(TKO) mice will aid in studying FVIII inhibitor formation. BACKGROUND:The most important complication in hemophilia A treatment is the development of inhibitory anti-Factor VIII (FVIII) antibodies in patients after FVIII therapy. Patients with severe hemophilia who express no endogenous FVIII (i.e. cross-reacting material, CRM) have the greatest incidence of inhibitor formation. However, current mouse models of severe hemophilia A produce low levels of truncated FVIII. The lack of a corresponding mouse model hampers the study of inhibitor formation in the complete absence of FVIII protein. OBJECTIVES:We aimed to generate and characterize a novel mouse model of severe hemophilia A (designated the F8(TKO) strain) lacking the complete coding sequence of F8 and any FVIII CRM. METHODS:Mice were created on a C57BL/6 background using Cre-Lox recombination and characterized using in vivo bleeding assays, measurement of FVIII activity by coagulation and chromogenic assays, and anti-FVIII antibody production using ELISA. RESULTS:All F8 exonic coding regions were deleted from the genome and no F8 mRNA was detected in F8(TKO) mice. The bleeding phenotype of F8(TKO) mice was comparable to E16 mice by measurements of factor activity and tail snip assay. Similar levels of anti-FVIII antibody titers after recombinant FVIII injections were observed between F8(TKO) and E16 mice. CONCLUSIONS:We describe a new C57BL/6 mouse model for severe hemophilia A patients lacking CRM. These mice can be directly bred to the many C57BL/6 strains of genetically engineered mice, which is valuable for studying the impact of a wide variety of genes on FVIII inhibitor formation on a defined genetic background.
Project description:Hemophilia A (HA) is a F8 gene mutational disorder resulting in deficiency or dysfunctional FVIII protein. However, surprisingly, in few cases, HA is manifested even without mutations in F8. To understand this anomaly, we recently sequenced microRNAs (miRNAs) of two patients with mild and moderate HA with no F8 gene mutations and selected two highly expressing miRNAs, miR-374b-5p and miR-30c-5p, from the pool to explain the FVIII deficiency that could be mediated by miRNA-based F8/FVIII suppression. In this report, an established orthogonal in vivo RNA-affinity purification approach was utilized to directly identify a group of F8-interacting miRNAs and we tested them for F8/FVIII suppression. From this pool, two miRNAs, miR-19b-3p and miR-186-5p, were found to be upregulated in a severe HA patient with a mutation in the F8 coding sequence and two HA patients without mutations in the F8 coding sequence were selected to demonstrate their role in F8 gene expression regulation in mammalian cells. Overall, these results provide further evidence for the hypothesis that by targeting the 3'UTR of F8, miRNAs can modulate FVIII protein levels. This mechanism could either be the primary cause of HA in patients who lack F8 mutations or control the severity of the disease in patients with F8 mutations.
Project description:Nearly half of severe Hemophilia A (HA) cases are caused by F8 intron 22 inversion (Inv22). This 0.6-Mb inversion splits the 186-kb F8 into two parts with opposite transcription directions. The inverted 5' part (141 kb) preserves the first 22 exons that are driven by the intrinsic F8 promoter, leading to a truncated F8 transcript due to the lack of the last 627 bp coding sequence of exons 23-26. Here we describe an in situ genetic correction of Inv22 in patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). By using TALENs, the 627 bp sequence plus a polyA signal was precisely targeted at the junction of exon 22 and intron 22 via homologous recombination (HR) with high targeting efficiencies of 62.5% and 52.9%. The gene-corrected iPSCs retained a normal karyotype following removal of drug selection cassette using a Cre-LoxP system. Importantly, both F8 transcription and FVIII secretion were rescued in the candidate cell types for HA gene therapy including endothelial cells (ECs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the gene-corrected iPSCs. This is the first report of an efficient in situ genetic correction of the large inversion mutation using a strategy of targeted gene addition.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The F8 and F9 genes encode for coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and FIX, respectively, and mutations in these genes are the genetic basis of hemophilia A/B. To determine whether a sequence variation in F8/F9 is a disease-causing mutation, frequency data from a control population is needed. This study aimed to obtain data on sequence variation in F8/F9 in a set of functionally validated control chromosomes of Korean descent. METHODS: We re-sequenced F8 and F9 from DNA samples of 100 Korean male control individuals with normal PT, aPTT, and FVIII activity. PCR and direct sequencing analyses were performed using primer pairs to cover all coding regions and the flanking intronic sequences. RESULTS: Thirteen individuals (13%) were hemizygous for sequence variations in the coding region of F8. Six (6%) had c.3780C>G (p.Asp1260Glu), five (5%) had c.3864A>C (p.Ser1288=). One each individual (1%) had c.4794G>T (p.Glu1598Asp) and c.5069 A>G (p.Glu1690Gly). Asp1260Glu and Ser1288= were known SNPs (rs1800291 and rs1800292, respectively). Glu1598Asp was assigned as a missense mutation in public databases (HGMD and HAMSTeRS), and Glu1690Gly was a novel variation. Based on the normal FVIII activities in control individuals carrying these variations (109% and 148%, respectively), they were considered to be rare SNPs. No variation was observed in F9 of control individuals. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of control individuals carried sequence variations in F8, but not in F9. These results can be used as a reference dataset for molecular diagnosis of hemophilia A and B, particularly in Korea.
Project description:Aquatic environments act as reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance from these environments is of increasing concern. In this study, a multidrug-resistant bacterial strain, identified as Rheinheimera sp. D18, was isolated from the sea water of an industrial maricultural system in the Yellow Sea, China. Whole-genome sequencing of D18 revealed the presence of a novel 25.8 kb antibiotic resistance island, designated GEI-D18A, which carries several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), including aadA1, aacA3, tetR, tet(B), catA, dfrA37, and three sul1 genes. Besides, integrase, transposase, resolvase, and recombinase encoding genes were also identified in GEI-D18A. The transferability of GEI-D18A was confirmed by mating experiments between Rheinheimera sp. D18 and Escherichia coli 25DN, and efflux pump inhibitor assays also suggested that tet(B) in GEI-D18A was responsible for tetracycline resistance in both D18 and the transconjugant. This study represents the first characterization of a mobilizable antibiotic resistance island in a species of Rheinheimera and provides evidence that Rheinheimera spp. could be important reservoirs and vehicles for ARGs in the Yellow Sea area.
Project description:Hemophilia A (HA) is associated with defects in the F8 gene, encoding coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). Our previous studies show that F8-targeting micro RNAs (miRNAs), a group of small RNAs involved in gene regulation, can downregulate F8 expression causing HA in individuals with normal F8-genotypes and increased HA severity in patients with mutations in F8. Understanding the mechanistic underpinnings of human genetic diseases caused or modulated by miRNAs require a small animal model, such as a mouse model. Here, we report a foundational study to develop such a model system. We identified the mouse 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) on murine F8-mRNA (muF8-mRNA) that can bind to murine miRNAs. We then selected three miRNAs for evaluation: miR-208a, miR-351 and miR-125a. We first demonstrate that these three miRNAs directly target the 3'UTR of muF8-mRNA and reduce the expression of a reporter gene (luciferase) mRNA fused to the muF8-3' UTR in mammalian cells. Furthermore, in mouse cells that endogenously express the F8 gene and produce FVIII protein, the ectopic expression of these miRNAs downregulated F8-mRNA and FVIII protein. These results provide proof-of-concept and reagents as a foundation for using a normal F8-containing mouse as a model for the miRNA regulation of normal F8 in causing or aggravating the genetic disease HA.
Project description:Hemophilia A (HA) is an X-linked bleeding disorder caused by deleterious mutations in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8). To date, F8 mutations have been documented predominantly in European subjects and in American subjects of European descent. Information on F8 variants in individuals of more diverse ethnic backgrounds is limited.To discover novel and rare F8 variants, and to characterize F8 variants in diverse population backgrounds.We analyzed 2535 subjects, including 26 different ethnicities, whose data were available from the 1000 Genomes Project (1000G) phase 3 dataset, for F8 variants and their potential functional impact.We identified 3030 single nucleotide variants, 31 short deletions and insertions (Indels) and a large, 497 kb, deletion. Among all variants, 86.4% were rare variants and 55.6% were novel. Eighteen variants previously associated with HA were found in our study. Most of these 'HA variants' were ethnic-specific with low allele frequency; however, one variant (p.M2257V) was present in 27% of African subjects. The p.E132D, p.T281A, p.A303V and p.D422H 'HA variants' were identified only in males. Twelve novel missense variants were predicted to be deleterious. The large deletion was discovered in eight female subjects without affecting F8 transcription and the transcription of genes on the X chromosome.Characterizing F8 in the 1000G project highlighted the complexity of F8 variants and the importance of interrogating genetic variants on multiple ethnic backgrounds for associations with bleeding and thrombosis. The haplotype analysis and the orientation of duplicons that flank the large deletion suggested that the deletion was recurrent and originated by homologous recombination.
Project description:Rheinheimera sp. strain A13L, which has antimicrobial activity, was isolated from alkaline brackish water of the high-altitude Pangong Lake of Ladakh, India. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Rhienheimera sp. strain A13L (4,523,491 bp with a G+C content of 46.23%). The genome is predicted to contain genes for marinocine and colicin V production, which may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the strain.